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only $47.50 each. Sold separately 



Turbo GameWorks 
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Announcing Borland's New 
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IT'S ALL YOU NEED TO BUILD YOUR OWN WORD PROCESSOR 
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You get all the modules you need to build your 
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All this and more for only $69-95. 

And until March 1, 1986 you can get Bor- 
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YOU CAN HAVE MANY WINDOWS ON 
THE WORLD. The new Turbo Editor Toolbox 
features windowing, a technique that lets you 
see several documents — or several parts of the 
same document — at once. You know best what 
your needs are. Turbo Editor Toolbox lets you 
open the windows you want And to make 
those windows part of your program. 

WITH TURBO EDITOR TOOLBOX YOU 
CAN HAVE THE BEST OF ALL WORD 
PROCESSORS IN YOUR WORD PRO- 
CESSOR. You can make WordStar behave 
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Turbo Editor Toolbox. It's the kind of tool 
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THE CRITICS' CHOICE 



"Turbo Pascal has got to be the best value in lan- 
guages on the market today — and Borland Interna- 
tional, by delivering excellent products at reasona- 
ble costs, is leading the software industry where it 
has to go. Turbo Pascal is more than just a good 
program at a low cost. It's also a low-cost, well- 
conceived programming language making it possi- 
ble for lots of people to produce good programs." 
Jerry Pournelle, BYTE 

'"litis compiler, produced by Borland International, 
is one of the best programming tools presently 
available for the PC" 

Michael Covington, PC Tech Journal 

"language deal of the century...Turbo Pascal." 
Jail Dunlemann, PC Magaiine 



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THE GAMES YOU CAN PLAY, REPLAY, REVISE AND REWRITE BUT 

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(Turbo Pascal Source Code included!) 



We give you the source code, the manual, 
the diskettes, the 60-day guarantee and the 
competitive edge. Let the games begin. Chess. 
Bridge. Go-Moku. 

State-of-the art games that let you be player, 
referee, and rules committee — because you 
have the Turbo Pascal source code. Which 
means that you can play a game or create a 
game, any time and any way you want 

Borland's new Turbo GameWorks lets you 
combine gamesmanship with craftsmanship. 
Discover the secret techniques and moves used 
by the Old Masters. Learn exactly how state-of- 
the-art computer games are made — so you can 
go off and make your own. Since you have the 
source code, you can always change the game. 
Or rig the game, if no one's looking. 
Pure Magic. That's Turbo GameWorks. And part 
of the "sourcery" — Turbo GameWorks is only 
?69-95. When combined with our new Turbo 
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SHORT CUTS, SECRETS AND 
STRATEGIES. The Turbo GameWorks man- 
ual takes you step-by-step through all the 
games. How to play them. How to modify 
them. How to use the power of Turbo Pascal to 
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You'll learn general problem analysis, how 
to identify all possible moves, "rule of thumb" 
strategies, procedures for testing strategies, and 
ways to rate options. You'll also be introduced 
to "top down" program design, the develop- 
ment of basic algorithms, the use of constants 
and data structures and ways to design short 
cuts with incremental updating. 

On top of all that, you'll have a lot of fun 
(if you want to). 

So go to play (and work) with Borland's 
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SOME OF ITS MASTER PIECES 
Chess, the ultimate strategic game. A game 
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Turbo GameWorks lets you play chess at six dif- 
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Decide whether you or the computer "goes 
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Go-Moku, also known as "Five-in-Line," is a 
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It's an intriguing game. But you're not 
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Bridge. Play bridge with a friend or team up 
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the program cheat! The program automatically 
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"your" Bridge unlike any other. 




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PacK $245-00 
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CONTENTS 





FEATURES 



Introduction 82 

Product Preview: The Atari I040ST by Phillip Robinson and ]on R. Edwards 84 

TWo BYTE editors take a look at Atari's new S999 1-megabyte machine. 

Finding the Titanic by Marti Spalding and Ben Dawson 96 

After 73 years, the wreck of the R.M.S. Titanic was discovered with help fom the latest 
in image-processing equipment. 

Ciarcias Circuit Cellar: Real-Time Clocks: A View Toward the Future 

by Steve Garcia 112 

Steve presents two real-time clocks, one of which also provides nonvolatile RAM. 

Programming Proiect. A Simple Windowing System. Part 1: Basic Principles 

by Bruce Webster 128 

Bruce examines the problems involved in opening a window. 

An ANSI Standard for the C Language by Steve A. Hersee and Dan Knopoff 135 

ANSI has set up a standardization committee to develop a universal set of rules for this 
popular language. 

Programming Insight. Macintosh Explorer by Olav Andrade 145 

This disassembler, which translates machine code to human-readable mnemonics, was 
written in Microsoft BASIC for Apple's Macintosh. 



THEME: HOMEBOUND COMPUTING 



Introduction 152 

Working at Home with Computers by \ane Morrill Tazelaar 155 

For some, telecommuting is a choice; for others, it is the only option. 

Using Images to Generate Speech by Bruce R. Baker 160 

Semantic compaction lets speech-impaired people communicate quickly and effectively 
in a variety of environments. 

The Electronic University Network by Donna Osgood 171 

Get a degree without ever leaving your computer. 

The Technology of the Kurzweil Voice Writer by Raymond Kurzweil 177 

The present office system provides a clue to future applications for the deaf. 

Increasing Independence for the Aging by K. G. Engelhardt and Roger Edwards 191 

Robotic aids and smart technology can help us age less dependency. 

Computing for the Blind User by Aries Arditi and Arthur E. Cillman 199 

Some special human factors must be considered in assembling a workable system. 



REVIEWS 



Introduction 212 

Reviewer's Notebook by Glenn Hartwig 215 

Kaypro 2861 by Harry Krause 217 

An AT clone with a lower price. 



BYTE [ISSN 0360-5280) is published monthly with one exira issue per year by McGraw-Hill Inc. Founder lames H McGraw M860-I948) Executive editorial 
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weeks for delivery o( first issue. Printed In the United States of America. 



B YTE • MARCH 1986 



COVER PHOTO BY PAUL AVIS 



BVTIE 



March 




Modula-2 System for Z80 CP/M by Brian R. Anderson 225 

Hochstrassers system supports most features as defined by Niklaus Wirth. 

Pocket APL by Eric H. lohnson 237 

STSCs inexpensive implementation. 

Arity/Proloc by William G. Wong 245 

A version for MS-DOS machines. 

Braille-Edit by Henry Brugsh 251 

Raised Dot's talking word processor. 

Printit by Henry Brugsch and Joseph J. Lazzaro 261 

A card that lets you print anything on an Apple II screen. 

Review Feedback 265 

Readers respond to previous reviews. 



KERNEL 



Introduction 266 

Computing at Chaos Manor: All Sorts of Software by jerry Pournelk 269 

lerry survives his BIX party and spends a busy month looking at new software. 

Chaos Manor Mail conducted by lerry Pournelie 293 

lerry s readers write, and he replies. 

Applications Only: First in a Series by Ezra Shapiro 297 

In this new column Ezra examines four software products. 

According to Webster: 68000 Wars: Round 1 by Bruce Webster 305 

Bruce begins his comparison of the three prominent 68000 computers. 

Byte Japan: A New Language and a Laptop by William M. Raifte 327 

Bill looks at an all-lapanese programming language called Mind and at the Fujitsu FM-16ir. 

BYTE U.K.: The Amstrad PCW 8256 by Dick Pountain 333 

This new. completely functional, Z80-based computer and word processor from the U.K. 
costs less than most electric typewriters. 

Mathematical Recreations: Diophantine Equations by Robert T. Kurosaka 343 

Who was Diophantus? Here's one way to find out. 

Circuit Cellar Feedback conducted by Steve Ciarcia 354 

Steve answers project-related queries from readers. 



Editorial: 
Wishes for Spring: A Wider Circle . . 6 

Microbytes 9 

Letters 14 

Fixes and Updates 33 

Whats New 37, 399 

Ask BYTE 44 

Clubs and Newsletters 54 



Book Reviews 57 

Event Queue 78 

Disks and Downloads 358 

Best of BIX 367 

Unclassified Ads 461 

BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box, 
BOMB Results 462 

Reader Service 463 



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Subscription questions or problems should be addressed to: BYTE Subscriber Service. POB 328. Hancock, NH 03449 



VOLUME II, NUMBER 3, 1986 




212 




266 



SECTION ART BY PIERRE LE-TAN 



MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 117 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 118 for DEALERS ONLY. 



LOOKING FOR AT 

PERFORMANCE 

FROM YOUR PC? 




IfcARTH HAS IT FOR 
I LESS THAN $1 ,000! 



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TurboACCEL-286 will fuction with 
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The TurboACCEL-286 features a 
high-speed, 8MHz, 80286 processor, 
512Kbytes of RAM (expandable to 
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End your search for AT performance. 
Order the TurboACCEL-286 today! 
Call or write: 



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TELEX: 910 997 6120 EARTH FV 

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Ask about EARTH COMPUTERS' other 
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BYTE 



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B YTE • MARCH 1986 



Circuit-Board-Artwork Software 
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"smARTWORK:' "Wintek" and the Wintek logo are 
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EDITORIAL 



Wishes for Spring: 
A Wider Circle 

When will personal computers reach far 
beyond the current circle of owners and 
produce another boom in our industry? 
Computer users and the industry alike 
have been awaiting the introduction of 
IBM's next base personal computer for 
more than a year. Everyone expects the 
machine to be a much better vehicle for 
software such as Microsoft Windows than 
is the current PC family. However, some 
reliable sources insist that IBM is now 
caught with an inventory of PCs, XTs. and 
ATs well in excess of one million machines. 
If this is true, IBM's new base machine 
must wait. Not even IBM can afford to 
write off billions of dollars in order to 
make way for a new product. It appears 
that the IBM side of the industry will 
stagnate, although IBM's RT will provide 
some stimulus before the replacement ar- 
rives for the base PC. And when the next 
IBM workhorse arrives, its pricing will prob- 
ably assure that it replaces existing PCs and 
XTs rather than extending the benefits of 
the personal computer to new users. 

It seems more likely that a breakthrough 
will come on the 68000 side of the market. 
The Atari 1040ST is one of the great mile- 
stones in personal computing. For the first 
time, we can buy a 16-bit machine with 1 
megabyte of RAM, 720K bytes of floppy- 
disk storage, a good monitor, and a 
mouse, all for less than $1000. The oper- 
ating system, TOS. is fully in ROM. Al- 
though screen memory and systems soft- 
ware make some demands on RAM, most 
of the megabyte really does belong to the 
programmer, and therefore to the user. 
Given its price and power, the Atari 
1040ST is the first personal computer that 
offers programmers the hardware re- 
sources needed to make the computer ac- 
cessible, responsive, and useful to millions 
of nontechnical people who have yet to 
use computers. But the software needed 
to take advantage of the hardware is yet 
to be seen. Only Tom Hudson's DEGAS 
paint program takes full advantage of chief 
designer Shiraz Shivji's hardware. (For 
more on the 1040ST, see the Product 
Preview by Phillip Robinson and |on Ed- 
wards on page 84.) lack Tramiel is capable 
of putting millions of these machines in 



homes around the world. The sheer 
numbers and raw computing power will 
drive software development, but it takes 
time. 

Apple's January announcements re- 
vealed significant improvements in the 
Macintosh family. With the increase in 
standard RAM to a megabyte and the in- 
troduction of an SCSI interface, Apple 
showed that it does indeed plan to open 
the architecture of the Macintosh. A 
Macintosh with slots can be expected as 
soon as feasible, but the required changes 
in systems software to add more process- 
ing power and support the slots while re- 
taining compatibility with today's Macin- 
tosh may take time. Furthermore, the 
$2495 price tag of the Macintosh Plus may 
prevent the Macintosh family from win- 
ning many new adherents. (We were 
unable to get access to a Macintosh Plus 
in time to prepare an article for this issue, 
but look for coverage in April or May.) 

The Commodore Amiga is now the 
oldest of these three flagship 68000 
machines. The Amiga's coprocessors still 
give it the edge in computation, but the 
Amiga trails both the Macintosh Plus and 
the Atari 1040ST in the standard con- 
figuration of RAM. Software runs on pro- 
cessors, but it lives in RAM. Commodore 
will soon have to offer an inexpensive up- 
grade to 1 megabyte of RAM in order to 
remain competitive and reduce program- 
mers' headaches. The Amiga's open ar- 
chitecture should make the upgrade easy 
to do. We should also remember Com- 
modore's statement when introducing the 
Amiga that it is the first and least power- 
ful of a planned series of machines. Al- 
though Textcraft (with which this editorial 
is being written) is adequate and Elec- 
tronic Arts' Deluxe Paint is spectacular, the 
Amiga still generally lacks software to 
match its hardware. 

Making One Market 

The Atari 1040ST and the Amiga fall short 
of the Macintosh in both systems software 
and applications software. Many, many 
personal computer users have said they'd 
like to see Macintosh-quality software on 
Atari or Amiga hardware. Any company 
or group of programmers that fulfills this 
wish could bring about the next great 



chapter of growth in personal computing. 
But who will do it? 

Is there a remote possibility that Micro- 
soft will put an MS-DOS-compatible oper- 
ating system on the Amiga, the Atari ST, 
and the Macintosh, and put Microsoft 
Windows atop the operating system? Such 
a move would let Microsoft bestride the 
world of personal computers and unite the 
office, home, and education markets. 
Microsoft has produced a fine BASIC for 
the Amiga and must be tempted to 
simplify support for the machine by put- 
ting a Microsoft operating system in the 
Amiga's Writable Control Store (Kickstart 
RAM). But would Microsoft be bold 
enough to replace the ROMs and systems 
software of the Macintosh? 

One of January's fascinating rumors sug- 
gested that Digital Research would in- 
troduce CP/M-68K and GEM for the 
Amiga, thereby fusing the Amiga and 
Atari into a single market. This would be 
a step in the right direction and would 
help Amiga and Atari by giving program- 
mers a bigger market to write for. But 
Digital Research seems unlikely to try 
replacing the systems software of the 
Macintosh. The recent controversy over 
GEM's visual resemblance to the Macin- 
tosh user interface provides enough to oc- 
cupy Digital Research's lawyers. 

Lattice has taken a positive step by de- 
veloping MacLibrary for the Amiga. These 
routines work with Lattice C on the Amiga 
and emulate ROM calls on the Mac. Mac- 
Library should help some in porting ap- 
plications software from the Mac to the 
Amiga. Lattice C is available for the Atari 
ST and perhaps a version of MacLibrary 
will be as well. Other versions of C in- 
cluding Manx C, are available for all three 
machines. 

Let's hope someone will have the vision 
and the resources necessary to make one 
vast software market of three substantial 
and overlapping ones. The Atari ST. the 
Commodore Amiga, and the Apple 
Macintosh are each an important part of 
personal computing. Together they could 
form a standard second to none and at- 
tract millions of new users to personal 
computers. 

— Phil Lemmons 
Editor in Chief 



BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Maxell Corp. of America, 60 Oxford Drive, Moonathie, NJ 07074 










Before you invest in a DECVT240 terminal, 
consider the software alternative. 



Stop and think about what you really 
need: A text terminal. Tektronix* 
graphics. ReGIS* graphics. File transfer 
capabilities. Communications. 

Purchasing a state-of-the-art terminal 
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smarter solution— SmarTerm® 240, 

the ultimate in terminal emulation 
software. 

SmarTerm can do everything the state- 
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That's why we call it state-of-the-smart. 

With SmarTerm 240, the emulation is 
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PC. It features superior text emulation, 
ReGIS graphics, Tektronix graphics, 
outstanding communications and file 
transfer capabilities. 



You also get on-line help screens, 
remappable keyboard layouts and 
programmable softkeys which can 
simplify your most frequently performed 
tasks. You can even customize your 
own menus! 

And because SmarTerm runs on your 
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All SmarTerm products are backed 
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No matter which terminal you're 
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SmarTerm has a state-of-the-smart 
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To find out more about the SmarTerm 

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see your local dealer. Or contact: 

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(608) 273-6000 - Telex 759491 




'SmarTerm is a registered trademark of Person, Inc. 'DEC, VT and ReGIS, are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corp. 
"DASHER Is a registered trademark at Data General Corp. * Tektronix is a registered trademark of Tektronix, Inc. 
©PersoU, Inc.. 1986. All rights reserved 



aersa/r 

J Inquiry 270 



MICROBYTES 



Staff-written highlights of late developments in the microcomputer industry. 



IBM Announces UNIX-based RISC-Technology Computer 

IBM announced the RT PC, a line of desktop and floor-standing computers that feature a 
32-bit RISC (reduced instruction set computer) microprocessor. The new machines also use 
a proprietary 40-bit-wide memory-management chip that can access a virtual memory of 1 
trillion bytes. The desktop unit is the size of the IBM PC AT, has a i.2-megabyte floppy 
drive, a 40-megabyte hard-disk drive, 1 to 3 megabytes of memory, and six IBM AT- 
compatible expansion slots. An optional 80286 board lets the RT run AT software. 

AIX, the UNIX-based operating system for the RT, is compatible with UNIX System V and 
includes several enhancements from Berkeley version 4.2 UNIX. AIX can accommodate up 
to eight users. 

Also announced were three high-resolution displays for the RT. These include the Ad- 
vanced Monochrome and Color Displays, both with resolutions of 720 by 512 pixels, and 
the Extended Monochrome Display, with a resolution of 1024 by 768 pixels. 

IBM claims that the RT can perform at a rate of 1.2 to 2.4 million instructions per second. 
The price for the desktop model with the Advanced Monochrome Display is approximately 
$13,100. The AIX operating system is an additional $3400. Discounts of over 30 percent are 
available for orders of 50 units or more. 

Dutch Engineer Discloses Method for Eavesdropping on 
Computer Displays 

In a recent issue of the journal Computers & Security (North-Holland), Dutch engineer Wim van 
Eck outlined a method whereby an ordinary television receiver can be modified to recreate 
the images on any nearby CRTs or computer displays. The modifications require approx- 
imately $15 of electronic parts and a directional antenna. In one test, van Eck set up his 
equipment in a van parked outside an office building and was able to read classified infor- 
mation displayed on a computer terminal inside the building. 

Xerox Announces Color Ink-Jet Printer and Software for Its 
6085 Computer 

Xerox of Rochester, NY, announced a new printer for its line of personal computers and 
more software for its 6085 computer. The Xerox 4020 is a color ink-jet printer that 
reportedly prints 4000 combinations of seven primary colors at a resolution of 240 dots per 
inch. The printer price of $1495 includes the GEM Desktop, WordChart, and Graph software 
packages. 

The Xerox 6085, a low-priced relative of the Xerox Star computer, is being bundled with 
Xerox's 4045 Laser CP (copier/printer) and new software to form a personal publishing 
system called the Documenter. No price was given for this system: projected availability is in 
the second quarter of 1986. Xerox will also offer compilers for C, FORTRAN, and BASIC 
that will run on the 6085 computer. The 6085 is a large-screen, window-and-mouse-oriented 
computer that is available with an optional IBM PC-compatible processor. 

High-Density 256K-bit EEPROM 

Xicor of Milpitas, CA, is selling samples of a 256K-bit EEPROM. The densest chip available 
before held 64K bits. The 256K-bit chip sits in the same package as the 64K-bit chip; for ad- 
dressing, it employs two pins that were unused on the 64K-bit version. The 256K-bit 
EEPROM also includes new software data-protection mechanisms to guard against inadver- 
tent writes during power-up and power-down. The 64K-bit chips cost from $12 to $20 
apiece. The 256K-bit chip samples cost $120 in lots of 100. Full production is expected by 
the middle of 1986. 

(continued) 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 9 



Parallel Processing for the IBM 

You can buy a parallel-processing add-on board for your IBM PC, XT, or AT or ITT XTRA 
from Compupix Technology of Boca Raton, FL. The board is based on NCR's GAPP 
(geometric arithmetic parallel processor) chip, which contains 72 CMOS 1-bit ALU pro- 
cessors. For $4750, you get a board with 144 processors (two GAPP chips), and $5750 buys 
you a board with 288 processors (four GAPP chips). Both products have an on-board se- 
quence controller so the host computer can perform another task while the parallel pro- 
cessors are working. 

The demonstration software that accompanies the boards was developed for both UNIX 
and MS-DOS environments. Compupix offers two assemblers for the board: the Macro-Meta 
Assembler runs under MS-DOS and costs $1750, while a relocatable, linkable version of the 
Macro-Meta Assembler costs $2150. 



Datatext Word Processor Plus Source Code for $95 

A $450 word processor that was withdrawn from the market for a few months has been 
reissued, this time with a complete source-code listing and a price of $95. Datatek of 
Oldsmar, FL, bills the new version of Datatext as a powerful, multifunction word processor 
and includes in the product's manual a complete listing of 30,000 lines of Pascal source 
code. A disk version of the source code costs $145, and a Computer Associates/Sorcim 
Pascal compiler for recompiling the code will be available for less than $100. The product 
runs on IBM PC, MS-DOS, and CP/M systems. 



Nanobytes 



According to SoftView of Camarillo, CA, its MaclnTax 1985, a $75 program for the Macin- 
tosh, is the only tax package that can generate IRS-approved tax forms on the Apple 
lmagewriter printer. . . . Epson announced the FX-286 printer, a replacement for its FX-I85 
dot-matrix printer. Epson claims that the $749 wide-carriage printer is 30 percent faster 
than its older relative. . . . Iomega Corp. announced a new adapter card for its Bernoulli 
Box disk-cartridge system. The card lets the IBM PC boot from the Bernoulli Box. . . . Fox 
& Geller of Elmwood Park, NJ, is offering a Symphony-like database for Lotus Develop- 
ment's 1-2-3. Called Quickcode for 1-2-3, the program costs $199. ... A new multiuser ver- 
sion of Fox Research's 10-BASE database system for the IBM PC offers SQL (structured 
query language) features. . . . The Toshiba P3 51 dot-matrix printer can now emulate the 
Qume Sprint 1 1 daisy-wheel printer and the IBM Graphics Printer. Upgrades for older 
printers cost $99. . . . Panasonic announced three dot-matrix printers: the KX-P1595 (240 
cps in draft mode, Courier type fonts, $949), the KX-P1592 (180 cps in draft, IBM Graphics 
Printer compatibility, $699), and the KX-P1080 (100 cps in draft, $319) ... . Tiara Computer 
Systems of Mountain View, CA, has acquired the Davong MultiLink local-area network and 
renamed it TiaraLink. The products will sell for 15 to 2 5 percent less. Tiara is also offering 
an IBM PC AT-compatible motherboard to developers for a single-quantity price of 
$920. . . . The International Computer Users Groups Association (ICUGA) has been 
formed in Lexington, KY. The association is intended as a support service for users groups 
around the world. Contact ICUGA c/o Abshire & Abshire, Security Trust Building, Suite 100, 
Lexington, KY 40507 .... Oki Semiconductor, Sunnyvale, CA, has developed a 5-MHz 
CMOS version of the 8085 A microprocessor. An NMOS 8085A draws 170 milliamperes; the 
MSM80C85A-2 typically draws less than 20 mA. In lots of 100, each chip costs $7.30. . . . 
Aldus Corp. of Seattle, WA, has introduced PageMaker release 1.1. This new version of the 
$495 Macintosh page-design program offers the option of using the LaserWriter's bit-map 
smoothing, a greater variety of tab uses, and support of tabloid-size pages (II by 17 
inches) .... S-MOS Systems of San Jose, CA, announced three CMOS Z80 microprocessors. 
The SMC 84C00AC is simply a pin-compatible CMOS Z80. The SMC 84C00AC-L adds a low- 
power "sleep" mode that prohibits it from supporting the Z80's on-chip dynamic-memory- 
refresh counter. The SMC 84C00AC-S has both the sleep mode and an on-chip oscillator. All 
three chips sell for approximately $3 in quantities of 1000. . . . Vitelic, Santa Clara, CA, is 
making the V62C64, a low-power 8K-bit-by-8 CMOS static RAM chip. This new RAM has an 
access time of 150 nanoseconds and dissipates 175 milliwatts in operation or 10 microwatts 
in standby. A special low-voltage data-retention mode for battery backup lets the V62C64 
retain data while dissipating only 4 microwatts from a 2-volt power source. 



10 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



TANDY.. 

Clearly Superior 

The Tandy 8 1200 Personal Computer 
with dual floppy disk drives edges out 
the IBM* PC/XT. 




TANDY 
1200 






H 




Another remarkable com- 
puter breakthrough that only 
Tandy conic! bring yon. The new 
Tandy 1200 is XT-compatible, in- 
cludes dual floppy disk drives 
and is priced at only $1499.00— 
far less than IBM's XT! With the 
Tandy 1200, a business can ex- 
pand attbrdably and still use vir- 
tually all of the same quality 
software, as well as PC expan- 
sion boards. 

The Tandy 1200 (25-3001) 
comes with 256K RAM (expand- 
able on-board to a total of 
640K), two thinline, 360K 



floppy disk drives, pins seven 
card slots. A parallel printer 
interface — an extra-cost option 
on the XT — is standard. 

Also available is the Tandy 
1200 HD (25-3000, $1999.00). It 
has a built-in 10-megabyte hard 
disk and a 360K floppy. 

You'll find everything you 
need — software, printers, cus- 
tom forms, even furniture — at 
any Radio Shack Computer 
Center. And our support in- 
cludes training, service and leas- 
ing: we have what it takes to sit 
down and talk business. 



Available at over 1200 

Radio Shack Computer Centers and at 

participating Radio Shack stores and dealers. 

Radio /hack 

COMPUTER CENTERS 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



II 1 


■ ■ ■ ■ i 


Send me a Tandy 1 200 brochure. 

Mail To: Radio Shack, Dept. 86-A-793 
300 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, TX 76102 

NAME 


COMPANY 


ADDRESS 


CITY 


STATE 
PHONE 


7IP 


1 ■ T 


■ ■III' 



Tandy 1200 prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and participating stores and dealers. IBM comparison pricing as ol 9/1/85. IBM/TM International Business Machines Corp. MS/TM Microsoft Corp. 

Inquiry 294 



c&c 



Computers and Communications 



Your first color 
good enough 



SEC introduces the only 
color monitor you need. 
Superb resolution plus 
MultiSync for across- 
the-board compatibility 
with all three PC 
graphics boards made 
by IBM, for business 
graphics, CAD/CAM, 
computer art, and text. 

Now there's 
one high 
resolution 
color monitor 
that does 
things 
your way. 
The Multi- 
Sync™ monitor from NEC. 

It gives you the best 
color resolution avail- 
able at the price. 
• Compatibility with 
the IBM Professional 
Graphics Adapter, the 
IBM Enhanced Graphics 
Adapter, and the IBM 
Color Graphics Adapter. 





Compatibility with the IBM" 
Enhanced Graphics Adapter Board 



• MultiSync, the NEC 
feature that automatic- 
ally adjusts to color 
adapter board scanning 
frequencies from 15.75 
KHz to 35 KHz— sug- 
gesting the possibility 
that the MultiSync 
monitor might be 
compatible with all 
color graphics boards 
that are fully compati- 
ble with the IBM PC, 
PC/XT, and PC/AT, now 
and in the future. 

• Full implementation 
of high resolution 
graphics software for 
business 

and other 
applica- 
tions, now 
and in the 
future. 

• And color 
capability 
limited 
only by the 
board be- 
ing used. 

See Things Our Way 

Until now, you had to 
choose different color 
monitors for compatibil- 
ity with all three PC 
color graphics boards 
made by IBM. With so 
many board and moni- 
tor configurations, folks 





Compatibility with the IBM® 
Professional Graphics Adapter Board 

didn't know which way 
to look. 

The new MultiSync 
color monitor gives you 
unique compatibility. As 
well as TTL and analog 
color. With 7 switchable 
text colors. And resolu- 
tion up to maximum 800 
horizontal dots and 
maximum 560 vertical 
lines, on a large, 13" 
diagonal viewing area. 

All that, priced at just 
$799. All from NEC, a 
name respected around 
the world for advanced, 




Compatibility with the IBM® Color 
Graphics Adapter 



12 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



monitor should be 
to be your last 




iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiii 




^ 




U L T I S Y N C 



The Intelligent Monitor 



TM 



reliable products 
backed by nationwide 
service. 

It's the one color 
monitor that does 
everything your way. 

But why talk more 
about it? Visit your 

Inquiry 252 



nearest dealer and see 
a graphic demonstra- 
tion of the new NEC 
MultiSync monitor's 
capabilities. Then draw 
your own conclusions. 

For information dial 

j 800 447 4700 



NEC HOME ELECTRONICS (U.S.A.) Inc. 

Personal Computer Division 

1401 Estes Avenue 

Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 



NEC 



MARCH 1986 • BYTE 13 



LETTERS 



Copyrighting Icons 

Your January editorial ("A Threat to Future 
Software." page 6) regarding Apple's 
stifling of software creativity was precise- 
ly to the point. Legally, I have wondered 
why Xerox didn't sue Apple long ago. 
Technically, however, I also wondered why 
DR1 chose to slavishly copy the Mac user 
interface in the first place. 

Take scroll bars, for example. They take 
up an awful lot of screen space, are dif- 
ficult to use accurately, and are hardly in- 
tuitive, since you need to go right first to 
go up\ Why not just let a function key cause 
the cursor to adhere to the first window 
border it comes to? Option would cause 
the contents to scroll, Command might 
cause the window to resize, and Shift 
would move the window on the screen. 
Need to close the window? Just move the 
cursor rapidly back and forth a few times 
anywhere in the window (a motion similar 
to using a pencil eraser), and it would be 
gone. Presto, you have a window that 
operates far more intuitively than a Mac 
window, has less screen overhead, less 
code overhead (no need to draw the bars 
and resize them), and, best of all, has lit- 
tle resemblance to a Macintosh! And while 
they are at it, the DR1 people might want 
to throw in support for a global zoom pro- 
cedure (since every computer screen is 
only a window on an application) and the 
global abort function that the Macintosh 
sorely needs but doesn't have. 

Alex Funk 
Durham, NC 

It is truly remarkable that Apple managed 
to copyright the garbage can (its primary 
symbol?) and the icon interface developed 
by Xerox. 

It must be in the general interest to have 
a standard set of icons that express their 
meaning clearly and unambiguously. 

Clearly, Apple is taking the necessary 
steps to prevent a natural development of 
such a standard. Is Apple trying to pre- 
vent other vendors from launching sys- 
tems based on the ideas from Xerox? Do 
the people at Apple really think they will 
succeed? That is difficult to believe, as the 
bit map of an icon hardly is the major fea- 
ture of a computer system, and more 
powerful machines will appear in the near 



future, easily outperforming the Mac in all 
aspects (except the garbage can). 

Goran Rydqvist 

Kjell Post 

Linkoping, Sweden 

When 1 first learned that Apple had won 
a decision against Digital Research for 
"visual copyright" infringement, I thought 
"Right on!" and still feel this way. A pro- 
grammer should be able to protect his 
rights to any commercial system he 
develops. We would all agree that the 
visual aspects and appearance of any soft- 
ware system contribute heavily to the suc- 
cess of that particular system in the mar- 
ketplace. Your line of reasoning to justify 
other persons' ignoring visual copyrights— 
the "incremental" theory— if carried to its 
logical conclusion in my mind leads us to 
the point where my firm could publish a 
new software release called Wordstar 
5000. emulating the latest MicroPro 
screens for its fine word-processing pro- 
gram. As long as we could prove in- 
cremental improvements, we would be 
protected from (not liable to) suit by 
MicroPro. This is ridiculous! It is the pro- 
grammer's right to release newer, in- 
crementally improved versions of any soft- 
ware product he has authored, if another 
firm feels it has a dynamite idea for an 
enhancement to an existing piece of soft- 
ware, then isn't that what joint ventures are 
for? 

The computer industry is far away from 
the ideal man-computer-man interface. Let 
us collectively stimulate, encourage, and 
suitably reward those who pursue new, un- 
tried interface techniques. As the level of 
computer literacy rises above thinking of 
the computer as a car-type tool and 
reaches the level where we see the com- 
puter as an extension of our brains, we will 
all probably want our own individualized 
interfaces. 

Mike Carmichael 
Glasgow. KY 

Covering Atari s ST Machines 

Well, another month has come and gone, 
and the only mention made of the best 
low-priced computer on the market is a 
few slightly snide remarks. I can't say that 
I am totally surprised, since it took BYTE 



a few years to figure out what every Atari 
owner knew-that the Atari 400/800/1 200s 
were the best 8-bit graphics machines on 
the market. 

Now comes a new Atari, the 520ST. It 
is available everywhere, right now, with 
software delivering now. Also available is 
a complete developer's software/docu- 
mentation package for less than a good 
C compiler for the IBM PC and its look- 
alikes. Still, no real mention in BYTE. 
Methinks your biases are showing. 

I.will readily concede that the Amiga is 
probably a better machine, but at a price 
that is more than double that of a similarly 
equipped 520ST. Mr. Webster and others 
have said the 520ST is not expandable. Of- 
ficially, that's true. But, as many owners of 
the Atari 400 know, the 400 wasn't ex- 
pandable beyond 16K RAM, officially. I 
and many others have or had 400s with 
48K within a year of introduction. My 
520ST (remember, unexpandable) will 
shortly have 1 megabyte of RAM (cost: 
less than $70) and an add-on 80-track 
5 14-inch drive. So much for officialdom. 

When 1 bought my machine. I received 
BASIC, Logo, Neochrome (graphics draw- 
ing program), and ST Writer (word pro- 
cessor). While the graphics and word- 
processing software are not up to some 
of the more mature applications, they are 
far from primitive. 

In my area, the Amiga is not available 
yet. but it will be in "real soon now." The 
dealer says there is lots of software for the 
Amiga, but he doesn't have any in stock: 
again, it will be here "real soon now." 1 
don't know about you. but in the com- 
puter world "real soon now" can often 
take months or years. 

[continued) 



LETTERS POLICY: To be considered for publica- 
tion, a letter must be typed double-spaced on one 
side of the paper and must include your name and 
address. Comments and ideas should be expressed as 
clearly and concisely as possible. Listings and tables 
may be printed along with a letter if they are short 
and legible. 

Because BYTE receives hundreds of letters each 
month, not all of them can be published. Letters will 
not be returned to authors. Generally, it takes four 
months from the time BYTE receives a letter until 
il is published. 



14 BYTE 



MARCH 1986 



This Little Feia 
Means Business. 

The Mouse by Maynard Electronics makes your favorite 
programs faster, wammm easier, and smarter! 



BY MAYNARD ELECTRONICS 








At last, an "intelligent" mouse! Now you can add 
command power to your programs, when you 
want, the way you want — instantly! The Mouse 
by Maynard Electronics comes with our 
CustomKey™ software which lets you assign 
and reassign commands while using your 
favorite programs — even those without 
mouse utilities. Fly through programs like 
Symphony? Lotus 1 -2-3? Framework? Multi- 
Mate?and others with undreamed of speed! 
And of course, it's fully compatible with all 
programs written for a mouse, too. 



"Symphony and Lotus 1-2-3 are trademarks ot Lotus Development Corporation. 
Framework is a trademark of Ashton-Tate. MultiMate is a trademark of SoftWord Sys- 
tems Inc. Telepaint is a trademark of LCS/Telegraphics. 



j Teach The Mouse 
To Type. 

A single Mouse click will instantly 
produce the character, sentence, 
paragraph, or anything else 
you've selected. Click: you call 
up the CustomKey menu. Click: 
your file is saved. Click: a com- 
monly used paragraph appears 
in place. No other mouse gives 
you such power and versatility. 

A Tale Of Three Mice . . . 

Compare our Mouse with the others running 
around and you'll see, there's no comparison! 
Here are just a few features across the board: 



FEATURES 




Maynard 
Mouse 


Micro- 
soft 


Mouse 
Systems 


# of Button Combinations 




7 


3 


5 


Button Auto Repeat 




Yes 


No 


No 


Diagnostics 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


Dynamic Scaling 




Yes 


No 


No 


Cursor Overshoot Control 




Yes 


No 


No 


Adjustable Cursor Speed/Up 


Dn (while 








running application) 
Adjustable Cursor Speed/Rt, 




Yes 


No 


No 


Lft (while 








running application) 
Buttons-Definable {while runr 




Yes 


No 


No 


ing application) 


Yes 


No 


No 


Macros-Definable (while runn 


ng application) 


Yes 


No 


No 


User-Definable Alternate Cursor Movement 


Yes 


No 


No 




Free Drawing! 

Purchase The Mouse now and 
receive the popular paint program 
Telepaint* at no additional cost 
— a $149 value! 



%-u Maynard Electronics 

Shaping tomorrow's technology. 

460 E. Semoran, Casselberry, FL^707 • 305/331 -6402 
Available at the finest computer stores. Contact your local dialer or write to us today for product information. 



Inquiry 227 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 15 




Why you 

should 

ignore 95% 

of the news 



Because NewsNet automatically finds the 
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you can find that critical 5% on your own, 
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Just what's in NewsNet's database? The full text 
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LETTERS 



As for comparing machines, we really 
have to compare machines that are simi- 
larly priced. With the Atari 520ST's $1000 
price tag, that leaves the Apple II. Poor 
Apple. When comparing compatibility, 
then we have to look at the IBM PC/XT/AT 
and the Amiga. The PC/XT/AT's saving 
graces are manufacture by IBM and a large 
base of available software. I recently saw 
a benchmark on the 520ST for process- 
ing (primes). Nothing that anyone will buy 
for home use was anywhere close to 
Atari's speed. 

For business, I don't really believe that 
the Atari will penetrate the market with 
any great percentage. Its success will prob- 
ably be along the line of the Apple Mac- 
intosh. It offers more bang for the buck 
than any other currently manufactured 
machine. 

For support. Atari was always one of the 
better companies about supplying infor- 
mation and help with its machines. Also, 
there is a very large installed base of users 
that are buying up the 520STs as fast as 
they hit the retail store. Some public- 
domain software is already out there. Ad- 
mittedly, it is not at the level it will be in 
a very short time. Also, there are two Atari- 
specific magazines on the market that are 
publishing more and more information 
about the machine every month. 

BYTE, your prejudices are showing, and 

by this letter you can see that mine are 

showing also. Maybe it will balance out. 

Lloyd Parsons 

Herrin, IL 

Phil Lemmons replies: 
We are not prejudiced against Atari or 
any other company. We were hampered 
in covering Atari's 520ST by the com- 
pany's refusal to give us access to a 
machine despite repeated attempts on 
our part. But that problem is now past. 
Please note that our January. February, 
and March issues all contain coverage of 
Atari's ST machines. 

I'd Know That Chip Anywhere 

I don't know whether this is a coincidence 
or not, but a chip virtually identical to the 
one John Bennett has described ("Raster 
Operations," November 1985, page 187) 
was developed by myself and John At- 
wood at Silicon Compilers in early 1983. 
The chip, designed with the help of an 
early version of the Silicon Compilers soft- 
ware, has been used quite successfully in 
the Sun Microsystems Color Workstation. 
In this application, a total of eight 
RasterOp chips (one per bit plane) manip- 

[continued) 



New! Windows-Compatible In-a-Vision 1.1 



Complex Drawin 
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In-a-Vision uses 
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MICROGRAFX 

The Picture of Success. 

Inquiry 237 





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In-a-Vision and MICROGRAFX are trademarks of 
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Microsoft is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc. 



Escape the 

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If so, you're ready for Methods— a Small- 
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Methods is . . . 

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Methods also offers easy access to DOS, a 
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Methods requires DOS and 512K RAM on 
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and can be used with or without a mouse. 



digitalkinc. 



5200 West Century Boulevard 

Los Angeles, CA 90045 (213) 645-1082 

Available from Digitalk for $250. Outside U.S. add 
$15.00 for shipping and handling. 
California residents add sales tax. 
Educational and dealer 
discounts available. 

Inquiry 110 



LETTERS 




IBM is a trademark of 

International Business Machines Corporation. 
Smalltalk-80 is a trademark of Xerox Corporation. 
UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories. 



ulate up to 128 bits of image data in 
parallel for high-speed screen updating. 
The Sun RasterOp chip is now available 
commercially from VLSI Technology Inc. 
as part VL16160. 

Andreas Bechtolsheim 

Sun Microsystems Inc. 

Mountain View, CA 

Kudos 

for Conferencing Theme 

Congratulations on the fine December 
1985 issue. We at Network Technologies 
International Inc. were pleased to see the 
thoroughness of the Computer Conferenc- 
ing theme section. As you know, this is an 
exciting segment for the computer in- 
dustry, and it has tremendous growth 
potential in the near future. The reputa- 
tion of BYTE for being on the leading edge 
of technology news is well deserved, as 
this issue focused on conferencing proves. 
We were very excited by the review of 
our eForum product by Brock Meeks ('An 
Overview of Conferencing Systems," page 
169). However, several points deserve 
clarification: 

1. eForum does have an electronic mail 
facility. It is an add-on software package 
called efvlemo that allows private one-to- 
one communications with many of the 
enhanced organizational features of 
eForum. 

2. The eForum software has a migration 
path that cannot be matched. NETI began 
marketing with eForum software available 
on supermicro and mini systems. Begin- 
ning in February, the eForum system will 
be available on an MS-DOS IBM PC-com- 
patible microcomputer. And currently, 
eForum on a mainframe system is avail- 
able through the largest packet-switching 
network in the world, the General Electric 
Information Service. We feel this wide 
range of options more than adequately 
serves the needs of Fortune 500 com- 
panies as well as organizations of every 
size and need. 

Jeffrey J. Elpern 
Ann Arbor, Ml 

MS-DOS Disk Formats 

Marcus Kolod. in his article "IBM PC Disk 
Performance and the Interleave Factor" 
(Inside the IBM PCs. Fall 1985. page 283), 
goes into considerable detail to describe 
how PC-DOS 1.x differs from 2.x in access- 
ing a double-sided disk. He describes DOS 
1.x as accessing all of side and then all 
of side 1. while DOS 2.x will access both 
sides of each cylinder on the disk before 

(continued) 



For those times when 640K memory 
just doesn't seem to be enough. 



AST introduces RAMpage! ™ with 
up to 2 Mb of PC RAM. 



Feed your byte-gobbling appli- 
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stop wasting valuable time 
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Breaking The 640K 
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RAMpage! breaks 
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boards can be used in a single 
PC for a full 8 Mb of memory 
per system. 

EMS Compatibility. 
RAMpage! is fully compatible 
with all applications 
developed for use 
with the Lotus 8 





Expanded 
Memory Speci- 
fication (EMS). It's 
also supported by Enhanced 
EMS software— offering more 
versatility for even greater value 
and performance. 

New software updates of popu- 
lar applications like Symphony™ 
Framework™and l-2-3rdesigned 



specifically for use with EMS 
boards, are now becoming avail- 
able. And a wide variety of 
other packages, including win- 
dowing, spreadsheet, 
database and CAD 
applications, will 
soon follow. 

A Super Bonus. 
RAMpage! 
includes AST's 
new SuperPak™ utility 
software. Designed specifically 
to operate in expanded memory 
environments, it allows you to 
spool print jobs and create 
multiple RAM disks for added 
performance. 

Don't let your valuable byte- 
hungry applications starve. 
Get RAMpage! today. For 
more information call our 
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Or write, AST Research, Inc., 
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TWX: 753699 ASTR UR. 



Specifications 

• For use with IBM* PC, PC-XT, 3270 PC 
and compatibles. 

• Up to 2.0 Mb expanded memory per 
board— 8.0 Mb total per system. 

• Socketed and user upgradeable with 
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• Fully compatible with Lotus EMS 3.0. 

• Enhanced EMS design for greater per- 
formance with enhanced EMS software. 

• AST Expanded Memory Manager 
software standard. 

• New SuperPak™ utility software standard. 




RCSCRRCH INC. 

RAMpage! and SuperPak trademarks 

of AST Research, inc. lotus and 1-2-3 
registered trademarks and Symphony 
trademark of lotus Development 
Carp. Vrameteork trademark of 
Ashton-Tate IBM registered trade- 
mark of International Business 
Machines Carp. 




Inquiry 2 for End-Users. Inquiry 3 for DEALERS ONLY. 



MARCH 1986 'BYTE 19 



The database used 

nowbeused 



Introducing dBASEIIF PLUS. 

The PLUS stands for all the improvements 
weVe made to the world's number one selling 
database management software. 







Jp 1 


Create IHfiRET 


Position Ret 








1 


1 1 






Database file 


Format 

Uiew 

Query 

Report 

Label 







The Assistant helps beginning users accomplish day-to-day data 
management tasksmthoutprogramming. 

Mind you, dBASE III PLUS still has the 
powerful dBASE programming language, dot 
prompt, and all the features that have made 
dBASE III the standard of the industry. 

WeVe simply raised the standard. 

And just as dBASE III introduced more 
power to the people, our new dBASE III PLUS 
introduces more people to the power 

People who aren't all that crazy about 
programming, for example. 

The Assistant feature in dBASE III PLUS 
now provides them with new easy-to-use 
pull-down menus for creating, using and 
modifying multiple databases. 

So now anyone who can manage a 
simple cursor can manage day-to-day data 
management tasks. Without programming. 

And by using our new Screen Painter, 



anyone can create custom screens. Without 
programming. 

Or using View, access related information 
in several databases at one time. Without 
programming. 

With Advanced Query System, another 
new non-programming feature, any user can 
build complex queries just by selecting from 
the dBASE III PLUS pull-down menus. 

For rapidly creating entire programs, 
there's even a new Applications Generator. 

And for all those who wish to learn to 
program, the Assistant can be of further 
assistance. By teaching you programming 
commands as you go along. Without disrupting 
your work flow 

These are only a few of the dBASE HI PLUS 
features that can help new users quickly get 
up to speed. And experienced users quickly 
increase their speed. (Sorting, for example, 
is up to two times faster and indexing up to 
ten times faster than dBASE III.) 



Field Hue STATE 
Operator Matches 

Constant/Expression "HV" 



No i:imh i nation 

CogMm ulth .Mil. 



ConHne ulth .Mil.. ROT. 
CoMbine uith .OR.. HOT. 



Line Field 



STATE 
STATE 
P»0»_1ESC 
OBDEB DOTE 



Operator 



Hatches 
Hatches 
Hatches 
More than i 



Constant/Express lo 



"RY" 
"IE" 
"LH lass Lures" 

waues 



01. 

AHO. 

I .AR1. 



ami! 

VSet Filter 
Select a logical connector For the Filter condition. j 

Advanced Query System lets you set up and answer complex 
queries withoutprogramming. 



20 BYTE* MARCH \9S6 



3y more peop 



Dy more people. 



ecan 



And it's the fastest way to network those 
users, too. Because now, local area networking 
capabilities are built right in. 

dBASE HI PLUS can also help put developers 
in the fast lane. With a new Data Catalog and 
more than 50 new commands and functions. 
Plus code encryption and linking, improved 
debugging aids, assembly language calls and 
much more. 



ASHTONTATE 



lb obtain a free dBASE ffl PLUS demo disk, 
call 800-437-4329, Extension 0282; for the 
authorized AshtonTate* dealer nearest you** 

And get your hands on dBASE ffl PLUS. 

It's the software more people can look 
forward to using. 



Inquiry 383 



•In Colorado call (303) 799-4800, Extension 0282. "Upgrades are available to all dBASE III 
owners. Requires IBM* PC or 100% compatible.Tradeinarlts/owners: Ashton-Tate, dBASE III/ 
Ashton-Tate; IBM/International Business Machines Corporation, c 1985 Ashton-Tate. All 
rights reserved. 



dBASE III PLUS 

The data management standard. 






ENERCOMNECT.-. 



CIM COGO 






R300 



I 



GrafTalk 



,1k. 




2c 



til 




;lii 



8P& " 



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totf-jiEfl 1 B 

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MACPLtrr^B 


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[DEN101 



When you select a plotter or 
digitizer from Houston 
Instrument, you'll be impressed by the 
vast array of available software — like 
more than 300 graphics packages 
custom- configured especially for 
Houston Instrument products. 

You'll find programs for virtually 
every application — business graphics, 
CAD/CAM, architecture, surveying, 
geophysics, oceanography, medical, 
electronics — to name just a few. 
And more are being added every day. 
Just name your application. 



Software is immediately available. 

To learn which vendors supply 
plotter and digitizer software packages 
for your system, contact Houston 
Instrument and we'll promptly send 
you our complete booklet. Call 
1-800-531-5205 (or 512-835-0900 
if in Texas), or write Houston 
Instrument, 8500 Cameron Road, 
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contact Houston Instrument, Belgium 
NV., Rochesterlaan 6, 8240 Gistel, 
Belgium. Tel.: 32-(0)59-277445. 
Tlx.: 846-81399. 



Attention software vendors: If you 
have a program you would like to 
have become compatible with Houston 
Instrument' s graphics products, 
contact the Houston Instrument 
Marketing Support Group. 



DQ®CES , S®[jQ 

instrument 

A Division of AMETEK 

Inquiry 161 



LETTERS 



advancing to the next cylinder. (1 have 
dubbed the first method "surface mode" 
and the second method "cylinder mode.") 

DOS 1.x does not access the disk this 
way; it uses the same cylinder mode as 
does DOS 2.x. In fact, 1 have written device 
drives for 1 7 different MS-DOS disk for- 
mats, ranging from 3'A inches to 8 inches 
to the AT high-density, and I've yet to see 
an MS-DOS surface-mode disk. 

I have seen many other differences in 
MS-DOS floppy-disk formats, however. 
Several manufacturers have made changes 
to improve performance or to match their 
system design. I've seen sector sizes from 
2 56 bytes (HP 150) to 1024 bytes (NEC 
APC 8-inch), cluster sizes from 512 to 4096 
bytes, one boot sector (the most common) 
to two entire tracks (DEC Rainbow), base 
sector addresses of both and 1, logical 
to physical sector mapping via a transla- 
tion table (a la CP/M). and the 3 !/ 2 -inch 600- 
rpm high-speed Hewlett-Packard drive 
(usual speed is 300 rpm). Plus, of course, 
the IBM PC AT-style drive. Unfortunately, 
the "media descriptor byte" is not unique 
for each of these different formats. 

I expect 1 will continue to see more dif- 
ferences in future MS-DOS disk formats: 
it keeps my life interesting. 

Gary Sanford 
Acton, MA 

Adding RAM to the Amiga 

Thanks for printing my letter on the 
Amiga's RAM layout (Letters. November 
1985. page 26). Thanks also to Gregg 
Williams for his reply, which requires fur- 
ther comment. 

Extensive changes apparently would 
have been necessary to provide for future 
upgrades to more than 512K bytes of 
RAM on the Amiga motherboard, even if 
the upgrades were to be accomplished 
simply by swapping chips. As 1 understand 
it. there is a segmentation between the 
core 5 1 2 K-byte RAM on the one hand and 
the larger address space available to the 
external bus expansion port on the other 
hand. The Amiga's custom processing 
chips apparently work only within the 
512K-byte space; to expand this core 
RAM. the very architecture of the system 
apparently would have to have been re- 
arranged. This is "rather extreme," indeed. 

But after deflating my letter of its "rather 
extreme" atmospheres, I'm still left with 
the central point that caused me to write: 
Why is an optional cartridge necessary 
just to get 512K in the first place? 

Including a full 512K bytes on the Amiga 
motherboard, using 16 standard 2 56K by 

(continued) 



Data 

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■ Simplify your network 
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Call or write for complete details. 



BAY TECHNICAL ASSOCIATES, INC. 

DATA COMMUNICATIONS PRODUCTS 



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Highway 603, P.O. Box 387, Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi 39520 
Telex: 910-333-1618 EasyLink: 6277-1271 



Inquiry 38 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 23 



LETTERS 



1-bit RAM chips, probably would have 
added something less than $30 to the 
manufacturing cost. This would have been 
partly offset by the cost-reducing elimina- 
tion of the optional cartridge slot, since 
more than 512K bytes of core RAM ap- 
parently would not have been practical, 
anyway 

The earlier 128K-byte prototype mother- 
board had 16 standard 64K by 1-bit RAM 



chips, so this hypothetical upgrade to 
512K bytes using 16 standard 2 56K. by 
1-bit RAM chips should have been an ob- 
vious one. The Amiga's designers must 
have gone out of their way to use eight 
nonstandard 64K by 4-bit RAM chips in 
order to hold standard memory down to 
2 56K bytes and require the optional car- 
tridge for the second 2 56K bytes. That was 
my main point, and the design choice re- 



If lightning still scares you, 

you're using the wrong file manager. 




Be sure. Btrieve.® 

Lightning may strike. But it doesn't 
have to destroy your database. 

Btrieve® file management offers 
automatic file recovery after a system 
crash. So accidents and power failures 
don't turn into database disasters. 
Your Btrieve-based applications will 
come up when the lights come back on. 

Fast. Btrieve is lightning fast, too. 
It's written in Assembly language es- 
pecially for the IBM PC. And based 
on the b-tree file indexing system, 
with automatic balancing and elec- 
trifying access speed. 

The standard for networking. 
Btrieve /N (network version) sets the 
standard for the industry's most 
popular LANs and multi-user 
systems. 

Fully-relational data management. 
SoftCraft's entire family of products 



gives you a complete, fully-relational 
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Rtrieve™ adds report writing capabili- 
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For professional programmers. 
Btrieve is the fast, reliable answer for 
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SoftCraft Inc. 

P.O. Box 9802 #917 Austin, Texas 78766 
(512) 346-8380 Telex 358 200 



Suggested retail prices: Btrieve, $245; Btrieve/N, $595; Xtrieve, $195; Xtrieve/N, $395; Rtrieve, $85; 
Rtrieve/N, $175. Requires PC-DOS or MS-DOS IX, 2.X, or 3.X. NO ROYALTIES. 



mains inexplicable to me. 

1 didn't want to leave the impression that 
I don't like the Amiga. In fact, it is precisely 
because 1 do like it that the memory 
scheme arouses my criticism; it seems to 
stick out like a sore thumb amidst all those 
wild custom processing chips. The Amiga's 
capabilities eat up lots of memory, and the 
512K-byte core RAM should have been 
provided in a far more cost-effective man- 
ner. The basic Amiga should have 512K 
bytes of RAM, yet still be priced at $1295 
or less. 

Jim Howard 
Project City, CA 

Using the M68000 
for Scientific Research 

L. David Roper (Letters. October 1985. 
page 24) has apparently been misin- 
formed about the M68000 family. The 
68020 has 32-bit address and data buses 
with a 32-bit ALU and two 32-bit adders 
internally. It also has 32- by 32-bit multi- 
ply and 64- by 32-bit divide. The 68881 
floating-point coprocessor is available in 
sample quantities right now and should 
be available for general use soon. 

The 68020 is already in use. As of this 
date, G1M1X Inc. (in Chicago) is producing 
one computer with the 68020 and will 
soon be making a single-board computer 
with that chip. 

I hope Mr. Roper will reconsider his 
decision to exclude the M68000 family 
from consideration in choosing a scientific 
computer. 

Calvin Dodge 
Wheatridge, CO 

Remote Diagnostics Schemes 

Remote diagnostics offer the industry 
great promise, as your editorial "Service 
and Support" (February 1985, page 6) in- 
dicated, but their implementation is filled 
with "very serious problems." as a letter 
from Paul Pinette in the October 1985 
issue (page 14) showed. The solution is not 
remote, however, because a carefully 
designed system architecture can allow us 
to have our bugs and eat them. too. 

The old dilemma haunting the suc- 
cessful use of remote diagnostics occurs 
when the diagnostic requires the CPU, 
main memory, and data paths all to be 
operational to test a failing system. The 
failed system won't respond. The system 
can't diagnose itself for the same reason 
it won't respond: It's broken! There is a 
workable solution to this dilemma, and it 
is being used now. The independent multi- 
board architecture of the Altos 2086 and 

[continued] 



24 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 311 



The C for Microcomputers 

PC-DOS, MS-DOS, CP/M-86. Macintosh. Amiga, Apple Q, CP'M-80. Radio Shack, 
Commodore, XENIX. ROM. and Cross Development systems 



MS-DOS, PC-DOS, CP/M-86, XENK, 
8086/80x86 ROM 

Manx Aztec C86 

"A compiler that has many strengths . . . quite valuable 
for serious work" 

Computer Language review, February 1985 

Great Code: Manx Aztec C86 generates fast executing 
compact code. The benchmark results below are from a 
study conducted by Manx. The Dhrystone benchmark 
(CACM 10/84 27:10 pl018) measures performance for a 
systems software instruction mix. The results are with- 
out register variables. With register variables, Manx, 
Microsoft, and Mark Williams run proportionately faster, 
Lattice and Computer Innovations show no improve- 
ment. 



Execution 


Code 


Compile/ 


Time 


Size 


Link Time 


Dhrystone Benchmark 






Manx Aztec C86 3.3 34 sees 


5,760 


93 sees 


Microsoft C 3.0 34 sees 


7,146 


119 sees 


Optimized C86 2.20J 53 sees 


11,009 


172 sees 


Mark Williams 2.0 56 sees 


12,980 


113 sees 


Lattice 2.14 89 sees 


20,404 


117 sees 



Great Features: Manx Aztec C86 is bundled with a powerful 

array of well documented productivity tools, library routines 

and features. 

Optimized C compiler Symbolic Debugger 

AS86 Macro Assembler LN86 Overlay Linker 

80186/80286 Support Librarian 

8087/80287 Sensing Lib Profiler 

Extensive UNIX Library DOS, Screen, & Graphics Lib 

Large Memory Model Intel Object Option 

Z(vi) Source Editor -c CP/M-86 Library -c 

ROM Support Package -c INTEL HEX Utility -c 

Library Source Code -c Mixed memory models -c 

MAKE, DIFF, and GREP -c Source Debugger -c 

One year of updates < CP/M-86 Library -c 

Manx offers two commercial development systems, 
Aztec C86-c and Aztec C86-d. Items marked -c are 
special features of the Aztec C86-c system. 

Aztec C86-C Commercial System $499 

Aztec C86-d Developer's System $299 

Aztec C86-p Personal System $199 

Aztec C86-a Apprentice System $49 

All systems are upgradable by paying the difference 
in price plus $10. 

Third Party Software: There are a number of high qual- 
ity support packages for Manx Aztec C86 for screen 
management, graphics, database management, and soft- 
ware development. 

C-tree $395 Greenleaf $185 

PHACT $250 PC-lint $98 

HALO $250 Amber Windows $59 

PRE-C $395 Windows for C $195 
Windscreen $149 FirsTime $295 

SunScreen $99 C Util Lib $185 

PANEL $295 Plink-86 $395 



MACINTOSH, AMIGA, XENIX, 
CP/M-68K, 68k ROM 

Manx Aztec C68k 

"Library handling is very flexible . . . documentation is 
excellent ...the shell a pleasure to work in ... blows 
away the competition for pure compile speed ...an ex- 
cellent effort." 

Computer Language review, April 1985 
Aztec C68k is the most widely used commercial C com- 
piler for the Macintosh. Its quality, performance, and 
completeness place Manx Aztec C68k in a position be- 
yond comparison. It is available in several upgradable 



Optimized C 
Macro Assembler 
Overlay Linker 
Resource Compiler 
Debuggers 
Librarian 
Source Editor 
MacRam Disk -c 
Library Source -c 



Creates Clickable Applications 
Mouse Enhanced SHELL 
Easy Access to Mac Toolbox 
UNIX Library Functions 
Terminal Emulator (Source) 
Clear Detailed Documentation 
C-Stuff Library 
UniTools (vi,make,diff,grep) -c 
One Year of Updates -c 



Items marked -c are available only in the Manx Aztec 
C86-C system. Other features are in both the Aztec C86-d 
and Aztec C86-C systems. 

Aztec C68k-c Commercial System $499 

Aztec C68d-d Developer's System $299 

Aztec C68k-p Personal System $199 

C-tree database (source) $399 

AMIGA, CP/M-68k, 68k UNK call 

Apple H, Commodore, 
65xx, 65C02 ROM 

Manx Aztec C65 

"The AZTEC C system is one of the finest software 
packages I have seen" 

NIBBLE review, July 1984 

A vast amount of business, consumer, and educational 
software is implemented in Manx Aztec C65. The quality 
and comprehensiveness of this system is competitive 
with 16 bit C systems. The system includes a full optim- 
ized C compiler, 6502 assembler, linkage editor, UNIX 
library, screen and graphics libraries, shell, and much 
more. The Apple II version runs under DOS 3.3, and 
ProDOS, Cross versions are available 

The Aztec C65-c/128 Commodore system runs under 
the C128 CP/M environment and generates programs for 
the C64, C128, and CP/M environments. Call for prices 
and availability of Apprentice, Personal and Developer 
versions for the Commodore 64 and 128 machines. 

Aztec C65-C ProDOS & DOS 3.3 $399 
Aztec C65-d Apple DOS 3.3 $199 

Aztec C65-p Apple Personal system $99 
Aztec C65-a for learning C $49 

Aztec C65-C/128 C64, C128, CP/M $399 

Distribution of Manx Aztec C 

In the USA, Manx Software Systems is the sole and ex- 
clusive distributor of Aztec C. Any telephone or mail 
order sales other than through Manx are unauthorized. 



Manx Cross Development Systems 

Cross developed programs are edited, compiled, assem- 
bled, and linked on one machine (the HOST) and trans- 
ferred to another machine (the TARGET) for execution. 
This method is useful where the target machine is slower 
or more limited than the HOST, Manx cross compilers 
are used heavily to develop software for business, 
consumer, scientific, industrial, research, and education- 
al applications. 

HOSTS: VAX UNIX ($3000), PDP-11 UNIX ($2000), MS- 
DOS ($750), CP/M ($750), MACINTOSH ($750), 
CP/M-68k ($750), XENIX ($750). 

TARGETS: MS-DOS, CP/M-86, Macintosh, CP/M-68k, 
CP/M-80, TRS-80 3 & 4, Apple II, Commodore C64, 
8086/80x86 ROM, 68xxx ROM, 8080/8085/Z80 ROM, 
65xx ROM. 

The first TARGET is included in the price of the HOST 
system. Additional TARGETS are $300 to $500 (non 
VAX) or $1000 (VAX). 

Call Manx for information on cross development to the 
68000, 65816, Amiga, C128, CP/M-68K, VRTX, and 
others. 

CP/M, Radio Shack, 
8080/8085/Z80 ROM 

Manx Aztec CII 

"I've had a lot of experience with different C compilers, 
but the Aztec C80 Compiler and Professional Develop- 
ment System is the best I've seen." 

80-Micro, December, 1984, John B. Harrell III 

Aztec CH-c (CP/M & ROM) $349 

Aztec Cll-d (CP/M) $199 

C-tree database (source) $399 

Aztec C80-C (TRS-80 3 & 4) $299 

Aztec C80-d (TRS-80 3 & 4) $199 

How To Become an Aztec C User 

To become an Aztec C user call 1-800-221-0440 or call 
1-800-832-9273 (800-TEC WARE). In NJ or outside the 
USA call 201-530-7997. Orders can also be telexed to 
4995812. 

Payment can be by check, COD, American Express, 
VISA, Master Card, or Net 30 to qualified customers. 

Orders can also be mailed to Manx Software Systems, 
Box 55, Shrewsbury, NJ 07701. 

How To Get More Information 

Tb get more information on Manx Aztec C and related 
products, call 1-800-221-0440, or 201-530-7997, or write 
to Manx Software Systems. 

30 Day Guarantee 

Any Manx Aztec C development system can be return- 
ed within 30 days for a refund if it fails to meet your 
needs. The only restrictions are that the original pur- 
chase must be directly from Manx, shipped within the 
USA, and the package must be in resalable condition. 
Returned items must be received by Manx within 30 
days. A small restocking fee may be required. 

Discounts 

There are special discounts available to professors, 
students, and consultants. A discount is also available on 
a "trade in" basis for users of competing systems. Call for 
information. 

Inquiry 219 



To order or for information call: 

800-221-0440 



LETTERS 



3068 systems is designed so that even in 
the event of a major hardware failure, the 
Serial Input/Output controller (SIO PCB) 
is able to report status messages through 
a modem to the remote service center. 
These systems are designed so that the 
self-tests begin from the edge of the 
system (SCI PCB) and not the center (CPU). 
This is crucially important if the diagnos- 
tics are to function without being crippled 
by a failure. 

If, for example, a severe hardware failure 
occurs in which the CPU PCB has failed, 
a diagnostic based on testing from the 
center (CPU) out will not respond. But a 
remote diagnostic scheme in which the 
tests begin at the edge (SIO) and move in- 
ward to the CPU will isolate the problem. 
The technician can download a wide vari- 
ety of CPU diagnostics through the SIO 
PCB to isolate the failing component. 
From error messages the service center 
technician can devise a troubleshooting 
strategy. Once the CPU PCB is identified 
as the culprit, a new CPU can be quickly 
sent to the site. 

In the 2086 and the 3068, each of the 



key PCBs, the SIO PCB, CPU PCB, and file 
processor PCB, has its own independent 
firmware, microprocessor, and local RAM. 
After power-up, the Intel 8086 on the SIO 
PCB becomes the diagnostic controller, 
which is not dependent on the CPU or any 
other subsystem in order to execute 
remote diagnostics. The minimum hard- 
ware necessary for the SIO to become the 
diagnostic controller and start verifying 
the diagnostic kernel after power-up is the 
following: The SlO's 8086 must be able to 
retrieve the test program from the SlO's 
PROMs and store the data in the SIOs 
local RAMs. Only two of the ten SIO ports 
(one SCC integrated circuit) need to func- 
tion for the SIO to be able to report status 
messages. 

Even if the hardware necessary for the 
minimum diagnostic kernel fails, all is not 
lost. The necessary hardware for the diag- 
nostic kernel resides on every SIO PCB. On 
the Altos 2086 system, there are two SIO 
PCBs (a master and slave). Diagnostics run 
from the master SIO board. So, if the failed 
unit does not respond to the downloaded 
code from the service center computer, 



this indicates to the service center techni- 
cian that the master SIO has failed. Now, 
the slave SIO can be repinned as the 
master SIO. Remote diagnostics can then 
be up and running again. 

This is not a complete solution to the 
diagnostic dilemma that calls for failing 
hardware to troubleshoot itself. If the 
power supply of the system fails, or if the 
system is swallowed up by an earthquake, 
any remote diagnostic scheme will not 
work. But fortunately, most hardware 
failures are not catastrophic, and there is 
usually enough working hardware to iden- 
tify the failing area. A remote diagnostic 
scheme designed into a system architec- 
ture of independent PCBs that self-test 
from the edge to the center provides the 
best of all possible opportunities to fix 
failures in the field. 

Carl Strasen 
San Jose, CA 

Call for Papers 

Collegiate Microcomputer, a journal begun in 
February 1983, is a forum for the ex- 
Icon tinued) 



DRIVE ENCLOSURES 



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FROM *80°° 

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Write or call (or our brochure which Includes our application note: 
"Making micros, better than any ol' box computer" 






• Desktop & Rack 

• Heavy Duty All Metal Cabinet 

• Fan & Dust Filter* 

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(Disk drives not included) 



BIlfflQIBIti 



RESEARCH CORPORATION 

8620 Roosevelt Ave./Visalia, CA 93291 
209/651-1203 

32 Page Free Fakt Pakt Catalog 



26 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 1 71 




Clipper gives dBASE 'III users more time to do more. 



Clipper™ allows you 
to run all dBASE III™ 

programs 2 to 20 times 
taster than they do 
with the standard 
dBASE interpreter. 

That frees up extra 
time you're wasting it 
you're running dBASE III 
programs without 
Clipper. 

Extra time to think. 
To create. To produce. 
To use as you choose. 

You see, Clipper is 
the tirst true compiler 
for dBASE III. Clipper 
eliminates the time- 
consuming translation 
which the dBASE inter- 
preter performs line 
after line whenever a 
program is run. 



With Clipper, once 
you've debugged your 
source code, it's com- 
piled into more effi- 
cient machine code. 

And Clipper com- 
piles all your dBASE III 
programs. The ones 
you have today. The 
ones you'll have 
tomorrow. But don't 
wait until tomorrow 
to order Clipper. 

Today, Clipper has 
already been pur- 
chased to speed up 
dBASE run time at 3M 
and Touche Ross. At 
Exxon and NASA. In 



the Harvard Physics 
Department. For the 
State of Arizona 
and TRW. 

And that's just a few 
of the installations 
worldwide. From 
Greece to Venezuela 
to Canada to Europe. 

So stop wasting time. 

Call our toll-free 800 
number and get Clipper. 



You'll spend less 
time running dBASE III 
and more time running 
the rest of your life. 



m Nantucket 

Inquiry 247 for End-Users. Inquiry 248 for DEALERS ONLY. 



5995 S. Sepulveda Blvd., Culver City, CA 90230 (800)251-8438 In California (213)390-7923 



When you 

positively 

custom 



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Reliability 

is your obvious first requirement in 
this vital link between your product 
and the outside world. At Ven-Tel 
-with 12 years experience and 
millions of modems designed and 
shipped-we don't take reliability 
for granted ...so you can. 




_i i i i i i i_ 



J 



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raO 



pi 



j±- 



r 



Compatibility QuickTurnaround 



with industry standards. All Ven-Tel 
modems utilize the industry stan- 
dard "AT" command set, guaran- 
teeing compatibility with virtually all 
types of software. And every Ven-Tel 
custom modem is fully compatible 
with our complete line of standard 
desktop and PC internal modems. 
We also meet Bell 21 2A and 
CCITT V22bis standards in speeds 
up to 2400 baud. 



is more than a phrase to us. We've 
built a reputation for meeting prod- 
uct deadlines among some of the 
nation's largest and most demand- 
ing manufacturers. From start to 
finish in as little as 90 days, Ven-Tel 
can help you get your product to 
market quickly. You can even begin 
development using our standard 
modules while your design is 
being finalized. 



take a good 



absolutely, 
need reliable 
modems... 




Customizing 

your modem is your choice. From 
our standard off-the-shelf boards, to 
complete custom design, to licens- 
ing our proprietary CMOS chip 
design (for quantities in excess of 
100,000 annually), we guarantee the 
right modem solution based on 
your deadline, design and volume 
requirements. Custom hardware 
configurations and firmware give 
you maximum freedom for inte- 
grating the modem into your overall 
product design. 



SSS3! 









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Compact Size 

is an important requirement in 
applications like credit check ter- 
minals, portable computers and 
trouble monitors. Ven-Tel modem 
density is state-of-the-art to provide 
excellent "real estate" value, with 
complete auto-dial/auto-answer, 
AT compatible, 212Amodems- 
in as little as 12 square inches. 
With power requirements as low 
as 500mW. 




Competitive 
Pricing 

makes the Ven-Tel custom modem 
package one definitely worth looking 
into. For quotations based on your 
modem specs or a discussion with 
our experienced OEM sales engi- 
neers, call 800/538-5121 (outside 
California). In California, call 
408/727-5721. Or contact us for our 
custom modem brochure: 
Ven-Tel, OEM Products Division, 
2342 Walsh Avenue, 
Santa Clara, CA 95051. 

Inquiry 365 



look at Venle! 



Inquiry 385 



TM 



BOXCALC 



Not Another Spreadsheet! Not Another Word Processor! 

No - BOXCALC is a new kind of calculation program that allows easy combination 
of figures with text. Instead of fighting pre-determined rows and columns, 
just type text and place calculation "boxes" anywhere on your screen at the 
press of a function key. This makes BOXCALC just what you need for creating 
cost estimates and budget reports. Even income tax forms. Any documents that 
used text mixed in with the figures. 



•Create up to 800 calculation 
boxes for each BOXCALC file. 

• Relocate boxes on screen under 
cursor control. Or move whole 
columns of boxes. 

• BOXCALC is page oriented - files 
may contain up to 99 pages. 

• Print any page or combination 
of pages (send printer control 
codes, too). 



• Put simple or complex formula in a 
box to establish it's mathematical 
relationship to other boxes. 

•Calculate boxes sequentially or in 
any order you specify. 

•Get data from other BOXCALC files. 

• Full replication features for fast, 
easy creation of box formulas. 

•Supplied with no copy protection. 



Along with 4 sample files and a comprehensive instruction manual, BOXCALC 
is available for $40.00. Or, to observe BOXCALC in action, a demonstration disk 
and manual can be purchased for $5.00. To order BOXCALC or the demonstration 
kit, send your name, address, and check to: Cotton Software, Inc., 2510 Anderson 
Rd., Suite #364, Covington, Ky. 41017. 

(VISA/MC # accepted for BOXCALC only - include expiration date) 
Requires PC, XT or AT, color monitor, PC DOS 2.0 or higher and 256K RAM. 

BOXCALC is a trademark of Cotton Software, Inc. 1 -606-727-1 600. 




LETTERS 



change of ideas on the role of the micro- 
computer in all subjects and areas of col- 
lege and university life. Material appear- 
ing includes uses of hardware and soft- 
ware, descriptions of courses, units and 
topics using microcomputers, results of 
research using microcomputers, analysis 
of experiments using microcomputers, stu- 
dent projects, suggestions and tips, write- 
ups of experiences as microcomputer 
consultants, reviews of the literature, and 
evaluation of microcomputer use in the of- 
fice and in materials preparation for 
teaching and research. Subscription rates 
are $28 per year and $36 per year for non- 
U.S. subscriptions. 

Brian J. Winkel, Editor 

Collegiate Microcomputer 

Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology 

Terre Haute, IN 47803 

Making RS-232C Connections 
Universal 

I'm afraid that the scheme proposed by 
Pete Klammer (Letters, October 1985, 
page 22) to make RS-232C connections 
universal will not work. To see why, let us 
ignore the control lines in an RS-232C 
setup and concentrate our attention on 
the two data lines, which serve as the 
simplest example that will demonstrate 
the phenomena involved. 

The RS-232C standard states that the 
female connector shall be associated with 
data communications equipment (DCE); 
transmitted data will be on pin 2 and 
received data will be on pin 3. 

Similarly, the male connector shall be 
associated with data terminal equipment 
(DTE). Transmitted data will still be on pin 

2 and received data on pin 3. 

From the point of view of the DTE, it 
sends data to the DCE on pin 2 and 
receives data from the DCE on pin 3. The 
DCE sends data to the DTE on pin 3 and 
receives data from the DTE on pin 2. This 
standard allows any data terminal equip- 
ment to be connected to any data com- 
munications equipment directly, maintain- 
ing compatibility of connections. 

However, if all equipment were to be 
considered similar, and hermaphroditic 
connectors were used, a problem would 
arise. The problem would be that all units 
(according to Mr. Klammer's scheme) 
would use the same pin for a given func- 
tion (let's say pin 2 to send data and pin 

3 to receive). Now we could not connect 
any two pieces of equipment together 
directly, since each unit's transmit line 
would be connected to the other unit's 
transmit line, rather than to its receive line. 

(continued) 



30 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 102 



PC Paintbrush. 

Because life is loo short tor 

monochrome pie charts. 



Fun 

is the best thing 

to have. 

With PC Paintbrush, you can add color, flair, 
dimension and creativity to a chart, a pre- 
sentation, or an otherwise dull day From 
charts and graphs to serious computer art, 
our newest generation 3.0 PC Paintbrush 
will cheer you on with features no other 
graphics package can match. 

Best of all, if s easy to use. You don't have 
to learn up to sixty commands, like you do 
with some products. If you can understand 
icons as simple as scissors, paintbrush, 
spray can and paint roller, you're ready to 
start using PC Paintbrush. 

The pen is mightier 
than the keyboard. 

None of history's great artists drew with a 
keyboard, and you shouldn't have to either. 
So PC Paintbrush is now available with a 
Summasketch MM™ Series drawing tablet, 
to give you complete freedom of expression. 
Of course, it also supports regular mice, joy- 
sticks, graphics tablets, and is compatible 
with most graphics cards. 

PC Paintbrush also has a beautiful way 
with words. The text icon lets you write in 
any of eleven fonts, in nine sizes, with italics, 
outline, shadow and boldface variations. 

What's more, with the new 3.0 PC 
Paintbrush, you can draw rounded boxes, 
rubber band curves and circles, and edit 
pictures many times larger than the screen. 

Are we making fun 
of 1-2-3®? Why not? 

For Lotus™ users, PC Paintbrush's new PIC 



Go on, live a little. 



&m 



IT Highway 
flir 




interpreter loads 1-2-3™ and Symphony™ 
charts and graphs at your equipment's 
best resolution, from an IBM EGA™ (640 
X 350 X 16 colors) to a Number Nine 
Revolution™ (512 X 512 X 256 colors). 
With our FRIEZE™ frame grabber you 
can pull graphics created by any program 
right off the screen into PC Paintbrush. So 
you can take your Paintbrush and pallette 
anywhere, improving the looks of things 
as you go. And having a lot of fun on the 
way. In addition, our optional slide show 
package, PC PRESENTATION, allows you to 
program your graphics into a first class 
presentation with fades, zooms, quick 
cuts and animation. 



PC Paintbrush supports 19 video graphics 
cards and 30 printers and plotters. 

For more information on PC Paintbrush, 
call or write us at the address below, or ask 
your computer dealer for 
a demonstration. 




Z-SOFT 

PC Paintbrush 




Inquiry 380 



Corporate Headquarters: 

ZSoft Corporation, 1950 Spectrum Circle, Suite A 495, Marietta, GA 30067, 404/980-1950 

West Coast Sales Office: 
160 Sir Francis Drake Blvd., San Anselmo, CA 94960, 415/456-0955 



PC Paintbrush is a trademark of ZSoft Corporation. Lotus, 1-2-3, and Symphony are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corporation. 
IBM and Enhance Graphics Adapter are registered Irademdrks of International Business Machines, Corp. Number Nine Revolution is a trademark of Number Nine Computer Corp. 

Summasketch is a registered trademark of Summagraphics Corp. 

MARCH 1986 -BYTE 31 



LETTERS 



At the very least, a crossover connector 
would have to be used in all cases. 

Furthermore, the use of such crossover 
connectors creates another, even more 
subtle, problem. Suppose an extension 
cable is needed. Since all units require 
crossovers and all connectors are the 
same, in practice all cables will contain 
crossovers. Then, adding an extension 
cable to an already existing cable will 



result in two crossovers, which bring the 
same (rather than the complementary) 
functions together again (i.e., transmit is 
again connected to transmit). The fact that 
all cables have identical connectors at 
both ends would make it impossible to 
distinquish a straight-through extension 
cable from a "normal" crossover cable 
without making continuity checks. 
With the current scheme, crossover 



Why buy 3 
packages to get 
a complete 
multi-user 

dBASE* System? 



$695 




$2385 



After all, FoxBASE is a compiler, an 
interpreter and a multi-user dBASE sys- 
tem all in one. That means single vendor 
support and no problems with product 
incompatibility. 

Not only that, FoxBASE actually outper- 
forms dBASE and other dBASE compiler 
products: its program execution speed is 
far superior to the competition and its 
compiler runs up to 60 times faster than 
other compilers. And FoxBASE is available 



FoxBASE 
does it better. 

For less. 




$995 



for the widest variety of machines and 
operating systems. 

In addition, FoxBASE is interactive and 
100% dBASE compatible (including full 
macro usage). The only thing you won't 
get is all those annoying dBASE bugs! 

Best of all, FoxBASE costs less than 
half the other packages. 

So call (419) 874-0162 now, and ask for 
a copy of our comparative analysis 
(including benchmarks). After all. . . 



Nothing Runs Like a Fox. 



Fox Software, Inc. 

27475 Holiday Lane, Perrysburg, OH 43551 

(419) 874-0162 



•dBase is a registered itademark of Ashton-Tats FoxBASE is a trademark of Fox Software, trie; Clipper" is a trademark of Nantucket 



cables are required only when both ends 
have the same kind of connector (male or 
female); a cable with a male connector at 
one end and a female at the other is a 
straight-through extension cable. 

I agree with Mr. Klammer that the cur- 
rent standard is not perfect; nevertheless, 
after considering the alternative I have 
come to the conclusion that it seems to 
be the best compromise among many 
conflicting factors. 

Howard Mark 
Suffern, NY 

Comparing the Motorola 
68000 and Intel iAPX86 

It was intriguing to note the comparison 
G. Michael Vose made of the Motorola 
68000 and Intel iAPX86 families ("Intel 
and Future IBM PCs," inside the IBM PCs. Fall 
1985, page 4). I agree with his first and 
second conclusions, especially that the 
"open, flexible architectures" of the 
M68000 family leaves more room for "in- 
novations in software" on the part of pro- 
grammers, and that such innovations do 
indeed "keep our industry vital." It seems 
to me that Mr. Vose glossed over one 
aspect of the comparison that, 1 feel, 
should have influenced his third 
conclusion. 

The "rigid and formal" architectures of 
the iAPX86 that realize more fixed solu- 
tions in hardware also produce more stan- 
dardization. While standardization may 
seem like a restraint to the inventive pro- 
grammer, it is a boon to the commercial 
software producer, who must create pro- 
grams that run on many machines. 

I think that software standardization 
should be the overwhelming considera- 
tion in Mr. Vose's third conclusion about 
which family will dominate the "classic 
single-user microcomputer." It is the 
iAPX86 family that will likely continue to 
support the vast majority of standard end- 
user programs that "we all want on our 
desk or at home to play and tinker with." 

Of course, that conclusion may depend 
on who you consider "we all." If the em- 
phasis is on "we," i.e., computer profes- 
sionals like the editors and contributors 
of BYTE, then the flexibility of the 
68000 might be decisive. However, if 
the emphasis is on "all," don't forget that 
the vast majority of single users are not 
programmers but commercial program 
end users. I think this point is often forgot- 
ten amidst the professional enthusiasm at 
BYTE. 

William S. Johnson 

Palo Alto, CA 

[continued on page 360] 



32 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 137 



Microsoft languages 
speak for themselves* 













%?«?& 

P 












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Loud and clear* 



Microsoft has been the language leader 
from day one. From the world's favorite 
BASIC to the systems languages software 
developers prefer. No one else has put 
so much programming power on so 
many micros. 

Microsoft offers a complete set of 
languages. Whether you favor the ele- 
gance of C, or the power of assembly 
language. From data munching in 
COBOL to number crunching in FOR- 
TRAN, we've got the power you need. 

The advantages of leadership. 

Microsoft languages have developed 
quite a following. They're backed by the 
largest collection of support libraries 
you've ever seen. Packages for advanced 
mathematics and data management. 
From graphics support to context- 
sensitive editors. All available today. So 
you can spend your time solving real 
problems, not reinventing the wheel. 

Microsoft's languages— like C, 
FORTRAN, Pascal and Macro Assem- 
bler—have become the favorites of com- 
mercial software developers. It's not 
surprising. Interlanguage calling allows 
libraries written in one language to be 



used with others. Which means your 
existing routines can be an investment in 
future projects, not lost time and effort. 

Our interactive debuggers are another 
Microsoft edge. Now you can debug the 
object code using the source language. 
Easier debugging lets you spend more 
time creating. 

Pipelines to the future. 

Microsoft wrote the book when it 
comes to operating systems. Nobody 
knows MS-DOS'" or XENIX" better. And 
our languages show it. We put the latest 
advances within your grasp. From net- 
working and pipes to multi-tasking, 
Microsoft languages have the edge 
you need. 

Complete support. 

Only Microsoft offers language 
support this comprehensive. Our clear, 
thorough documentation, and regular 
product enhancements are setting new 
standards in the industry. Add our tech- 
nical "hotline" and our highly-trained 
support staff, and you'll reach the same 
conclusion the industry has: Microsoft 
languages always lead from strength. 



**Q> 




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crosoft Pascal 



Microsoft C 



First with the pros* 



"Microsoft C is the cornerstone of all our 
future development projects. Not only is the 
code more efficient, we can really exploit 
the PC's architecture with Microsoft Cs 
NEAR and FAR pointer types" 
Ray Ozzie, President of IRIS Associates 
and key Symphony developer. 

"The code optimization is impressive— 
especially the register declarations'.' 
Jim Bean, Peachtree Software. 

When you need code that's small and 
fast, Microsoft® C is the language. 

Our optimizing compiler lets you 
squeeze the maximum out of your 
machine with minimum effort. Tighter 
code runs faster. And virtually every 
program will run faster with Microsoft's 
C Compiler than with any other 
MS-DOS compiler. 

Our advanced memory models give 
you unmatched flexibility. No arbitrary 
limits on code and data. Use large or 
small memory models as the application 
demands. Exclusive features like our 
NEAR and FAR pointers let you com- 
bine different models without sacrificing 
performance. 

Our extensive math libraries are 
another plus. The floating point package 
supports 8087 operation when speed is 
the key. There's also floating point 
emulation for unendowed PCs. And the 
altmath package gives you an extra burst 
of speed when you really need it. 

A bundle of other features can save 
you programming time. There's 
inter-language calling 
support. So you can use 
existing library routines. 
Unsurpassed XENIX 
compatibility. And docu- 
mentation that reviewers 
have praised for its clarity 
and thoroughness. 

If Microsoft C amazes 
you, don't be surprised. After 
all, our C is the choice of the 
leaders. Companies like Lotus: 
Ashton-Tate. And IBM? 



Microsoft C Compiler Version 3.0 for MS-DOS 

Microsoft C Compiler 

♦ Produces compact code and fast executable*. 

♦ Implements register variables. 

♦ Small, medium and large memory model libraries. 
♦Can mix models with NEAR and FAR pointers. 
♦Transport source and object code between MS-DOS and 

XENIX 286 operating systems. 

♦ Library routines implement most of UNIX™ System V 
C library. 

♦Choose from three math libraries and generate in-line 
8087/80287 instructions or floating point calls: 
-Floating Point Emulator (utilizes 8087/80287 if installed). 

— 8087/80287 coprocessor support. 

— Alternate math package provides extra speed without an 
8087/80287. 

♦ Link your C routines with Microsoft FORTRAN (version 
3.3 or higher), Microsoft Pascal (version 3.3 or higher) or 
Microsoft Macro Assembler. 

♦ Supports MS-DOS pathnames and input/output 
redirection. 

♦File sharing, record locking and file locking are supported. 

♦ Do source level debugging with the Symbolic Debug Utility, 
available separately with Microsoft Macro Assembler. 

Library Manager 

♦Create, organize and maintain your object module libraries 

created with Microsoft languages. 
Object Code Linker 

♦ Simple overlay linker combines relocatable object modules 
created using Microsoft languages into a single program. 

♦ Link very large programs (over 1 megabyte) using overlays. 
Microsoft EXE File Compression Utility 

♦A new utility to compress sequences of identical characters 
from an executable file and optimizes the relocation table. 
Microsoft EXE File Header Utility 

♦ Display and modify EXE file header, allowing you to tune 
the stack size and initial memory allocation. 




Macro Assembler 

The quickest* Bar none* 



Our Macro Assembler has long been 
the most complete package on the mar- 
ket. Now it's also the fastest. Three times 
faster than before. And faster than any- 
one else. Period. 

Of course, it's still the most powerful 
assembler on the market. It supports the 
standard 8086/8087 opcodes. And the 
new 186/286/287 instruction set. So you 
can make the most of the new machines. 

Debugging is quicker, too. Thanks to 
our interactive symbolic debugger, 
SYMDEB. Now you can refer to variables 
and source code instead of getting lost 
in hex dumps. And this debugger also 
works with Microsoft languages like C, 
FORTRAN and Pascal. So now you can 
set breakpoints and trace execution— 
using source code for reference. 

SYMDEB is just part of our complete 
set of utilities. Tools that make program- 
ming as fast as it should be. There are the 
linker and library managers you'd expect. 
Plus a new version of MAKE, our main- 
tenance utility, with improvements like 
macro expansions and inference rules. 

We've also revised the manuals. Our 
new Macro Assembler has a lot to offer, 
so we added more examples. Now our 
manuals are not only thorough, they're 
clearer than ever before. 

For quick development and assembly, 
the choice is obvious. Microsoft. There's 
nobody faster. 




The Macro 
Assembler's 
symbolic debugger 
lets you debug 
Microsoft 
FORTRAN 
programs at either 
the source or object 
code level. Set 
break points, 
observe the con- 
tents of variables 
and expressions, 
and examine 
the contents of 
the stack. 



; 90 18 I = 1,8191 

18 FLAGS(I) = .TRUE. 
! DO 91 I=L8191 

; IFCHOT. FLAGS(I). 

P8IHE =1 + 1 + 1 
: 289 POMATUMS) 



17: K = I + P8IHE 

-1* .14 V 

3: PMffi = I ♦ I ♦ 1 

1AEF:88S9 A16240 
1AEF:§86C 83C8 ADD 

1AEF:886E 48 INC 

\w-.mi mm mu 
16: COUNT = count + 1 

1AEF:8872 FF86G848 INC 

17: mmmm K 3 I + PRIME 

"1 <1) ". 

E| COUNT = COUNT + 1 



Microsoft Macro Assembler Version 4.0 for MS-DOS 

Macro Assembler 

♦ Fastest macro assembler for MS-DOS computers. 
♦Supports the 8086/8087/8088 and the 186/286/287. 

♦ Define macros. 

♦ Conditional assembly. 

♦ Optional case sensitivity for symbols. 

♦ 100% upward compatibility from earlier versions of both the 
Microsoft and IBM Macro Assemblers. 

Interactive Symbolic Debug Utility 

♦ Source level debugger for programs written in Microsoft 
Macro Assembler, C Compiler, FORTRAN, and Pascal. 

♦ Screen swapping helps debug highly visual applications. 

♦ Set breakpoints on line numbers and symbols. 

♦ Single step to follow program execution. 

♦ Disassemble object code. 

♦ Display and modify values. 

♦ Full I/O redirection. 
Program Maintenance Utility 

♦ Rebuilds your applications after your source files have 
changed. 

♦Similar to UNIX MAKE utility. 
♦Supports macro definitions and inference rules. 
Library Manager 

♦Create, organize and maintain your object module libraries 
created with Microsoft languages. 

♦ Set page size from 16 to 32678, to create compact and 
granular libraries. 

Object Code Linker 

♦ Simple overlaying linker combines relocatable object 
modules created using Microsoft languages into a single 
program. 

♦ Load Map generation. 

♦ Specify from 1 to 1024 segments. 
Cross-Reference Utility 

♦ Creates a cross-reference listing of the definitions and 
locations of all symbols used in an assembly language 
program, which makes debugging programs easier. 

Microsoft EXE File Compression Utility 

♦ Packs EXE files for smaller size on disk and faster loading 
at execution time. 

Microsoft EXE File Header Utility 

♦ Display and modify EXE file header, allowing you to tune 
the stack size and initial memory allocation. 



FORTRAN 

The overwhelming favorite. 




View the 

FORTRAN 
source code. Set a 
break point at line 
#14- Run the 
program (g) and 
use the expression 
evaluator (?) 
to examine the 
contents of a vari- 
able. Then use the 
trace command 
(t) to observe the 
program flow. 



Microsoft FORTRAN Compiler Version 3 3 
for MS-DOS and XENIX 286 

Microsoft FORTRAN Compiler 

♦ Implements most ANSI 77 standard features, plus 
extensions. 

♦Easily port mainframe/minicomputer programs with little 
or no modification. 

♦ Overlay support in the compiler and linker. 

♦ Common blocks and arrays greater than 64K. 

♦ Supported by the largest number of third party libraries. 

♦ Includes a full set of math libraries to select from: 

-8087/80287 emulation. 

— 8087/80287 coprocessor support. 
-Floating Point without 8087/80287 

— BCD Floating Point. 

♦ Conditional compilation. 

♦ Link your FORTRAN routines with Microsoft C Compiler 
(version 3.0 or higher), Microsoft Pascal (version 3.3 or 
higher), and Microsoft Macro Assembler. 

♦MS-DOS 3.1 network support and IBM local area network 
support. 

♦ Source code compatible between MS-DOS and 
XENIX 286. 

♦ Do source level debugging with the Symbolic Debug 
Utility, available separately with Microsoft Macro 
Assembler. 

Object Code Overlay 

♦ Simple overlay linker combines relocatable object modules 
created using Microsoft languages into a single program. 

♦ Link very large programs (over 1 megabyte) using overlays. 
Library Manager 

♦ Create, organize and maintain your object module libraries 
created with Microsoft languages. 

Microsoft EXE File Compression Utility 
(MS-DOS only) 

♦ A utility to pack EXE files for smaller size on disk and 
faster loading at execution time. 

Microsoft EXE File Header Utility (MS-DOS only) 

♦ A utility that allows you to display and modify the fields 
in EXE file headers. 



How did Microsoft FORTRAN get so 
popular? 

It could be the mainframe compati- 
bility. Our compiler makes porting 
applications a cinch with overlays and 
the ANSI features you need. 

It could be our support for arrays and 
COMMON blocks larger than 64K. So 
you can tackle mainframe-size problems. 

It might be the shelves and shelves of 
third party support libraries. No other 
FORTRAN comes close. 

It could be the extensive math sup- 
port. Our collection of math libraries is 
simply the largest available. Tackle real 
problems with direct 8087 support or 
emulation. Use IEEE floating point or— 
for extra speed— the altmath package. 

It could be the comprehensive set of 
utilities. A powerful linker and library 
manager combination. Plus tools like 
EXEMOD and EXEPACK. Standard. 

It could be the XENIX and MS-DOS 
source-level compatibility. Or the direct 
interlanguage calling to Microsoft C, 
Pascal, and Assembler. Or the ability to 
work with our Macro Assembler's 
symbolic debugger. 

It could be the value. Nobody offers a 
FORTRAN package this complete at this 
low a price. 

Why is Microsoft FORTRAN the most 
popular FORTRAN? 

All the above. 




COBOL 

The interactive edge. 



close transaction-file. 

pliB-read-and-pwcess. 

read transaction-file into work- 1 ran s-rec 
at end none on-ualue to end-of-file-SM, 

if transaction-status = " 

else if transaction-status ) "II 

mue on-value to enw-sti, end-of-file-SH. 



IRANSACIIOtHIAIUS [011 
MORK-TMNS-REC [0 a 

[iTOTftL-RECORIKOlJOT [B80091 



Breakpoint 1 Step Count 
Breakpoint 2 Step Count 



on Entry of MW-MfiMh>WOCESS 
on line nuMber 86 



COMMAND: Breakpoint Display Find ffl Help Options 

Quit transfer user Uiea Hindou 
Breakpoint 1 Step Count 8 on Entry of PI10-REAHHD-PROCKS 
Current line: 81 Status: Breakpoint 1 UiewCob: lates 



Microsoft COBOL gives programs a 
new look. With dazzling support for inter- 
active programs, and more. Our new 
COBOL Compiler brings applications to 
life in several ways. 

Our extended screen section lets you 
create programs that you'd never thought 
could be written in COBOL. Quickly, 
easily. 

Performance is top notch as well. Our 
ISAM lets your applications blaze through 
files. After all, our ISAM is the fastest 
on the micro market. 

Of course, Microsoft COBOL complies 
with the ANSI standard. Amazing 
performance, without runtime license 
fees. No wonder our COBOL is the 
choice of manufacturers like IBM, AT&T, 
DEC, HP and Wang. 

Another breakthrough: 
Microsoft COBOL Tools. 

Only Microsoft makes debugging 
this easy. 

Our COBOL Tools is the perfect 
companion to our COBOL Compiler. 
A complete set of utilities. Tools that make 
debugging and maintenance easier than 
you'd thought possible. 

The star of the show is ViewCOB, our 



advanced interactive debugger. ViewCOB 
lets you control and examine programs 
easily. Open windows on variables and 
procedures while watching the source 
code execute. ViewCOB is simply the 
most advanced COBOL debugger you 
can get. 

Microsoft COBOL and COBOL Tools. 
An unbeatable team. 



Microsoft COBOL Compiler Version 2.1 
for MS-DOS and XENIX 286 

Interactive extended screen section 

♦Cursor positioning, auto skip, and automatic data field 
formatting. 

♦ ACCEPT or DISPLAY a screenful of data with a single 
statement. 

Fast multi-key ISAM 

♦ Split keys, alternate keys, duplicate keys. 

4 Benchmark results of 2500 reads, writes and rewrites to an 
ISAM file. 

Microsoft Micro Focus Ryand McFarland 
COBOL native code COBOL 2.0 

Seconds 846 4073 1177 

Source code compatible between MS-DOS and XENLX 286. 

Microsoft COBOL Tools for MS-DOS and XENLX 286 

•Cross reference utility speeds program development. 

♦ Menu generator allows you to use Microsoft Word style 
menus in your program. 

♦ Mouse interface allows you to create programs that use the 
mouse (MS-DOS only). 

Advanced interactive debugger 

♦ Use trace, single step, and execution history to follow the 
program flow. 

♦Observe the contents of variables and memory while the 
program is executing. 

♦ Set breakpoints and change the contents of variables. 
♦Trap fatal runtime errors. 

♦ Use the menu driven windowing user interface with on-line 
help. 




Pascal 



When you've outgrown the others. 



Only Microsoft Pascal is powerful 
enough to push the outer limits of your 
PC. With more features than any other 
Pascal compiler. 

Microsoft Pascal handles large 
programs with ease. No 64K boundaries 
— use multiple code and data segments 
up to a megabyte. Create your own 
libraries of pre-compiled Pascal modules. 
Separately-compiled modules can be 
overlayed or linked together into one file. 

Our Pascal comes complete with the 
BCD and 8087 math libraries you'd ex- 
pect. Including an IEEE floating point 
emulator. And Microsoft Pascal is com- 
pletely compatible with IBM's Local Area 
Network and MS-DOS Networking. 
Added features without added costs. 

Microsoft Pascal also supports direct 
interlanguage calling to modules written 
in Microsoft C, or Microsoft FORTRAN 
or assembly language. And it's compat- 
ible with our Macro Assembler's sym- 
bolic debugger. So you can track down 
those subtle logic errors with breakpoints 
instead of guesswork. 

Microsoft Pascal. Nobody does it better. 



Microsoft Pascal Compiler Version 3.3 
for MS-DOS and XENIX 286 

Microsoft Pascal Compiler 

♦ Separate module compilation. 

♦Large program support; up to 1 megabyte code and 

multiple data segments. 
♦Overlay support. 

♦Contains four math libraries to choose from: 
—8087/80287 coprocessor support. 

— Fast IEEE floating point. 

— 8087/80287 floating point emulation. 

— BCD decimal math. 

♦ Link in your routines or third party software routines 
written in Microsoft FORTRAN (version 3.3 or higher), 
Microsoft C Compiler (version 3.0 or higher) or 
Microsoft Pascal (version 3.3 or higher), or Microsoft 
Macro Assembler. 

♦Source code compatible between MS-DOS and 

XENIX 286. 
♦Supports file sharing and record and file locking. 
♦Supports MS-DOS pathnames and input/output 

redirection. 
♦Do source level debugging with the Symbolic Debug 

Utility, available with the Microsoft Macro Assembler. 
Library Manager 
♦Create, organize and maintain object module libraries 

created with Microsoft languages. 
Object Code Linker 

♦ Simple overlay linker combines relocatable object 
modules created using Microsoft languages into a single 
program. 

♦Link very large programs (over 1 megabyte) using 

overlays. 
Microsoft EXE File Compression and 
File Header Utility (MS-DOS only) 

♦ Compress, modify and examine executable files and their 
headers. 



Microsoft QuickBASIC 



BASIC just got faster. 

Microsoft's new QuickBASIC Com- 
piler gives your programs an extra burst 
of speed. Without sacrificing BASICA 
compatibility. Your compiled programs 
will run just like before, only faster. 
Three to ten times faster. With little or 
no modification. 

QuickBASIC makes structured pro- 
gramming a snap. New extensions like 
alphanumeric labels make program- 
ming easier too. And separately com- 
piled subprograms let you test and 
compile individual routines one 
at a time. 

Microsoft QuickBASIC. All the 
features of a compiler, with BASICA 
compatibility to boot. 



Microsoft QuickBASIC Compiler Version 1.0 
for IBM PC and Compatible Computers 

BASICA compatibility 

♦ Sound statements including SOUND and PLAY 

♦ Graphics statements including WINDOW VIEW DRAW 
GET, PUT, LINE, CIRCLE, LOCATE and SCREEN. 

Results of the Sieve benchmark BASICA QuickBASIC 

seconds per iteration 71 0.5 

Structured programming support 

♦ Subprograms can be called by name and passed 
parameters. Both local and global variables are supported. 

♦ Multi-line functions can be called by name and return a 
value. 

♦ BASICA structures are supported including WHILE/ 
WEND, IF/THEN/ELSE, FOR/NEXT, GOSUB/RETURN, 
and event handling. 

Alphanumeric labels 

♦ Can be used to make your programs more readable. Line 
numbers are not required but are supported for BASICA 
compatibility. 

Modular programming support 

♦ Separate compilation allows you to create compiled 
BASIC libraries to use and reuse in your programs. 

♦Named common gives you control of data flow between 

individual modules. 
Large program support 

♦ Code can use up to available memory. 

♦ Data can use up to 64K RAM. 



LISP 



The language of Artificial Intelligence. 

What's Microsoft LISP got going for 
you? It runs significantly faster than the 
competition. And this new version adds 
several advanced libraries. Over 400 
Common LISP functions, macros and 
special forms. Most implemented in 
machine code. 

If you're putting AI on your PC, 
Microsoft LISP is your language. 

muMATH 

Mainframe math on your PC. 

From solving equations to high preci- 
sion calculations, muMATH is the ticket. 

Microsoft muMATH handles tasks 
from algebra to calculus and vector 
analysis. Now your PC can do numeric 
analysis based on symbolic expressions. 
And give you exact answers. 

If you crunch numbers— or equa- 
tions— muMATH is just what the CPU 
ordered. 



Sort 



Versatility without compromise. 

Microsoft Sort makes fast sorting easy. 

A powerful, programmable interpreter 
lets you choose ASCII, EBCDIC or cus- 
tom sequences. Sort handles files from 
any Microsoft language. Without limiting 
the size of your file, the number of 
search keys, or your record length. 

Microsoft Sort. The speed and power 
you need. Easily. 



The leadership edge* 

No other languages are backed by as 
massive a collection of third-party soft- 
ware. Here are just a few of the companies 
that speak our languages: Blaise 
Computing, Graphic Software Systems, 
Greenleaf Software, Inc., IMSL, Media 
Cybernetics, Microrim, Numerical 
Analyst Group, Phoenix Software, 
Solution Systems, Spruce Technology, 
Trio Systems, and Virtual Microsystems. 

This is just a sample. For a complete 
list, call Microsoft at the number below. 

An added value for our readers. 

We're proud of the way our family 
works together, so we're offering a $25 
rebate on our Macro Assembler when 
you purchase Microsoft C, Pascal or 
FORTRAN.* 

For more details, upgrade informa- 
tion or the name of your nearest 
Microsoft dealer, call toll free (800) 
426-9400. In Washington State and 
Alaska, call (206) 828-8088. In Canada, 
(800) 387-6616. 



Microsoft Corporation 
Bellevue, Washington USA 


Microsoft Ltd. 
Reading ENGLAND 


Microsoft GmbH 

Miinchen DEUTSCHLAND 


Microsoft SARL 
Paris FRANCE 


Microsoft Canada Inc. 
Toronto CANADA 


QN1X Microsoft 
Seoul KOREA 


Microsoft AB 
Stockholm SWEDEN 


Microsoft Far East 
Tokyo JAPAN 


Microsoft Pry 

Sydney NSW AUSTRALIA 


Microsoft SpA 
Milano ITALIA 




'Rebate offer valid only in the United States. 
Microsoft, MS-DOS. and XENIX are registered trademarks and The High Perfc 
Software is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Lisp and muMATH 
developed by Soft Warehouse. Inc. 



Microsoft 
Languages 

The High Performance Software™ 



0286 Pnrt Number 098-400-20] 



FIXES AND UPDATES 



UPDATES 



BYTES BITS 



Better BASIC 2.0 



PC Paintbrush 



Subsequent to Art Huston's review of 
Summit Software's BetterBASIC version 1.1 
(October 1985, page 277), we learned of 
version 2.0, scheduled for shipment at the 
beginning of 1986 and providing the 
following enhancements: 
Increased IBM PC BAS1CA compatibility: 
Random file I/O, program interrupts, as- 
sembly-language calls compatible with 
BASICA, error handling, dynamic strings, 
dynamic arrays, CHAIN with COMMON, 
BLOAD and BSAVE, and FIELD structure 
for random I/O. 

The only BASICA statements not now 
supported by BetterBASIC are MOTOR, 
PEN, ON PEN, ON STR1G, STRIG, STICK, 
and VARPTR. A translator now allows 
BetterBASIC to read tokenized BASICA 
programs directly. 

New features: Support for arrays to the 
limit of memory, support for virtual arrays 
to 4 gigabytes, multiple display windows, 
support for graphics and sound, user-pro- 
grammable support for foreign-language 
character sets, TRACE facility for con- 
tinuous or stepwise program debugging, 
plus the capability to set breakpoints and 
to continue execution of programs after 
modification of data or program code. 

BetterBASIC version 2.0 also allows pro- 
grammers to eliminate declared variables 
or to globally change the name of a vari- 
able in an existing program. Version 2.0 
uses the IEEE format for floating-point 
numbers to both improve execution speed 
and ensure compatibility with BASICA. 

Summit Software also has a new address 
and phone number: 106 Access Rd., Nor- 
wood, MA 02062, (617) 769-7966. 



Sold in the USA 



A February What's New item (page 402) 
describing TDI's Modula-2/ST and UCSD 
Pascal for the Atari 520ST listed an ad- 
dress in England and prices in pounds. 
Soon after that page went to press, we 
found that both packages are available in 
the U.S. Each program costs $79.95. Con- 
tact TDI Software, 10410 Markison Rd., 
Dallas, TX 75238, (214) 340-4942. 



PC Paintbrush, which Robert Tinney used 
to create the cover of our November 1985 
issue, has been released in a new edition. 
ZSoft Corporation (1950 Spectrum Cir- 
cle, Suite A-495, Marietta, GA 30067) says 
version 3.0 has 16 added features, includ- 
ing automatic curve drawing, variable font- 
stroke widths, rounded boxes, increased 
speed, rubber-band circles, lasso capa- 
bility, editing of pictures larger than the 
screen, and fully adjustable palettes. The 
user interface and the screen remain 
"almost the same." 



Report on Word Processors 

The PC Technical Group of the Boston 
Computer Society has released a report 
covering scientific/technical word- 
processing and typesetting programs for 
the IBM PC, XT, and AT. According to the 
BCS, the summary represents several hun- 
dred hours of evaluation and comparison. 
"IBM PC & Compatibles: Technical Word 
Processor Review Summary" costs $8, 
which covers the cost of reproduction and 
mailing. For more information, contact 
Carl A. Hein, Dunster House, Apt. 7, Swan- 
son Rd„ Boxborough, MA 01719. 



FIXES 



Two Books 

One and the Same 



Addison-Wesley's Marketing Coordinator 
has informed us of an error in "An An- 
notated Bibliography of Recent Books," 
which appeared in our 1985 special issue, 
Inside the IBM PCs (page 14). One book was 
listed twice: once under its correct title, 
once under a title it had prior to publica- 
tion. The correct title is The IBM Personal 
Computer from the \nside Out (ISBN 0- 
201-06896). It is written by Murray Sargent 
111 and Richard L. Shoemaker. Although \n- 
terfacing the IBM Personal Computer to the Real 
World is listed in Bowker's Books In Print, 
Addison-Wesley said it has never pub- 
lished that title and has no plans to do so. 



True BASIC 

and the Math Coprocessor 

In a review of True BASIC (May 1985, page 
279), it was stated that the language can 
automatically sense and use the Intel 8087 
coprocessor. True BASIC Inc. sent us the 
following information. 

Version 1.0 of True BASIC for the IBM 
Personal Computer does not correctly 
detect the Intel 80287 numeric data pro- 
cessor. Owners of version 1.0 can get the 
software fixed by sending the original disk 
to the company's Customer Support 
Dept, 39 South Main St., Hanover, N.H 
03755. Mark 'Attn: 80287 patch" on the 
package, and don't forget to include your 
return address. 



How to Access and Use BYTEnet Listings 



To access BYTEnet Listings, call (617) 
861-9764. When you get the carrier 
tone, enter two or three carriage 
returns so that our software can deter- 
mine your operating parameters. 

Optimum modem settings are 8 bits, 
1 stop bit, and no parity at full duplex, 
or 7 bits, 1 stop bit, and even parity 
at half duplex. Acceptable operating 
speeds are 300 or 1200 bps. At this 
time, BYTEnet Listings does not sup- 



port 2400-bps transmissions. 

The BYTEnet Listings software itself 
is menu-driven. Programs may be 
downloaded using ASCII, Kermit, Tele- 
Link, and XMODEM protocols. 

BYTE listings are also available on 
BIX. After connecting with the system, 
type join listings at the main prompt. 
(For more information on BIX, phone 
(800) 227-2983 between 8:30 a.m. and 
4:30 p.m. Eastern time.) 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 33 



YOU CAMT GET 
A GOOD FEEL 

FOR A 

SOFTWARE 

PACKAGE 

FROM AM AD. 




If you're searching 
through the ads in this 
magazine for the 
"right" software pack- 
age, good luck. 

Let's say you're looking for a 
data base manager. You read a 
dozen ads. Each one offers its 
list of features. Each one talks 
about the ideal combination of 
power and ease of use. And 
each one promises to "solve 
your problems", "answer your 
needs", or both. 

Don't Believe Anybody 

We could make the same claims 
for DATAEA5E. Even before 
Release 2.5, tens of thousands 
of users made DATAEA5E the 
corporate data base standard. 
We could tell you that they 
found DATAEA5E to be an invalu- 
able productivity tool because of 
its fully relational capabilities, full 
screen editor and unique combi- 
nation of menus and com- 
mands. But don't believe us. 

More than 100 reviewers from 
major publications agree with 
our productivity claims. Data 
Decisions called DATAEA5E "per- 
haps the most effective blend of 
ease-of-use and performance 
available for PC users to date." 
But don't believe the reviewers. 

Application developers, MI5/DP/ 
IC managers, and all kinds of 
other users from Fortune 1000 
companies throughout the 
country have reached strikingly 
similar conclusions. A user at 
General Instruments reports 
that "those same factors that 



make DATAEA5E preferable for 
non-programmers — ease of 
use and speed of development 

— make it the program of 
choice for many technical types, 
too." But don't even believe 
other users. 

Nobody knows what you Know. 

Even if all these people are 
absolutely rightabout 
DATAEA5E, does that mean it's 
the right product for you? 

The best way to know if 
DATAEA5E fits your needs is to 
get your hands on our free sam- 
ple diskette. Fifteen minutes 
with the sample will give you a 
feel for our best DATAEA5E yet 

— Release 2.5. It has features 
that appeal to all users; from 
developers to data entry people: 
A complete procedural lan- 
guage; quick reports at the 
press of a button; a direct inter- 
face to Lotus 1-2-5; the ability to 
move rapidly from file to file on a 
common piece of data; and 
built-in scientific, mathematical, 
financial, date, time, and string 
functions. 

Productivity takes more 
than a good product. 

It takes a good company, too. 
Buying a software package is 
the beginning of a relationship. 
Technical support, product 
upgrades, special corporate and 
dealer programs and informa- 
tional seminars should all be 
part of this relationship. If the 
only thing you get is a product, 
forget about productivity. At 
Software Solutions, you find 
more than a product. You find 
software solutions. 



Find out for yourself. 

The advances in DATAEA5E's 
Release 2.5, and the support 
behind it, offer you practical 
advantages that leave all the 
other data base managers far, 
far behind — including R:Base 
5000® and dBase III®. But 
don't believe us. Call or write for 
information and your free sam- 
ple diskette today. 



Software Solutions, Inc. 

CALL OR WRITE FOR YOUR FREE 
SAMPLE DI5KETTE. 

Send information and a free DATAEA5E 
sample diskette for my PC (check one): 

l~~l IBM LJ WArlG d DEC \Z\ Tl 
Include materials relating to: 

I I Corporate Client I I Retailer 

I I MI5/DP/IC Professional \Z\ VAD 

I I Other 



flame: 



Title: 



Phone: 



Company: 
Street: 



City: 



State: 



.Zip: 



BYT 3/86 



Mail to: 

5oftware Solutions, Inc., 

12 Cambridge Drive, 

Trumbull, CT 0661 1 Telex: 703972 

Don't like samples? Then just call us. We'd 
be happy to talk about your information 
management needs and advise you. 

800-243-5123 



®1985 Software Solutions, Inc. 

Trademarks are of their respective companies. 

Scandinavia Switzerland, France United Kingdom West Germany, Austria 

West Soft A/5, Alesund, Norway; (47) 7 1-41141 Softsource, 5&A 1222 Vesenaz, Switzerland, 022-35 18-55 Sapphire Systems, Essex; 01-554-0582 M&T Software Verlag, Munich; 089-4613-0 



Inquiry 317 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 35 



■ft. 



■ 






Advanced Digital's PC-Slave is the solution to your 
multi-user or local area network problems.- 





Just plug Advanced 

Digital's PC-Slave board 

/ into your PC expansion \ 

slot, a connecting cable, a 

/low-cost dumb terminal or a 
PC look-alike terminal and \ • 

you're in business. As many as 31 
low-cost workstations may be added \ 
to your IBM-PC, AT, XT, and the com- 
patibles. Share a common data base \ 
/ without loss of speed or efficiency since \ 
/# each PC-Slave has its own 8088 CPU, 256- \ 
768K RAM dedicated to each user. Advanced \ 
Digital provides additional software which sup- 
ports File & Record locking and print spooling. 
Advanced Digital's slave concept provides the best 
multi-user PC system available today! Forthe location 
of the dealer nearest you contact: 




Advanced Digital Corporation 

5432 Production Drive 

Huntington Beach, CA 92649 

(714) 891 -4004 (800) 251 -1 801 

Telex 18321" «™'«»"-^" utqu 






\ 

Advanced Digital U.K. Ltd. 

27 Princes Street, Hanover Square 

London W1R8NQ-United Kingdom 

(01 ) 409-0077 (01 ) 409-3351 

TLX 265840 FINEST 



Regional Distributors; In California, Thomas Data Systems, Inc. (213) 214-4661; 

in Ontario, Canada, B&L (416) 299-7660; In Australia, Archives Computers (03) 699-8377; in New York, Ouinn Data (914) 939-0002 



WHAT'S NEW 



Drawing and Painting 
Program for Amiga 

Electronic Arts has 
released a graphics 
package for drawing and 
painting with the Amiga. 
Deluxe Paint, first in a series 
of arts software for the 
Commodore machine, has 
20 drawing tools, 7 painting 
modes, 14 special-effects 
tools for brushes, 10 built-in 
brush shapes, and a palette 
of 32 colors (out of a possi- 
ble 4096). 

Deluxe Paint's drawing 
tools include magnify and 
zoom functions that let you 
split the screen into a nor- 
mal image and a magnified 
portion of the image. As 
you zero in on and alter 
details in the magnified win- 
dow, changes are reflected 
in the normal window. An- 
other tool lets you 
customize paintbrushes. 
Anything you can draw can 
be framed, picked up, and 
used as a new paintbrush. 

The package offers four 
types of brushes: circles, 
squares, dots, and airbrush. 
You can rotate any brush 
360 degrees, flip it vertically 
or horizontally, stretch it into 
new shapes, or shear its 
angles. Shading and smear- 
ing capabilities help with 
texture and nuance. 

You can create animation 
effects with what Electronic 
Arts calls "color cycling- 
cycling a variety of colors 
through a static picture to 
concoct the illusion of mo- 
tion. You can use three dif- 
ferent color cycles and 
speeds per picture. 

Five color controls let you 
handle the mix of red, 
green, and blue and adjust 
the hue and brightness of 




Images created with Deluxe Paint and an Amiga. 



each color. The software 
enables the Amiga to auto- 
matically generate the 
shades of color between any 
two pigments you pick. 

Deluxe Paint, priced at 
$79.95, is designed to work 
with two other programs still 
in the Electronic Arts 
workshop, Deluxe Print and 
Deluxe Video Construction 
Kit (reportedly slated for 
April release). It requires 
2 56K bytes of RAM and 
Kickstart 1.1. Contact Elec- 



tronic Arts, 1820 Gateway 
Dr., San Mateo, CA 94404, 
(415) 571-7171. 
Inquiry 550. 

Video Controller 
Combines Popular 
Standards 

Video-7's VEGA is an 
enhanced graphics 
adapter for the IBM PC, XT, 
AT, and compatible personal 
computers. VEGA uses 
surface-mounted CMOS VLSI 
technology, with four custom 



chips and 28 integrated cir- 
cuits, to provide four video- 
display modes. 12 graphics/ 
text-display modes, and 
256K bytes of RAM on a 
4.2- by 5-inch short-slot 
card. 

The four video-display 
modes offered by VEGA are 
the functional equivalents of 
the IBM Enhanced Graphics 
Adapter, the IBM Color 
Graphics Adapter, the IBM 
Monochrome Display 
Adapter, and the Hercules 
Graphics Card. Each mode 
is 100 percent compatible 
with the corresponding 
popular standard. You can 
move between enhanced 
color, color, and mono- 
chrome modes using a tog- 
gle switch on the back panel 
of your computer. 

The board has 10 graphics 
and 8 alphanumeric display 
modes. This includes a high- 
resolution color display with 
640 by 350 pixels and 16 
colors from a 64-color 
palette. A RAM-based char- 
acter generator allows up to 
four sets of 2 56 different 
characters or two sets of 
512 different characters for 
multiple character fonts. 
Each character cell can be 
up to 32 dots high and 8 
dots wide. The board also 
lets you split your screen 
horizontally when in EGA 
mode. 

The VEGA has a DE-9 
female connector, a 32-pin 
"feature connector," RCA 
phono connectors, and a 
6-pin keyed light-pen con- 
nector. It will run with a 
monochrome display 
adapter or a color-graphics 
adapter in another slot. It 

{continued) 



Inquiry 6 for End-Users. 
— Inquiry 7 for DEALERS ONLY. 



MARCH 1986 



IYTE 37 



WHAT'S NEW 



sells for $599 and is also 
marketed by Quadram as 
the QuadEGA. Contact 
Video-7 Inc., 550 Sycamore 
Dr., Milpitas, CA 9503 5, 
(408) 943-0101. 
Inquiry 551. 

MS-DOS Portable 
from Sony 

Sony's IBM PC- 
compatible computer, 
the M35, is a 13-pound unit 
with a CMOS 80C88 micro- 
processor, 640K. bytes of 
RAM, and two 3 /2-inch 
720K-byte floppy-disk drives. 
The portable also has serial 
and parallel ports, com- 
posite video and analog 
RGB ports, and an internal 
300-bps modem. Options in- 
clude a 25-line LCD screen 
and a 514-inch floppy-disk 
drive. 

Sony says its MS-DOS- 
based machine can be con- 
nected directly to its 
dedicated word processors. 

The M3 5 will have a list 
price of approximately 
$2695. Contact Sony Com- 
munications Products Co., 
Sony Dr., Park Ridge. NJ 
07656, (201) 930-6432, 
Inquiry 552. 

Spreadsheet 
for the Amiga 

Lattice has developed an 
electronic spreadsheet 
for the Commodore Amiga 
called Unicalc. The software 
provides a processing area 
of 2 56 columns by 8192 
rows, dual-window capability, 
context-sensitive help 
screens, floating dollar signs, 
negative balance indicators, 
and punctuated numbers. 
Cells can contain numeric 
data, algebraic formulas, or 
text. 

Unicalc has a library of 
algebraic and conditional 
functions. Calculations can 




Sony's MS-DOS portable, the M35. 



be made automatically as 
you are entering data or 
later with a single com- 
mand. Several sheets can be 
joined into one. You can 
customize the column 
widths, titles, displays, 
prompts, and help screens. 
Lattice says its package is 
compatible with Lotus 1-2-3. 
SuperCalc, and similar soft- 
ware. Unicalc costs $79.95. 
which also gets you a 
manual, telephone support, 
and a 30-day money-back 
guarantee. Contact Lattice 
Inc., POB 3072, Glen Ellyn, 
1L 60138, (312) 858-7950. 
Inquiry 553. 

Optical 
Scanner/Printer 

Image Communications is 
selling an optical scanner/ 
printer for the IBM PC and 
the Apple Macintosh. Called 
Image Blue, it can digitize 
and print images (on elec- 
trostatic paper) at a resolu- 
tion of 200 dots per inch. 
The scanner can transmit in- 
formation at up to 9600 bps 
over its serial port or up to 
2400 bps through its in- 
tegral telephone jack. 

Optional software ($80) 
lets you load images into a 
PC or Mac and manipulate 



the images using PC Paint- 
brush or MacPaint. Scanning 
requires about 3 minutes 
per page. Two scanners can 
be used together as a fac- 
simile system. 

Image Blue has a list price 
of $1295. Contact Image 
Communications Inc., 640 
West Putnam Ave., POB 
4809, Greenwich. CT 
06836-0086, (203) 661-0607. 
Inquiry 554. 



Polyglot Word 
Processor 

Multi-Lingual Scribe, 
from Gamma Produc- 
tions, is a word-processing 
package for the IBM PC. It 
can type English, Russian. 
Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic 
texts and can display all 
those languages on a single 
line. The texts are shown 
with or without accents and 
vowel points and can be 
printed on most popular 
printers. The English font in- 
cludes most European-lan- 
guage characters. 

Selecting a language re- 
quires a single function-key 



command. The processor in- 
cludes standard word- 
processing features and of- 
fers block move, search and 
replace, headers and footers, 
print preview, sub- and 
superscripts, and unlimited 
document size. Its format- 
ting commands include col- 
umns, centering, propor- 
tional spacing, boldface, 
underlining, mixing small 
and large fonts, and micro- 
justification. Special features 
such as wordwrap in both 
left-to-right and right-to-left 
modes are also part of 
Scribe's repertoire. Along 
with the software, you get 
keyboard layout charts and 
press-on keyboard labels for 
all four foreign languages 
(including both standard and 
mnemonic for Hebrew). 

A built-in Font Generator 
utility lets you use on-screen 
graphics to customize the 
characters and keyboard lay- 
out or to build an entirely 
new set. You can compose 
text in either 40- or 
80-column mode. The print 
preview feature lets you see 
how the text will appear 
when it is printed. You can 
also use another word pro- 
cessor and engage Scribe to 
make that software print 
proportionally spaced text 
or to add foreign characters 
to the files generated by 
that software. 

Multi-Lingual Scribe 2.0 
costs $349.95 and requires 
an IBM PC. XT. or AT DOS 
2.0 or higher, at least 320K 
bytes of RAM, an IBM or 
Hercules color-graphics card, 
and one disk drive. It can 
print to Epson, IBM 
Graphics, Okidata (with Plug 
'n Play IBM emulation). C. 
Itoh Prowriter, or NEC 
802 3 A dot-matrix printers. 

Contact Gamma Produc- 
tions Inc., 710 Wilshire Blvd., 
Suite 609, Santa Monica. CA 
90401. (213) 394-8622. 
Inquiry 555. 

{continued) 



38 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Using Lotus 1-2-3 without Reflex 

is like driving at night 

without lights 



J.f you use Lotus 1-2-3 you 
need Reflex, the Analyst'" 
because it shows you what 
1-2-3 either hides in the dark 
or can't show you at all. Reflex 
shows you relationships and 
inter-relationships in your 
data that you can't afford 
omiss. 

Keflex includes the best 
Report Generator for 
Lotus 1-2-3. 

Reflex includes the Report, 
Generator that 1-3-3 should have 
included - but didn't. With 
Reflex, you can generate reports, 
graphs, charts and diagrams 
.torn your 1-2-3 worksheets that 
are impossible to generate with 
1-2-3. 

You can do sales reports, 
letters, memos, invoices and 
mailing labels — to name a few 
— and you can see a few of them 
on this page. 




Reflex is the best 
database for 1-2-3 users 
and it's also the easiest 
to use. 

Reflex is the first database that 
separates the trees from the 
forest. The first database that 
understands that what you see 
depends on how you look at it. 

The first database that probes 
relationships — then shows them 
to you in various graphic forms 
— scatter, line, bar, stacked bar 
and pie charts. The first database 
to break the bonds of traditional 
database management and give 
a dramatic visual turn to data 
analysis. 

Reflex makes graphic leaps far 
beyond 1-2-3. With Reflex, when 
you look, you see. 

Reflex gives you five new 
and different views of 
what's hidden in your 
1-2-3 worksheets. 

Form View, List View, Graph 
View, Crosstab and Report View. 

Form View lets you create your 
database. List View shows you 
your data in tabular list form, just 
like a spreadsheet. Graph View 
gives you instant interactive 
graphic representations; 
Crosstab View gives you amazing 
"cross-referenced" pictures of the 
links and relationships hidden in 
your data. Report View allows you 
to use information from 1-2-3, and 
then print out reports in all sorts 
of different formats. 

The commands for all five 
Views are consistent — so you're 
not stuck learning five different 
ways to get something done. And 
because Reflex uses advanced 
windowing techniques, you can 
see several views on the screen at 
the same time — without having 
to switch back and forth. You get 
the picture, and the pictures, all 
at once. 



Whether you're a 1-2-3 
user or not, Reflex 
answers all your "What 
Ifs?" and leads you to 
the right conclusions. 

With Reflex when you modify a 
number all your Views — List, 
Form and Graph — are 
immediately updated, on-screen. 

Let's say you're analyzing 
"Traveling Expenses by 
Salesperson" and you ask, "What 
if they stayed at a Motel B'A 
instead of the Presidential Suite 
of the Howl Chief?" "Show me." So 
Reflex shows you. 

"What if they could no longer 
order $ 100 wines, but had to stick 
to the stuff that matures in the 
truck?" "Show me." So Reflex 
shows you. Instant answers. 
Instant pictures. Instant analysis. 
Instant understanding. 

Of course Reflex can do all of 
the above with or without 1-2-3. 
Reflex Is a complete database 
management and analytical tool 
that stands on its own feet and 
helps you stay on yours because 
it's only $99.95! 

Borland's $99.95 Reflex 
could be the best 
business investment 
you'll ever make. 

Buying 1-2-3 was a good idea. 
Reflex is an even better idea 
because now you can see what 
you're doing, what you've done, 
and what you need to do. 

Think of Reflex as an 
"automatic product," a "stan- 
dard" that every up-to-speed PC 
owner should have on hand. It's 
only $99.95, and you get our 60- 
day money-back guarantee. 

We don't believe in copy- 
protection, but we do believe in 
quality, performance and 
reasonable software prices. So 
keep driving your old 1-2-3, but 
get Reflex today, because then 
you can see where you're going. 



Inquiry 46 for End-Users. Inquiry 47 for DEALERS ONLY. 



it Everyone 
agrees that 
Reflex is the 
best-looking 
database 
they've ever 
seen 

Adam B. Green, 
InfoWorld 

The next 
generation of 
software has 
officially 
arrived 



Peter Norton, mm 
PC Week 77 



^r 



BORLAND 

INTERNA T I N A L 



45)5 scons valley orive 

SCOTTS VALLEY, CA 95066 
(408) 438-8400 TELEX. 172373 



YES! 



Rush 
Reflex 
to me. 



Send me . 



. copies at: 



$99: 



95 



This price includes shipping to all U.S. cities. 

60-DAY MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE 
NOT COPY-PROTECTED 

To order by credit card call (BOO} 255-8008, CA 
(800) 742- 1133 Available at belter dealers 
nationwide 



Shipping Address: 



City. . 
State: 



. Zip: 



Telephone: . 



Outside USA add $ 10 per copy 
CA res. add $6 tax per copy 



Amount Enclosed 

Payment: VISA MC Bank Draft Check 
Credit Card Exp Date / 

card „ I I I I 



System requirements: 



R15 



IBM^ pc. XI AT, or compatibles 384K RAM 
minimum. IBM Color Graphics Adapter*. 
Hercules Monochrome Graphics Card", or 
equivalent PC DOS® 2.0 or greater Hard disk 
and mouse optional. 

CODs and Purchase Orders WILL NOT be 
accepted by Borland. California residents add 
6% sales tax Outside USA add $10 per copy 
and make payment by bank draft payable in 
US dollars drawn on a US bank 



Reflex is a trademark of Borland/ AnaJyUca Inc. 1-2-3 la a registered ■-rademark of Lotus 
Development. Corporation. IBM and PC DOS are registered trademarks and PC, XT, AT, and 
Color Graphics Adapter are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. 
Hercules Graphics Card is a trademark of Hercules Computer Tech. Copyright 1986 Borland 
Internauonal BI-1031. 




WHAT'S NEW 



Flip Puck, 
Change Type 

Metatext from Image 
Computer Systems 
converts the dotty font of a 
dot-matrix printer into letter- 
quality type. The package 
consists of software and 
what Image calls a puck; the 
puck is approximately the 
size and shape of a black- 
board eraser and, like a 
mouse, rests on the table 
next to the computer. 

The program resides per- 
manently in RAM. If you 
want letter-quality type, the 
software intercepts the 
characters sent to the 
printer and converts them 
into high-resolution plot 
data. 

To switch between draft 
and letter quality, you flip 
the puck to the appropriate- 
ly labeled side. When the 
"draft" side is up, output 
goes to the printer in the 
usual fashion. When the 
"quality" side is up, Meta- 
text intercepts the charac- 
ters. 

The package works with 
IBM PCs and compatibles 
and drives most dot-matrix 
printers that recognize 
Epson control codes. No 
hardware or software modifi- 
cations are necessary. Meta- 
text contains six fonts and 
emulates the IBM Graphics 
Printer. It costs $129. Con- 
tact Image Computer Sys- 
tems. POB 647, Avon, CT 
06001, (203) 678-8771. 
Inquiry 556. 

Data-Acquisition 
Software 

Discovery, from Cyborg 
Corp., is a menu-driven 
program designed for data 
acquisition and analysis. It 
can handle area-under-the- 




Metatext print enhancer from Image Computer Systems. 



curve calculations, FFTs and 
smoothing, and instrument 
control. 

Discovery's calculation and 
signal-processing functions 
let you build a table of 
selected values and transfer 
summary data to Lotus 1-2-3 
for further analysis and pre- 
sentation. You can scroll 
through graphs of data and 
zoom in on regions of in- 
terest, mark points for calcu- 
lation, and expand the x- or 
y- axis. The program also 
lets you store sequences of 
up to 10 operations for 
repeated use; sequences 
can loop and trigger from a 
variety of sources, including 
time of day, a single 
keystroke, and a value read 
from the signal source. 

Other operations and func- 
tions include integration, dif- 
ferentiation, auto-correlation, 
cross-correlation, and win- 
dowing. Discovery also cal- 
culates variance, mean, stan- 
dard deviation, slope, and 
change using the 8087 or 
80287 floating-point co- 
processor if installed. 

Discovery runs on the IBM 
PC, XT, and AT and requires 



512K bytes of memory and 
a hard-disk drive. The pro- 
gram costs $1190. For more 
information, contact Cyborg 
Corp., 5 5 Chapel St., 
Newton, MA 02158, (617) 
964-9020. 
Inquiry 557. 



Apple-like Laser 128 

The Laser 128 is a por- 
table computer that re- 
portedly runs "nearly all" 
the software for Apple's lie 
and He. The 12-pound 
machine houses I28K bytes 
of RAM, 32K bytes of ROM, 
a 5 14 -inch floppy-disk drive, 
both a serial and a parallel 
printer interface, a modem 
port, and a 50-pin Apple- 
compatible expansion slot. 
You can also hook up an 
additional disk drive, a 
mouse or joystick, and a 
monitor. 

Like the Apple lie, the 
Laser 128 uses a 65C02 pro- 
cessor. The keyboard, which 
has 10 function keys and a 
numeric keypad, can be 



switched between QWERTY 
and Dvorak layouts. The 
computer can produce dou- 
ble high-resolution graphics 
and has 16-color capability. 
Other features include a 
built-in speaker with volume 
control, 40- or 80-column 
text, and text in inverse or 
flashing mode. Data trans- 
mission can be set at seven 
rates, ranging from 110 to 
19,200 bits per second. 

The Laser 128 has a sug- 
gested retail price of $479. 
Two companies are selling 
the machine. Contact Video 
Technology (U.S.) Inc., 2633 
Greenleaf Ave.. Elk Grove 
Village, IL 60007, (312) 
640-1776, or Central Point 
Software Inc., 9700 
Southwest Capitol Highway, 
Suite 100, Portland, OR 
97219-9990, (503) 244-5782. 
Inquiry 558. 



Calculation Boxes 

Boxcalc, a calculation 
program for the IBM PC 
line, resembles a spread- 
sheet but does not limit you 
to predetermined rows and 
columns. Instead, you can 
place and move "calculation 
boxes" anywhere on the 
screen (using a special func- 
tion key). Formulas can be 
entered in the boxes to 
establish their mathematical 
relationship to other boxes. 
The software can handle 
complex expressions as well 
as sum, date, and time. You 
can specify the order in 
which boxes are calculated; 
iterative calculations are 
permitted. 

Each Boxcalc file can hold 
as many as 800 boxes, and 
as many as 99 pages of 
figures and text can be 
created, stored on disk, and 
printed. Full replication 
features are designed to 
facilitate entering multiple 
formulas into boxes. 

Boxcalc sells for $40 and 
comes with an instruction 
manual and without copy 

(continued) 



40 B YTE • MARCH 1986 




See a live demonstration 
of HP PC Instruments... 

an affordable, easy way to automate testing! 



Now you can perform test and measurement tasks easily, 
quickly and cost-effectively with affordable, rackable 
PC Instruments from Hewlett-Packard. 

Soft front panels make HP PC Instruments easy to 
use. By simply touching the HP Touchscreen or using a 
mouse with the IBM PC, you can set functions, ranges 
and values, and take measurements. 

You can also develop programs faster. A few 
easy-to-remember commands, like OUTPUT and 
MEASURE, control your PC Instruments from 
Microsoft® BASIC. And you can use the soft 
front panel to enter many of the instrument 
parameters that have been traditionally 
typed into a system. In addition, with 
optional HP Data Acquisition Software, . 
you can be doing voltage scanning and 
temperature measurement in no time at all. 

Add-on HP-IB libraries can also turn 
your PC into a versatile HP-IB instrument 
controller. And you can use them to control 
both PC Instruments and HP-IB instruments 
from the same BASIC program. 



PC Instruments now available include: 

• 4Vz Digit Digital Multimeter 

• 50 MHz Digital Oscilloscope 

• 5 MHz Function Generator 

• 100 MHz Universal Counter 
■ Relay Multiplexer 

• 12 bit Dual Voltage Digital-to- Analog 
Converter 

• 16 bit Digital Input/Output 

• Relay Actuator 




Microsoft® and Microsoft BASIC® are 

U.S. registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. 

AD 2101552 



11 



To see a live demonstration, 
or for immediate shipment 
call 1-800-523-2121 ext. 960 

HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



Inquiry 156 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 41 



WHAT'S NEW 



protection. A demo sells for 
$5. Running the program re- 
quires 256K bytes, PC-DOS 
2.0 or later, and a color 
monitor. Contact Cotton 
Software Inc., 2 510 Ander- 
son Rd„ Suite 364, Coving- 
ton, KY 41017, (606) 
727-1600. 
Inquiry 559. 

Define Your Digital 
Waveforms 

Adtron's Data Generation 
System operates with 
IBM's PC or PC XT to pro- 
duce user-defined digital 
waveforms. It consists of a 
plug-in data-generator board 
and a full-screen waveform 
editor. The hardware/soft- 
ware combination is de- 
signed to offer the capabili- 
ties of pattern, word, and 
pulse generators. 

The system can serve as a 
signal source for these ap- 
plications: laboratory data 
generator, communications 
data emulator, pseudoran- 
dom noise source, automatic 
test stimulus, and pulse and 
timing generator. 

The editor, called Pulse- 
Ed. enables you to design, 
modify, store on disk, and 
print waveforms. Adtron says 
the program resembles a 
text editor in operation and 
a logic analyzer in ap- 
pearance. Once you've de- 
fined a waveform, you can 
send it to the board for ex- 
ecution or transfer it to an- 
other system via disk or 
modem. During execution, 
the board does not require 
processor support. 

Dual-channel operation of- 
fers 32,768 bits per channel, 
bit widths from 50 nanosec- 
onds to 9.999 seconds, and 
external clock and sync in- 
puts. The system runs on 
any IBM PC, XT, or compati- 




Data-generator board from Adtron's system. 



ble with 128K bytes of 
RAM, one double-sided 
floppy-disk drive, and MS- 
DOS 2.0 or later. List price 
is $2175; quantity discounts 
are available. Contact Adtron 
Corp.. 11415 East Redfield 
Rd.. Chandler, AZ 8522 5, 
(602) 926-1461. 
Inquiry 560. 

Calculator Kit for 
the Macintosh 

Calculator Construction 
Set from Dubl-Click Soft- 
ware enables you to design 
your own calculators, clocks, 
and calendars and install 
them as Macintosh desk ac- 
cessories. No programming 
is required; you drag parts 
onto a calculator shell and 
then "wire" the functions. 
The package contains math- 
ematical, scientific, business, 
date/time, and conversion 
functions. 

The kit's box of parts 
holds various-size keys, 
switches. LEDs, clock/calen- 
dar displays, and a resizable 
scrolling paper tape that 
prints to the Imagewriter 



printer, the Mac Clipboard, 
or a Mac text file. You can 
map on-screen calculator 
keys to any alphanumeric 
keyboard or keypad (as an 
alternative to using a 
mouse). 

You can customize calcu- 
lator cases using MacPaint- 
style tools for drawing, 
painting, filling, stretching, 
and typing. Calculators can 
be saved as work files, ac- 
cessory mover files, or self- 
installing calculator files. 

Calculator Construction Set 
runs on any Macintosh and 
is Switcher-compatible. List 
price is $99. Contact Dubl- 
Click Software. 18201 
Gresham St.. Northridge. CA 
91325. (818) 349-2758. 
Inquiry 561. 

Utilities for dBASE 
Programmers 

Gryphon Microproducts 
has developed a set of 
utilities that expand the 
memory capability of dBASE 



from 63 variables to more 
than 8 million. Called dB/RA, 
the package consists of 22 
commands that can be 
called directly from dBASE, 
letting programmers work 
with databases in memory 
in the form of arrays. 

Gryphon says dB/RA takes 
advantage of the Lotus/Intel 
Extended Memory Specifica- 
tion. It has commands for 
table-lookups and range 
searches of as many as 100 
arrays. Functions include in- 
stant screens, pop-up color 
windows, and Lotus-like 
menu operations. 

The utility set costs $200; 
a demo is $20. For more in- 
formation, contact Gryphon 
Microproducts, POB 6543. 
Silver Spring, MD 20906, 
(301) 946-2585. 
Inquiry 562. 

Gizmo Extends 
AT Memory 

The AT Gizmo is a card 
that installs between the 
IBM PC AT's motherboard 
and 80286 processor and 
enables PC-DOS applications 
to use 4.6 megabytes of ex- 
tended memory. The 3- by 
5-inch device remaps ad- 
dresses that access memory 
allowing extended memory 
to become addressable 
memory. Extended memory 
becomes addressable 
because the AT Gizmo 
makes all the machine's 
memory operate in native 
mode, compatible with PC- 
DOS. The memory usually 
accessed in protected mode 
is accessible from native 
mode with the card. 

The AT Gizmo sells for 
$295. Contact The Software 
Link Inc., 8601 Dunwoody 
Place NE, Suite 632, Atlanta. 
GA 30338. (404) 998-0700. 
Inquiry 563. 

{continued on page 399) 



42 BYTE • MARCH 1986 




Evercom™... 1200 baud, $249 



Now the EVEREX Evercom 
modem is available on a half-size 
card, perfect for the short slots in the 
IBM XT, Portable, and many 
compatibles. EVEREX has 
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EVEREX engineering is the key 
ingredient that delivers QUALITY 
and FEATURES without sacrificing 
PRICE. 



Before you buy a modem, check these features: 



i 300/1200 hps Hayes-compatihie 

> Half-si>e card 

' Automatic dialing, answering. 

and redialing 
' Call Progress Monitoring 
' Configurable from COMI - COM4 
' Internal Speaker with software 

adjustable volume control 
' Tone and pulse dialing 
• Automatic data-to-voice 

transition 

► Detects receiver off-hook 
' Reports speed mismatch 

' Supports 132 columns 
» Communications software included 
' Extended Hayes command set 
1 List price 



EVERCOM 

YES 

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YES 

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YES 
YES 



YES 

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YES 
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$249 



HAYES 1200B 
YES 
NO 
YES 

NO 
NO 

NO 

YES 
NO 

NO 
NO 
NO 

NO 

$489 



Demonstration ~ FREE 
Brochure 

Remember, before you buy a 
modem, check the features, check 
the price, and then call EVEREX to 
set up a demonstration at your local 
dealer. 

When you call, we will also send 
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1-800-821-0806 

in California 

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(415)498-1111 



Evercom is a trademark of Everex Systems, Inc. IBM PC and XT are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. Hayes 1 200B is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc. 
Inquiry 128 for End-Users. Inquiry 129 for DEALERS ONLY MARCH 1986 -BYTE 43 



ASK BYTE 



Conducted by Steve Garcia 



Color Graphics 

Dear Steve, 

1 recently purchased an IBM PC without 
a video board. I am looking at what is 
available in color-graphics boards. I have 
found two bare boards, one from J. C. 
Computer Inc. in Anaheim, California, and 
another from Computer Parts Galore in 
Batavia, New York. Are you familiar with 
either board? 

I will be using a television at first, so I 
will have to employ an RF modulator. I 
have one that requires + 5 V, but the IBM 
color-graphics board supplies +12 V. I 
assume that most of the others also sup- 
ply + 12 V. Is it a minor modification that 
would be necessary to change my 
modulator to accept +12 V? 

Finally, have you considered a construc- 
tion article on an IBM PC-compatible 
video board or perhaps a memory-expan- 
sion board? 

Bob Dowell 
Radcliff, KY 

I am not familiar with the two boards 
you mention, but the one from Computer 
Parts Galore claims to be like a Persyst 
board and compatible with the IBM 
color-graphics board. This seems like a 
good choice, but don't forget to get the 
character ROM. I couldn't find I. C. Com- 
puter in recent issues of Computer 
Shopper, but I did find a C. J. Computers 
in Anaheim. They sell components to 
build your own PC but apparently not 
bare boards. 

Another source of bare boards for 
IBMs is Micro Mate Associates. 

You can pick up the needed + 5 V DC 
for your modulator from pin 5 of the 
light-pen connector on the color-graph- 
ics board. 

I don't have any plans to make either 
an IBM-compatible graphics board or 
memory-expansion board. There are 
many of each to choose from, including 
the bare multifunction board from Com- 
puter Parts Galore. 

Addresses of the companies men- 
tioned above are Computer Parts Galore, 
56 Harvester Ave., Batavia, NY 14020, 
(800) 431-9008; C. J. Computers Corpora- 
tion, 2424 West Ball Rd., Suite B, 
Anaheim, CA 92804, (714) 821-8922; and 



Micro Mate Associates, POB 742, Station 
B, Willowdale, Ontario M2K 2RI, Canada. 
—Steve 

P.S. I have a super graphics-board proj- 
ect in the works. 

Striated Letters 

Dear Steve, 

I have just purchased a Tandy 1000. It 
works great, but I'm not too crazy about 
the display— the letters appear striated. 
I've tried various monochrome monitors, 
but they all give the same striped look. Is 
there a monitor that I can use with the 
1000 that will give solid letters on the 
screen? 

I've seen the IBM 5151 monochrome 
monitor hooked to an IBM PC, and it looks 
wonderful. Unfortunately, the monitor con- 
nector on the PC is not the same as on 
the Tandy 1000. Do you know if I could 
make some sort of adapter to hook the 
5151 to the 1000, and, having done that, 
will I get the same sharp letters I have seen 
on the PC? 

Duff Kennedy 
Santa Barbara, CA 

The striped look you describe is typical 
of display systems that emulate the IBM 
PC color-graphics-display adapter. It 
comes from the 200-line vertical-resolu- 
tion limit imposed by the TV-compatible 
scan rates combined with the noninter- 
lace mode used to avoid jitter. This is a 
characteristic we learn to live with. 

The high-quality character display you 
see on the IBM 5151 monitor is the result 
of using faster horizontal sweep and 
slower vertical sweep to give 350 or so 
lines of vertical resolution, combined 
with wider video bandwidth (frequency 
response) to provide 720-line horizontal 
resolution. The display board also has a 
different character-generator ROM to 
take advantage of the higher resolution. 

If you try to use the 5151 monitor with 
your Tandy 1000 graphics display driver, 
you not only won't get an improved char- 
acter display, you will also probably burn 
out the monitor's power supply due to 
the incompatible sweep rates. 

It might be possible to put a display 
driver like the IBM monochrome display 



adapter into the Tandy 1000 and use the 
IBM 5151 or an equivalent monitor if you 
can find one that fits. The problem is that 
the Tandy's expansion slots are shorter 
than IBM's, so the IBM board won't fit. 
There may also be a memory conflict or 
other incompatibility that prevents use 
of both displays. This would be some- 
thing to discuss with the Radio Shack 
people if you are interested.— Steve 

CP/M and Graphics 

Dear Steve, 

Is it true CP/M can't manage any graph- 
ics, or am I imagining that? I recently 
added a Z80 Plus card to my Apple lie so 
I could run Turbo Pascal. The Apple II, with 
its 6502 processor, is well known for its 
graphics capabilities, but Borland offers 
its Turbo Graphix Toolbox only for the IBM 
PC and Zenith Z-100 computers. Turbo 
Pascal itself comes with some turtle graph- 
ics but only for IBM PCs. 

Is my Apple, running CP/M, able to make 
use of an RGB monitor for sophisticated 
graphics displays? If it can, why don't 
Borland and other companies implement 
these capabilities for us 8-bit CP/M users 
the way they do for 16-bit computers? I 
know that many owners of 8-bit machines 
running Turbo Pascal would love to have 
the sophisticated graphics offered to IBM 
owners. What's the problem? 

Chad Gagnon 
Crescent City, CA 

There is nothing specific in CP/M that 
prohibits graphics. Historically, however, 
most of the computers using CP/M had 
no graphics hardware, and those that did 
had no standard to follow. Thus, in most 
cases, if you want graphics, you must 
write the drivers yourself. 

It seems as though one could use the 
Apple BIOS graphics routines with the 
CP/M board since the 6502 still handles 
I/O. I haven't tried this, but you could 
write drivers into CP/M to send the data 
and graphics commands to the 6502, at 
least for assembly-language program- 
ming. 

The probable reason Borland, Micro- 
soft, and other language vendors don't 
write graphics into their CP/M languages 

(continued) 



44 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



COPYRIGHT © 1986 STEVEN A. C1ARCIA. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 




u 

Small Plain 1 1 |" SBjf 

SFL.ftahcs XlilliJ -^* 

Pretorian 

Roman3A c ^^^ 
Romital J[ 

— I 






See What You Can Do 



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can create a page at a time, see a mini pic- 
ture of that page, print it, and save it on disk. 
Page size is limited only by memory, not by 
screen size. 

Features 

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Inquiry 284 



With 




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I 
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MARCH 1986 -BYTE 45 



Inquiry 332 



The 

fraffic light: 

EnGarde™ 

EnGarde™ is the only surge sup- 
pressor with the added protection 
of an LED ground indicator. It 
warns you when an electrical out- 
let is improperly grounded, pro- 
tecting your computer from need- 
less and costly hardware damages. 

An anti-static touch pad and a 
multi-peripheral master switch are 
also built into the total protection 
of EnGarde™ 

EnGarde™ also protects your 
computer from power surges caused 
by changes in electrical loads 
and other electrical disturbances. 
It includes a limited five-year 
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EnGarde™is a product of Sys- 
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nation's utility companies. 

Ask your dealer for the total pro- 
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If unsatisfied, return EnGarde™ 
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A product of Systems Conlrol, a division of M.J. Electric, Inc. 



ASK BYTE 



is the lack of graphics hardware stan- 
dards. If you write for a Motorola 6845 
video controller, it won't run on machines 
using any other controller. You can. how- 
ever, write subroutines or procedures in 
assembly language to be called by high- 
level-language programs if you can write 
the CP/M drivers to begin with. 

Using an RGB monitor is possible in the 
Apple II only if you have an accessory 
board that provides that capability- 
hardware limitations again.— Steve 

Mythology 

Dear Steve. 

I see relatively few letters and articles 
pertaining to Atari computers in BYTE. I 
thus have been unable to find out more 
about the similarity between the Atari and 
the Apple, especially since it is well known 
that the original Apple was built out of an 
Atari. Has anyone repeated this feat? If so, 
where could I go to upgrade/emulate the 
Apple with my Atari 800XL? 

Sue Paolini 
Hoboken. N) 

Like many things that "everyone 
knows," this one just isn't true. Apple 
Computer was formed in April of 1976 
to sell the original Apple kit. In June of 
1977, the company ran its first ad in BYTE 
for the Apple II, of which today's Apple 
lie is a variation. Atari announced its first 
computer in December of 1978, but it 
did not become available until late 1979. 

Even though Apple and Atari use the 
same processor, nearly everything else 
I ROM, I/O, graphics, etc.) is different. 
Emulating an Apple on the Atari is theo- 
retically possible but would be very dif- 
ficult. I have not been able to locate any 
product to accomplish this.— Steve 

TNT 

Dear Steve, 

I have a TNT, and I've tried a few times 
to interface it to my IBM PC. My PC has 




Figure I : The diagram for construction of a 
null-modem cable. 



an internal Qubie modem with a serial 
port. I made a few attempts at building a 
connection, but whenever I ran a program 
in BASIC. I got the error message "device 
time out." 

ITSHAK MlHAELI 

Staten Island, NY 

There are several possible reasons for 
your troubles. First, be sure the serial 
port in the Qubie board is connected as 
COMI:. If it is COM2:, use the OPEN 
COM2: statement in BASIC on the IBM 
side to open the serial port. Also, make 
sure both computers are set to the same 
data-transmission rate. 

Next, be sure you have connected the 
two computers as shown in figure I. This 
arrangement is called a null modem. 

If you are already using this arrange- 
ment and your cable has no bad connec- 
tions, you should test each port with a 
loopback plug to find out which one is 
causing the problem. A loopback plug is 
a DB-25 (RS-232C) connector with the 
following pin pairs connected together: 
2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 6 to 20. This plug 
makes the computer send data to itself 
and can be used to test each computer's 
serial port for proper function. —Steve 

Chips 

Dear Steve, 

With the recent sharp price cuts in 256K- 
bit RAM chips, it seems that replacing the 
4164s on the motherboard of an IBM PC 
or a Compaq would offer many advan- 
tages over an add-on memory board. I've 
heard that the 412 56 chips can be sub- 
stituted in some cases, but 1 don't know 
what sort of trace cuts or jumper settings 
might be required. Can you help? 

Brian Underdahl 
Ballwin. MO 

The 256K-bit 41256 chip pin-out is 
identical to the 4164, except for pin I, 
which is NC on the 4164 and address A8 
on the 41256. This allows 9-bit row ad- 
dress by 9-bit column address. The IBM 
PC has no provision for implementing the 
pin I address, and I don't think the Com- 
paq does either. 

Changes on the board required to 
make this swap with jumpers would be 
extensive but probably not impossible. 
There were a couple of companies con- 
verting the early IBM I6K- to 64K-byte 
motherboards to use 64K-bit chips for 
256K bytes total on the motherboard. 
Maybe someone will offer a similar ser- 
vice for the 256K-bit chips now that the 

[continued) 



46 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



Only the Hayes Transet 1000 @ 
canget you out of this one 



?LM) lOAMi 









Now your PC can do three 
things at once instead of making 
you wait while it does one thing 
at once. 

We call it tri ple taskin g." 

It means you can work with 
your PC while the Transet 1000 
receives your electronic mail 
and runs your printer for you 
simultaneously. 

Three jobs at once. No waiting. 

When you're away from your 
desk, or at night while your PC 
is turned off, Transet 1000 serves 
as an electronic mailbox. 
Because it has its own indepen- 
dent 128K or 512K memory. 

To get the messages that come 
in through the night, you can 
call them up on your PC. Access 
them through a remote modem 
if you're away from the office. 

Inquiry 151 




Or even have them waiting for 
you in hard copy. 

By now it's dawning on you 




Hayes - 

Say yes to the future with Hayes. 

"Manufacturer's estimated retail price. 



©1986 Hayes Microcomputer Products. Inc. 

that Transet 1000 can make your 
PC about three times as produc- 
tive as it is now. Which is no 
small statement. 

You've also figured out it's 
more than just a print buffer. 
More than just a communica- 
tions buffer. And probably costs 
a lot. Right? 

Wrong! 

It costs only $399* for the 
128K model which stores up to 
90 pages. And only $549* for the 
512K version with up to 360 
pages of storage. 

For more information and 
specifications, contact your 
authorized Hayes dealer. Or 
Hayes directly at (404) 441-1617. 

Hayes Microcomputer Prod- 
ucts, Inc., P.O. Box 105203, 
Atlanta, Georgia 30348. 

MARCH 1986 -BYTE 47 



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48 BYTE- MARCH 1986 Inquiry 54 for End-Users. Inquiry 55 for DEALERS ONLY. 




ASK BYTE 



prices are down. 

The advantages may not be as big as 
they first appear, however, because 
almost everyone wants a battery-backed 
clock/calendar and one or two serial 
ports, etc. This being the case, it is usually 
economical to buy one of the multifunc- 
tion expansion boards that provides 
these, along with 384K bytes of memory. 
MS-DOS won't allow easy use of more 
than the 640K bytes this provides.— Steve 

PC AND VCR 

Dear Steve, 

I plan to buy an IBM PC or a PC-com- 
patible microcomputer. I would greatly ap- 
preciate it if you can cite any references 
that show how to interface it to a video- 
cassette recorder. 

P. L. K. Sastry 
Bombay, India 

The July 1984 issue of BYTE contains 
an excellent article on interfacing a video- 
cassette recorder to the TRS-80 Color 
Computer. "Computer Control of a Video 
Recorder" by Cy Tymony (page 1 79) de- 
scribes the hardware and software nec- 
essary to control a VCR with any com- 
puter capable of generating sound. The 
same issue of BYTE also contains articles 
on interfacing videodisc players and in- 
teractive video programming. 

Once you can control your VCR from 
your computer, you may want to use your 
computer to capture and modify video 
images. Chorus Data Systems (6 Con- 
tinental Blvd., POB 370, Merrimack. NH 
03054) sells hardware and software for 
the IBM PC that allows you to capture 
video data and save it in your PC. Photo- 
base software from Chorus Data Systems 
lets you create a database containing 
both text and digitized video information. 
—Steve 

Atari Home Control 

Dear Steve, 

How plausible is it to convert an Atari 
2600 to a home controller, monitor, and 
security system? It seems to me that the 
2600 has suitable graphics, I/O, and such 
to do so. Is it possible to do it through the 
ROM cartridge connector? Has anyone 
published specs and schematics for the 
machine? It seems that it would not be dif- 
ficult, knowing the memory map, switches, 
and resident routines, to build a piece of 
hardware to use this machine. The firm- 
ware could be developed on another ma- 
chine. 1 have in mind applications like 
laboratory monitoring, robotics, weather 

(continued) 



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ol International Business Machines. Inc Compaq is s trademark of Compaq Computer Corp. 
Corona is a Irademark ol Corona Data Syslems, Inc. Apple is a Irademark ol Apple Computer 
Corp. PC World is a Irademark ot CW Communicalions Inc. SR-12 screen couhesy ol Mouse 
Syslems. Inc. 



GRAPHIC SYSTEMS 

AN INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS COMPANY 



Inquiry 279 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 49 



WE STOCK WHAT WE SELL! 

If You Don't See It Listed Here, Call Us!! 



PERSONAL COMPUTERS 

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Professional Desktop Dual Drive 

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Monochrome 5/8 Mhz $n nil 

MODEL 400 LjO'W 

"AT" Compatible Single Floppy Drive 

System $n -iqq 

PC/IT BASIC L, 1 33 

"AT" Compatible 1 Floppy, 1 44 Mg 

Hard Drive $0 -fan 

PC/IT EXPANDED J, I 33 

MONITORS 

ZVM-122/123 $ 79 

ZVM-1220/1230 $ 89 

ZVM-1240 $149 

ZVM-131 $189 

ZVM-1330 $459 



PRINTERS 

SG-10 $219 

SG-15 $399 

SG-10C $249 

SR-10 $439 

SR-15 $589 

SB-10 $593 

NB-15 $CALL 

Gemini 10X $169 

Powertype $328 

LEceno 

808 $155 

880 $199 

1380 $280 

CP-VII $840 

3*sfiP Plotters 

SP100 $215 

SP600 $818 

MODEMS 
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Password 1200 $195 

Password 300 $129 

Microlink 1200 $329 

Courier 2400 $429 

Microlink 2400 $429 

MULTIFUNCTION CARDS 
STS Systems Video Cards 

Chauffer $259 

High Resolution EGA $399 

Graphix + II $269 

Mono + $159 

SYS Systems Memory Cards 

Video 300G $1Z5 Big Byte 64K(384K Capacity) $129 

Video 310A $153 ^J^m^m* .. . , ... 

color 300 $244 CCG Mainframe Links 

Color 600 $432 Irma Board $869 

Color 722 $539 Smart Alec $759 

Prices Quoted Reflect Cash Discount. Add 3% for Master Card or Visa. Prices and Availability 
Subject to Change without Notice. Add 3% for Shipping and Handling, $5.00 minimum. 15% 
Restocking Charge on All Returns. 



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ASK BYTE 



monitoring, security, and climate control. 
I would buy your designs, but I am a 
medical student living on borrowed 
money, and the Atari 2600 is cheap. 

Sam Hunter 
Galveston, TX 

There are several good reasons not to 
use an Atari 2600 game machine as a 
home controller. The RAM and I/O capa- 
bilities are limited, and a second com- 
puter would have to be used for software 
development. Also, specs and schematics 
are available only to service centers; you 
may have a difficult time getting them. 

Why not use an Atari 400 or 800? You 
can often find a used machine in good 
condition for as little as $25 that would 
provide a programming language and ex- 
cellent I/O capabilities. Documentation, 
information, and finished products are 
readily available. You might want to refer 
to "Control Your Environment with the 
Atari 400/800" by David Alan Hayes (July 
1983 BYTE, page 428).— Steve 

Scientific Databases 

Dear Steve, 

1 would like to know where addresses 
of Canadian and American scientific data- 
bases are available. Technical databases 
in the field of graphic arts in connection 
with CAD, CAE, and CAM are especially 
important to me. Thanks. 

Claus Sternberg 
Salzburg, Austria 

The October 1984 issue of BYTE con- 
tains the article "Low-Cost On-Line Data- 
bases" (page 167). The author, Matthew 
Lesko, publishes a monthly newsletter 
that lists current free and low-cost data- 
bases. Contact Information USA, 4701 
Willard Ave., Chevy Chase, MD 20815, 
(301) 657-1200. -Steve ■ 



IN ASK BYTE, Steve Garcia answers questions on 
any area of microcomputing. The most representative 
questions received each month will be answered and 
published. Do you have a nagging problem? Send 
your inquiry to 

Ask BYTE 

do Steve Garcia 

POB 582 

Glastonbury. CT 06033 
Due to the high volume of inquiries, personal replies 
cannot be given. All letters and photographs become 
the property of Steve Ciarcia and cannot be returned. 
Be sure to include "Ask BYTE" in the address. 

The Ask BYTE staff includes manager Harv 
Weiner and researchers Larry Bregoli. Bill Curlew. 
\eannette Dojan, ]on Elson, Roger lames. Frank 
Kuechmann, Edward Nisley. Dick Sawyer. Andy 
Siska. and Robert Stek. 



50 BYTE • MARCH 



Inquiry 296 



MICROSOFT LANGUAGES NEWSLETTER 



Vol. 1-3 



News about the Microsoft Language Family 



Structured programming in QuickBASIC— Part 1— Subroutines 

The Microsoft® QuickBASIC Compiler provides powerful structured programming features that 
go far beyond BASICAs FOR/NEXT, WHILE/WEND, and GOSUB statements. True subroutines 
with scalar and array parameters are easy to use in QuickBASIC. All variables in subroutines 
are local unless they are declared as shared global variables in the current module, as shown 
below. 

CALL MySort (howbig, ArrayQ) 'sort Array () 



'Sieve is 1-dim 
'global variable 



SUB MySort (limit, Sieve (1)) STATIC 
SHARED bubbles 

. . . 'MySort subprogram body 
END SUB 

QuickBASIC modular programming with separate compilation and subroutine libraries will be 
covered in Part 2. 



Interlanguage calling support added to C, FORTRAN and Pascal 

The current releases of Microsoft C, FORTRAN and Pascal have been enhanced to support 
interlanguage calling. This was accomplished by extending the language syntax in each language 
and by sharing the major components of the runtime libraries— program start-up, memory models, 
memory allocation and floating point math support. For example, in FORTRAN these extensions 
allow programs to call C functions with value parameters and variable length argument lists. 
Under XENIXf the interlanguage calling support allows the standard XENLX C libraries to be 
accessed from Microsoft FORTRAN and Pascal. 



Mixed model dynamic memory allocation in Microsoft C— Part 2 

During program start-up in Microsoft C, any memory beyond the 64K limit of the default data 
segment is released to MS-DOS® (The amount returned can be increased by using the 
/CPARMAXALLOC switch to LINK or the EXEMOD utility.) This allows C programs to "exec" 
child programs. The first call to the near heap allocation routine, -nmalloc, creates the near heap 
which can use the remaining free space in the default data segment. The first call to the far heap 
allocation routine -fmalloc, creates the first far heap segment by requesting a block of memory 
from DOS rounded up to the nearest 8K (power of 2 equal or larger than the global variable 
_ amblksiz)- Subsequent -fmalloc calls will expand the last far heap segment up to 64K before 
allocating another far heap segment. When all far memory has been used, -fmalloc will try to 
allocate the memory from the near heap. 



Write tot Microsoft Languages Newsletter 

10700 Northup Way, Box 97200 

Bellevue, WA 98009 for product and update information. 

Or phone: 

(800) 426-9400. In Washington State and Alaska, 

call (206) 828-8088. In Canada, call (800) 387-6616. 

Microsoft, XBNIX and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporaikin 



Latest DOS Versions: 




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3.00 


Microsoft COBOL 


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Microsoft FORTRAN 


3.31 


Microsoft Macro Assembler 


4.00 


Microsoft Pascal 


3.31 


Microsoft QuickBASIC 


1.00 



Call for latest prices. 



FREE SHIPPING 

in the Continental United States via UPS Ground. 

NO SURCHARGE FOR BORe 



Seagate HD o Western Digital Controller 

20 MEG Hard Disk System for PC" 

a Internal $449 

External $599 




For Xebec 1220 Combined Floppy /Hard Disk Controller add $75. 

Includes Seagate Hard Disk, Western Digital Controller, Cables, 

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Boots From Hard Disk 65 MS Access Time One Year Warranty • 

Our Hard Disk Systems are compatible with the latest versions of the following Computers: IBM PC, 
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leading Edge PC (Both Models), Sperry PC, Wysc PC, Televideo PC, Faraday Mother Boards, 
Corona PC, Eagle PC, ITT PC, and most other Compatibles. 

PLEASE SPECIFY YOUR COMPUTER TYPE WHEN ORDERING. 



Seagate 

20 and 30 MEG High Speed 
40 MS Access Time 
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Uses Linear 
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20 MEG $579 
30 MEG $699 

Includes Seagate Full Height Hard Disk, 

Cables, Manual, and Mounting Ralls. 

Boots from Hard Disk. One Year Warranty. ■ 



64K RAM 

Sd Of 9 Chips, 200 or 150 Nanoseconds 



$10 



per set 



256KRAM $29 $ —" d * J 



150 Nanoseconds 



300/1200 Baud Hayes Compatible Modem 
Fits in Short Slot 




$159 



PC'S LIMITED Six Function Card 



• Includes J84K 

• ClocklCalendar 

• Includes Software 

• Parallel Port 

• Serial Port 

• Game Port 

Two Year Warranty ■ 




W/384K $129 



PC's Limited AT Multifunction Card 

• Expandable To 3 Meg (1.5 on Board/1.5 on Piggy Back Board) 

• Supports 64 or 256K. Rams 

• Parallel Port 

• Serial Port (2nd Serial Optional) 



$199 




w/0K 



Piggy Back Board J59 w/OK 



PC's Limited PC-576 RAM Board W/OK 



• Expandable to 576K 

• Supports 64K or 256K RAMS 

• Fits in Short Slot 



$69 




SOLVE YOUR POWER PROBLEM. 

XT POWER 135 W 




$89 



Directly replaces power supply in PC." 
Fully XT'" compatible. One Year Warranty ' d 



52 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 266 



PRICES AND MACHINES THAT 
OUTRUN THE COMPETITION. 



OH PC'S LIMITED T ™° 

High Performance 
Competitive Price 






V. 



$795 



One year warranty. 



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» ■■ 



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Includes: System Unit, 640K on Mother Board, 
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Hum oil Major Software written for the IBM PC and PC/XT', 40% taster, without modifitationi. 
(PrMtim) 16-blt 8088-2, 4.77 or 6.66MHZ Chick Speed. (Expmuion Slc-li) :8; 7 arc araiiabl* In a bo v. configuration. 

GW Basic $95 * IBM DOS 3.1 $85 * 8087-2 $149 



One Year Warranty. * 

8MHZ Option included 
at no extra charge. 



Includes: 80286-based System Unit, 102-iK on 
Mother Board, 1.2 MegFloppy Drive, Combined Floppy 
and Hard Disk Controller Card, AT Keyboard, 192W 
Power Supply, 2 Serials and I Parallel Port, and 
Clock/Calendar with Battery Backup. 



Rwu all Major Software written (or the IBM PC, PC XT", and PC AT". (Prwauar) Intel 80286 running of 6MHZ. 
(I Ipansion Stall) :8. Sam* Bw> Con figure Hon ai IBM PC AT". 

GW Basic $95 • IBM DOS 3.1 $85 • 80287 $195 



PC's Limited Mini I/O 




• Serial Port 

• Parallel Port 

• Clock 

• Software 

• Fits In Short Slot 



PC's Limited Monochrome Graphics 
Fully Hercules Compatible 



• Text Mode 80 X 25 

• Graphics Mode 720 X 348 Pixels 

• One Parallel Printer Port 



$159 




Floppy Disk Drive 




TEAC 

55-B, Half-Height, DS/DD 



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in Gray Color. 



PANASONIC 

Half-Height, DS/DD 



MITSUBISHI 

ELECTRONICS 

Half-Height, DS/DD 



PC's Limited Universal 
Video Adapter 




$259 



• Replaces numerous cards, including IBM, 
Hercules, Plantronics. 

• Provides 132 column text— color or mono 
■ Supports all parallel printers and plotters 

• Emulates color software on monochrome 
monitor in 16 shades 




PC'S LIMITED 



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Telex No 9103808386 PC LTD MX (512) 339-6721 



rtiniroolct.llchtc 'ca(.ilr. leilcrn Digital, AT1T, 
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Inquiry 266 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 53 



Inquiry 140 



UNIX 



Multi-Link 



The 



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Terminals, Cables, 

Memory Boards, 

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and Multi-user Application Programs. 

IBM PC® 3. PC DOS® are irademarks ol IBM Corp. 

Multi-Link® is a trademark ol The Software Link. Inc 

UNIX® is a trademark ol AT 3. T, Bell Labs 



CLUBS AND 
NEWSLETTERS 



Macintosh Enthusiasts of San Antonio 
(MESA), 61 34 Calderwood, San Antonio, 
TX 78249. Public-domain software library, 
newsletter, meetings. Annual fee: $12. 

TheKepner Letter, 145 Grove St., Peter- 
borough, NH 03458, (603) 924-9450. 
TRS-80 computers featured. 

North American One-Eighty Group 
(NAOG), POB 2781, Warminster, PA 18974, 
(215) 443-9031. Users group for the SB1 80, 
Steve Ciarcia's single-board computer (see 
September 1985 BYTE). $15 per year in- 
cludes 12 issues of newsletter. 

Sanyo User Group of the San Fran- 
cisco Bay Area, 1260 Westwood St., Red- 
wood City, CA 94061, (415) 369-2034. 
Monthly newsletters and public-domain 
software library access. Annual fee: $20. 

Casa Mi Amiga, c/o Kinetic Designs, 1 187 
Dunbar Court, Orange Park, FL 32073. 
24-hour BBS for Amiga owners at (904) 
733-4515. Public-domain software. Send 
SASE. 

THe Pilot SIG, ADCIS International Head- 
quarters, Miller Hall Room 409, Western 
Washington University, Bellingham, WA 
9822 5. Only members of Association for 
the Development of Computer-Based In- 
structional Systems eligible. Meetings, 
newsletter, workshops. 

Stout Microcomputer User Group 
(SMUG), lohn Wright, Tech Wing 248, 
University of Wisconsin— Stout, Menom- 
onie, Wl 54751. Student group, public- 
domain software library, meetings. 

MicroPublishinc Report. 2004 Curtis 
Ave. #A, Redondo Beach, CA 90278, (213) 
376-5724. Small computers in publishing. 
12 issues: $175. 

Free BBS, Marshfield Technologies Inc., 
Data Processing Services Dept., POB 761, 
171 South Central Ave., Marshfield. Wl 
54449. 1200-bps BBS at (715) 387-4028. 

Panhandle Computer Society, POB 
30545, Amarillo, TX 79120-0545. Twelve 
SIGs, calendar, newsletter. 



Apple /// Users of Northern Califor- 
nia (ATUNC), 220 Redwood Highway 
#184, Mill Valley, CA 94941. Meetings, 
newsletter. Annual subscription: $20. 

Come-adore the 128, 7102 Leavitt Rd., 
Amherst, OH 44001, (216)986-6114. Sup- 
port for C-64 and 128, newsletter. Send 
SASE. 

Manasota IBM Users' Group, Robert 
Moss, 111 Sunset Dr., Nokomis, FL 33 555, 
(813) 484-1458. Meetings in Sarasota. 

Computer Aided Selling. The Denali 
Group, 1111 Third Ave., 7th Floor, Seattle, 
WA 98101, (206) 382-6668. News for sales- 
people. Annual subscription: $87. 

The Calgary Osborne Users Group, 

Greg King, 24 Edgedale Way NW, Calgary, 
Alberta T3A 2P8, Canada. Best for 8-bit 
CP/M users. Meetings. 

Seattle Chapter of the International 
Interactive Communications Society, 
POB 31273, Seattle, WA 98103, (206) 
248-4968. Interactive video applications. 

Connecticut IBM PC Users Club, John 
McGinley, POB 291, New Canaan, CT 
06840-0291, (203) 762-0229. Meetings, 
newsletter, public-domain software. 

Survival Communication Forum, 1435 
Sebastopol Rd., Suite 210, Santa Rosa, CA 
95407. 300- and 1200-bps, 24-hour, free 
BBS at (707) 545-0746. Resources for the 
survivalist community. 

Wolf's Den BBS, (316) 838-9456. 24-hour, 
300-bps BBS with variety of features. 

SAMNA Pipeline. SAMNA International 
User's Group, 1088 Bishop St., Suite 407, 
Honolulu, HI 96813. Monthly newsletter 
on using SAMNA. ■ 



CLUBS AND NEWSLETTERS is an 
acknowledgment of new clubs and newsletters 
received at BYTE. Please allow at least (our 
months for your club's mention to appear. Send 
information to BYTE, Clubs and Newsletters, 
POB 372, Hancock. NH 03449. 



54 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



The future ... a little sooner than you expected] 








The Panasonic Exec. Partner. What makes it an execu- 
tive? The 7.16 MHz 8086-2 microprocessor for high-speed 
processing. So you can do more in less time. 

What makes it your partner? Like all ambitious achievers 
the Panasonic Exec. Partner gets along with others. Namely, 
IBM hardware and software. 

You'll also accomplish more with the new high-resolution 
plasma display. It lasts four times longer, offers clearer defini- 
tion and is easier to read than an ordinary screen. 

The Exec. Partner's built-in dual mode printer will help 



ACHIEVE THE POWER 

AND SPEED OF TOMORROW'S 

TECHNOLOGY TODAY. 

INTRODUCING 

THE EXEC. PARTMER ™FROM 

PANASONIC 5 

you make a good impression. From silent, draft-quality mode 
to correspondence quality. 

The 256K internal memory has built-in expandability to 
640K. So the Exec. Partner will run the most sophisticated 
data base management programs. And its expansion slot 
allows you to fulfill the needs of specific applications like 
telecommunications and Local Area Networks. 

Tomorrow's technology Donocnni^ 
for today's executives. The rdlWaUIIW* 
new Panasonic Exec. Partner. Industrial Company 



Get a carrying case (model FXZC751 ) at no charge with any Exec. Partner purchased through 3/31/86. For the location 

Of yOUr nearest participating dealer, Call 1-800-PIC-8086. IBM is the registered trademark of International Business Machines, Inc. 



Inquiry 2M 







F O R 

SORE 



Y 



E S 



THOMSON 



To those of you who stare and stare— and stare 
at computers, blessed relief has arrived. Thomson™ 
monitors.We promise clearer, crisper resolution, 
remarkable colors and print-like text. Thomson builds 
a full line of monitors, from basic monochrome to high- 
resolution color models. All are designed to fulfill your 
needs today, and sophisticated enough to fulfill your 
needs in the future. 

Thomson monitors are designed and built by Thomson, 
a $6 billion international corporation. They re going to 
change the way America looks at computers. 

Ask your local computer dealer for a Thomson 
monitor, or call 1-213-821-2995, ext. 34, for the Thomson 
dealer nearest you. Then take a stare at a Thomson 
monitor. It's a sight for sore eyes™ 

Telex 3720233. Thomson is a trademark of Thomson S.A. 



Model CM :ti:!l 1S1. lirdi.'iKonnl. .31mm (lol pitch 

RGB! color monitor with text switch and 

non-ejare tinted screen. 





THOMSON O 



© 1985 Thomson Consumer Products Corporation 
56 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 347 



BOOK REVIEWS 



[ P ! I ! 



THE PETER NORTON 
PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE TO 
THE IBM PC 
Peter Norton 
Microsoft Press 
Bellevue, WA: 1985 
426 pages. $19.95 

THE COMPUTER CULTURE 
Denis P. Donnelly, editor 
Fairleigh Dickinson University Press 
Cranbury, NJ: 1985 
176 pages. $24.50 

MICROSOFT MACINATIONS 
Mitchell Waite, Robert Lafore, 
Ira Lansing 
Microsoft Press 
Bellevue, WA: 1985 
497 pages, $19.95 

THE COMPUTER LAW ANNUAL 1985 
Miles R. Gilburne, Ronald L. Johnston, 
Allen R. Grogan, editors 
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 
New York: 1985 
405 pages, $60 



THE PETER NORTON PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE 
TO THE IBM PC 

Reviewed by Donald Evan Crabb 

Although the information Peter Norton provides in The 
Peter Norton Programmer's Guide to the IBM PC is not new 
or unique, reading it is an education. The book picks up 
where Norton's \nside the IBM PC (Robert J. Brady Co., 1983) 
left off. Whereas the earlier book concentrates on the 
hardware components of the IBM Personal Computer and 
how they work together, the new book is written strictly 
with the PC programmer in mind. Both works combined 
provide a comprehensive technical reference to the PC. 
As you might expect, these books cover some material 
in common. For example, both explore the ROM BIOS of 
the PC. But the discussion in The Programmer's Guide is de- 
signed for the programmer. In fact, this book should be 
useful to anyone who needs to understand the technical 



NORTON 



PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE 

TO TO IBM PC 



details involved in creating PC pro- 
grams. Norton makes the distinction 
right from the start that he is pro- 
viding more than just PC program- 
ming knowledge. He is trying to im- 
part concepts about PC program- 
ming. 

Norton also concerns himself with 
the philosophy of programming the 
PC. He laces the book with explana- 
tions about the design concepts that 
permeate the entire IBM PC line. Due 
to Norton's wealth of experience 
working with PCs, this information is 
synthesized so that it is more useful 
than the usual dry engineering discus- 
sion that you often get in books of this 
kind. He carefully divides the ROM in- 
formation into four chapters: ROM 
BIOS basics, ROM BIOS video services, ROM BIOS disk 
services, and ROM BIOS keyboard services. 

The Programmer's Guide details the original PC. But keep 
in mind the subtitle of this book: "The ultimate reference 
guide to the entire family of IBM personal computers." Nor- 
ton explains differences between the design, construction, 
and systems software of the other members of the PC 
family and the PC. Most of the examples and information 
describe the Intel 8088 microprocessor and how it's pro- 
grammed through the services provided by the ROM BIOS 
and by DOS. Many of the programming examples use 
BASIC as the representative high-level language. Pascal 
and C-language examples also appear. Norton shows how 
to write 8088 assembly-language interface programs for 
each of these languages. 

The scope of the book extends to a number of program- 
ming areas. From video and disk basics, Norton moves 
from how the keyboard operates in programs to all the 
programming aspects of DOS. The final two chapters, "Pro- 
gram Building" and "Programming Languages," are worth 
the price of admission alone. Norton covers the concep- 
tual basics of writing, compiling and interpreting, linking, 
and executing programs. Especially informative are the 
discussions of the DOS LINK program and the logical or- 
ganization of assembly-language programs. 

Norton discusses both the IBM Pascal compiler and the 
generic Microsoft Pascal compiler. He discusses Pascal 
data formats on the PC and how to work with them, as 

(continued) 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY PAUL AVIS 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 57 



Western computer 

BREAKS THE 

PRICE/PERFORMANCE 

BARRIER 




WESTERN COMPUTER AT TURBO 

STANDARD FEATURES: 

■ IBM PC/AT Compatible with 512K RAM 

■ Switch Selectable 6 or 8 MHz operation 

■ Up to 2 Megabytes of RAM on Main board 

■ One Parallel Port & Clock/Calendar on Main 
board 

■ Enhanced PC/AT style keyboard 

■ Various mass storage and video display options 
available 

■ One Year Warranty 




WESTERN COMPUTER PC/XT TURBO 

STANDARD FEATURES: 

■ IBM PC/XT Compatible with 256K RAM 

■ Switch Selectable 4.77 or 8 MHz operation 

■ Up to 1 Megabyte of RAM on Main board 

■ Two 360K Floppy disk drives and controller 

■ 750 x 350 Monochrome graphics controller or 
IBM CGA compatible controller 

■ Amber or green display monochrome monitor 

■ Enhanced IBM PC style keyboard 

■ Various mass storage, I/O, and Video display 
option available 

■ One Year Warranty 

Western Computer 

1381 WARNER AVE. 
WARNER CORPORATE PARK #8, TUSIN. CA 92680 

(714) 259-7755 
EUROPEAN HEAD OFFICE 

BELECTRONIC SA, RUE CENTRALE 43 

CH-1880-BEX, SWITZERLAND 

PHONE (025) 631250 

TELEX 456 168 ASWERBACK BELE CH. 

IBM PC/XT/AT/CGA are trademarks ol IBM Corp. 

Inquiry 374 for End-Users. 
58 BYTE • MARCH 1986 Inquiry 375 for DEALERS ONLY. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



well as integers, strings, SETs, and floating-point numbers. 
A quote about compiler compatibility illustrates the 
book's usefulness: "For compatibility reasons, note that 
version 1 of the compiler has a floating-point format com- 
patible with BASIC, and that version 2 has formats com- 
patible with most other languages." 

Visual Effects 

Besides the intended audience, the other noticeable dif- 
ference between this book and \nside the IBM PC concerns 
the writing and editing. Norton has always had a good 
informational writing style, but The Programmer's Guide shows 
a writer who has improved at his craft. And the design, 
graphics, and editing of this book are superior to those 
of the earlier one. Illustrations are used to good effect. 
Pointing-hand icons are used to refer you to related 
material elsewhere in the book. Small logos and symbols 
frequently appear in a second color and differentiate 
discussions about the different members of the PC family: 
original PC, PC XT, PCjr, Portable PC, and PC AT. The 
14-page index eases specific research. Three appendixes 
that enhance the already relevant material are entitled "In- 
stallable Device Drivers," "Hexadecimal Arithmetic," and 
"About Characters." 

Though I looked for them, I couldn't find any errors of 
fact. Norton does point out some errors, however, in IBM's 
own technical documentation. 

The Peter Norton Programmer's Guide deals primarily with the 
PC and the PC XT but also discusses some of the hard- 
ware and programming concerns of owners of the PCjr, 
the PC AT, and the IBM Portable PC. 

I recommend this guide to PC programmers and to 
those people who need the technical information. While 
the prices of technically oriented softcovers have risen, 
the $19.95 price of Norton's guide is reasonable consider- 
ing all the information that's packed into its 400-plus 
pages. Norton traces his selected territory well, providing 
helpful references to other PC publications. If you plan 
on some serious programming using an IBM Personal 
Computer, this book will be a good companion to ease 
you through the rough spots. 

Donald Evan Crabb is director of instruction and laboratories at the 
University of Chicago (Department of Computer Science. Ryerson Hall 
163, 1 100 East 58th St.. Chicago. IL 60637). He is on the review 
board of InfoWorld. 



THE COMPUTER CULTURE 

Reviewed by Hugh Kenner 



The six talks in this book were delivered by six speakers 
at a symposium that Siena College staged in 1981, 
and aging for five years has not improved them. Universi- 
ty presses have a natural abhorrence of symposia— some 
won't consider symposium proceedings at all— and once 

[continued) 





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BOOK REVIEWS 



Some pages in The Computer 
Culture, like the ones covering 
on-line conferencing, are so archaic 
they give off an odor of lavender. 



they do decide to move, their production speed can be 
an order of magnitude slower than the computer culture 
requires. I'm willing to guess that someone at Fairleigh 
Dickinson University Press saw "social issues" seeming to 
be addressed and finally gave a green light on the princi- 
ple that social issues evolve less quickly than hardware. 

The symposium was "part of Siena College's integrated 
humanities program" (translation: nothing too technical 
here), and the editor, Denis P. Donnelly, dithers mightily 
to persuade us that the jargon of social science, of which 
he is far from being a native speaker, can confer humane 
generality on something as rinky-dink as "the transistor 
switch." 

Here's a sample: "When changes effect quantitative dis- 
placements, they also become agents of qualitative 
change in a given environment whether one is logging in 
a forest or waging war on a battlefield, for example." If 
prose, like Pascal, required writers to declare their vari- 
ables, a sentence like that would detonate error messages. 
What it's trying to say is probably something like, "The 
transistor by its sheer speed has changed everything: so 
grab your hat and read on." 

Like most of the introductory matter, what it's also say- 
ing is, "These big themes require big ponderous sen- 
tences. We address major issues here. The world we all 
grew up in slips from our grasp. Accredited themes for 
worry are well known: big machines, big changes. Big 
Brother. We'll all be worrying along." 

Let me get most of this out of the way quickly. Some 
pages, like the ones covering a discussion of on-line con- 
ferencing, are so archaic they give off an odor of lavender. 
Elsewhere familiar worries are reinforced. While the com- 
puter can model fearfully complex interrelationships, we 
must beware of assumptions that get built into the model: 
"We are never free from the potential for misuse." That 
is something we'd all heard before we came in. Likewise, 
"We need computer systems and the information they pro- 
duce, but somehow their limitations must be recognized." 
Somehow! You could glean as much from any op-ed page. 

The first half of the book is about "Artificial Intelligence," 
the second half about "Computer Influences in Modern 
Culture." The former is unexpectedly rich: I'll come to it. 
The latter does contain one chunk of meat: Alan F. Westin's 
discussion of privacy, technology, and regulation. 

The market, Westin reminds us, "deserves our continued 
respect" because "much of what could be done by com- 

[continued) 



60 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



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Inquiry 221 



© 1985 Mark Williams UNIX is a trademark of Bell Labs. 



Inquiry 335 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



puters will be done on a large scale in the United States 
only if someone can make a great deal of money from 
it or if the government is willing to pay for it." Most of 
the Big Brother talk we've heard implies "awesomely ex- 
pensive" implementation, and "Information is a power 
resource that nobody gives freely." 

In fact, "We can . . .often give greater protection to in- 
formation in a computer system than in the highly decen- 
tralized, leaky manual-record era." No, Westin's not 
sanguine, but "as long as we keep on struggling, pointing 
out the potential abuses. . .we will not be caught un- 
aware." He discerns "an interesting marriage between the 
liberal political and the strong conservative viewpoints on 
limiting information abuse," and he's right. 

That is one rewarding stretch in this book, and the other 
is the AI section. MIT's Marvin Minsky and Yale's Roger 
C. Schank set up a discussion that never gets off the 
ground because on page 79, "Influences in Modern 
Culture" drearily takes over. I don't downplay Minsky if 
I call Schank especially interesting. Minsky's format didn't 
allow him to canvass particulars the way Schank's did, and 
Schank gives as lucid an account of his script-recognition 
work as you'll find anywhere. 

How does a program work its way through a story so 
effectively it can answer questions the story leaves im- 
plicit? By translating downward into a more general lan- 
guage with, for instance, just 1 1 "verbs." "Eleven primitive 
actions can express all human activities that there are in 
the world." A fascinating claim, and we're shown the list. 

Schank is saying that if we stay inside a system of words 
we can hope to generate whatever additional words may 
be required to pass Turing's test. (Turing's test implied that 
a machine might as well be called "intelligent" if a ques- 
tioner couldn't tell it wasn't.) In a "Postscript" the Siena 
audience apparently never heard, Skidmore's Warren 
Hockenos denies that radically. You cannot, he implies, 
reduce "meaning" by altering strings of tokens to other 
strings of tokens; "meaning" implies an intending in- 
telligence. When I say "horse" I assert my perception of 
a horse, "real" perhaps or hallucinatory perhaps, but 
somehow perceived, by me, and that matters. 

How it matters we might have learned if Schank had 
answered, but as far as I can tell they never heard each 
other. That's the major botched opportunity in a botched 
book. 

Hugh tenner is a professor of English at ]ohns Hopkins University 
{Baltimore. MD 2 12 18). 



MICROSOFT MACINATIONS 

Reviewed by Scott L. Norman 



Microsoft Macinations is an excellent self-teaching guide 
to Microsoft BASIC as implemented on the Macin- 
tosh. Mitchell Waite, Robert Lafore. and Ira Lansing have 

{continued} 



62 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 265 




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Inquiry 233 



MARCH 1986 



I Y T E 65 



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MARCH 1986 • B YT E 67 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



The authors use a simple program 
fragment to introduce a major topic, 
then build upon it by describing 
how to add more polished options. 



the reader with code that can be used to add menus to 
BASIC programs. Like the commercial variety, user-written 
menus can include such niceties as check marks to indicate 
the last selection made and dimmed lettering for selec- 
tions that are unavailable at a particular point. 

The step-by-step approach is characteristic of this part 
of the book. The authors use a simple program fragment 
to introduce a major topic, then build upon it by describ- 
ing how to add more polished options. The attentive 
reader can wind up with the beginnings of a nice library 
of core routines for civilized programming. 

The book then covers video "buttons" activated with 
a mouse click. There are three types: push buttons, which 
make things happen immediately, and radio buttons and 
check boxes, both of which can be used to make selec- 
tions that will influence some subsequent action. The DIA- 
LOG function is introduced as the means of determining 
which button, if any, has been "clicked." 

Windows, dialog boxes, and edit fields (like the filename 
box in the "Save As. . ." window) are covered at length. 
The versatile DIALOG gets a major workout here. The 
reader can learn how to set up dialog boxes that will ac- 
cept either the clicking of a "Save" button or the press- 
ing of the Enter key on the Mac's keyboard to record data 
in an edit field: another example of using built-in routines 
to add polish to your own code. 

QuickDraw 

The most publicized of the Mac's ROM resources is prob- 
ably the QuickDraw family of graphics routines, reached 
from BASIC with a CALL statement. The authors contrast 
QuickDraw with LINE, CIRCLE, and similar functions of 
other Microsoft BASICS. 

The concept of QuickDraw's pen metaphor for drawing 
leads to other topics: functions for drawing lines and 
changing the size and pattern of the pen itself. This in turn 
brings up the idea of representing an 8 by 8 arrangement 
of pixels (the pen pattern) as an array of hexadecimal 
numbers for storage in the Mac's memory. There is even 
a BASIC program. Pattern Editor, with which you can 
create a pattern in a FatBits-like window; the program then 
generates the associated integers. In one of the book's 
few miscues, the backslash symbol for integer division is 
used in this program without ever being defined in the 
text. 

The final topics in the chapter include the PENMODE 

{continued) 



68 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 92 



Finally! 

File Names That Make Sense! 



TM 



Organizes Your Files, Simplifies DOS, 
and Speeds Up Your PC 




Every time you face the maze of 8 character file names in your 
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The Heart of PCEasy, The heart of the PCEasy system is 

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letters, spreadsheets, programs or whatever in their own logical, 
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With PCEasy you can forget those half forgotten or cryptic file 
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PCEasy file names work with most of the popular application 
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Framework™. In fact, PCEasy works with nearly any program 
because it translates PCEasy file names to standard DOS file names 
for your program application - automatically! 
PCEasy makes your work easier in other ways, too. PCEasy 
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Use your fjj 3 or SQ) 

Inquiry 357 



17:41 C:\DOCUMENT>dir/w 



Directory of C:\D0ClTIEKT 



ANGELS HOC 
DEALERS TXT 
FMJNLl TXT 
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LINTON 1 
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PC EASY FILES MENU 



PfinsRV PROGRAMS]- 
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DOS T. 16 f> January 19Bfc 5:27:39 i 

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The company that brought you UnLock ™ 
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TranSec Systems, Inc. 
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Plantation, FL 33322 
DEALER AND VAR INQUIRIES INVITED 

Trademarks are the sole property of their respective owners 

MARCH I986 -BYTE 69 



Inquiry 281 



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BOOK REVIEWS 



Anyone mastering all this 
material could possbily write a 
BASIC version of MacPaint. 



statement and the ways in which its eight modes affect 
the relationship between the pixels of the pen and pat- 
tern and the background, and the use of QuickDraw's built- 
in routines for drawing rectangles, round-corner rectangles, 
and ovals. Anyone mastering all this rriaterial could pos- 
sibly write a BASIC version of MacPaint as a final exercise. 

Microsoft Macinations returns to more conventional topics 
with a discussion of sequential and random-access disk 
files. First, the reader is gently led through the commands 
for opening, closing, writing to, and reading from a se- 
quential file. Next come the useful Mac-specific functions 
FlLES$(0) and FILES$(1). The former sets up a dialog box 
for saving a file, complete with prompting message and 
push buttons. FILES$(l), on the other hand, allows you 
to select the name of an existing disk file from a scrolling 
dialog box. There is a brief discussion of file-type identi- 
fiers and their use in restricting the names that appear 
in the box. 

The coverage of sequential files ends with a little pro- 
gram that creates a simple employee file and calculates 
total pay from pay rate and hours worked. The same topic 
is used as an example in the discussion of random-access 
files. This portion of the book includes a nice treatment 
of the necessary conversion of numeric variables to char- 
acter strings before they can be written to a random- 
access file. The use of index tables for finding your way 
around a file is touched upon; no sample programs are 
developed, however. 

The last two chapters cover animation and multivoice 
sound— possibly as rewards for mastering the material on 
files. The GET and PUT statements, which together with 
PSET and PRESET form the basics of animation, are in- 
troduced. The authors present a convenient form of the 
equation for computing the size of the one-dimensional 
array needed to store image points. They also explain the 
use of a two-dimensional array for storing multiple images 
for animation. The final topic in the animation chapter is 
interfacing with MacPaint— that is, importing images 
through the Clipboard. That is as close as the book comes 
to discussing the Mac's generalized device I/O. 

Multivoice sound depends on two commands: SOUND 
and WAVE. The final chapter of Microsoft Macinations deals 
with them. Here you can find the details of how to set 
up a data array to simulate the equal-tempered scale. 
There are numerous routines for adding sound effects to 
games, programming music chords, and experimenting 
with nonsinusoidal waveforms. The last program is a rather 
elaborate waveform tester that allows you to experiment 

[continued] 



70 B YTE • MARCH I986 



Inquiry 94 



THE PROFESSIONAL'S CHOICE 



■£*" Lotus 
1-2-3 

$319 



-^ Lotus 
Symphony 

$439 



$369 



S n 
$369 



$219 



Perfect 4-1 

$209 



Software 



Word Processing Ed 
FANCY FONT 
FINAL WORD 
MICROSOFT WORD 
MULTIMATE 
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ADVANTAGE 
OFFICE WRITER/ 

SPELLER 
PF8: WRITE 
SAMNA WORD III 
VOLKSWRITER 

DELUXE 
VOLKSWRITER 

SCIENTIFIC 
WORD PERFECT 4.1 
WORDSTAR 
WORDSTAR 2000 
WORDSTAR 2000+ 
WORDSTAR PRO 
XYWRITE lh 

Database Systems 
ALPHA DATA BASE 

MANAGER II 
CLIPPER 
CLOUT V 2.0 
CONDOR III 
CORNERSTONE 
DBA8E III 

KNOWLEDGEMAN 2 
PARADOX 
PC FOCUS 
PF8: FILE/PFS: 

REPORT 
POWERBASE 
OUICKCODE III 
OUICKREPORT 
R BASE 5000 
REFLEX 
REVELATION 

Spreadsheets/ 
Integrated Packages 

ELECTRIC DESK 
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FRAMEWORK II 
JAZZ 

LOTUS 1-2-3 
MULTIPLAN 
OPEN ACCESS 
SMART SYSTEM 
SPREADSHEET 

AUDITOR 
SUPERCALC 3 
SYMPHONY 



itors 



S139 
$179 
$219 
$219 

$269 



$159 

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I209 
1199 
249 
289 
259 

1189 



$209 
348 
369 

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319 

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359 
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Project Management 

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MICROSOFT 

PROJECT-NEW $249 
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NETWORK $339 

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Desktop Environments 

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Dfl FORTRAN 77 
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GOLD QUADBOARD (OK) $419 
ORCHID BLOSSOM 

(OK) $199 

ORCHID BLOSSOM 

(384K) $249 

ORCHID PC TURBO 

(256K) $699 

PERSYST TIME SPECTRUM 

(OK) $199 

PERSYST TIME SPECTRUM 



(384K) 
QUADBOARD (OK) 
OUADBOARD (384K) 
SILVER QUADBOARD 

TECMAR CAPTAIN 

(OK) 
TECMAR CAPTAIN 

(384K) 
TECMAR JR CAPTAIN 

(128K) 
TECMAR WAVE (64K) 

Emulation Boards 
AST 5251-11 
AST 5251-12 
AST BSC 
AST SNA 
CXI 3278/9 Plus 
IRMA 
IRMALINE 

Networks 
AST PC NET 
CORVUS NET 
ORCHID PC NET 
3COM 



$249 
$189 
$219 

$219 

$199 

$229 

$289 
$209 



599 
549 
489 
599 
959 
799 



SCall 
SCall 
SCall 
$Call 



Mass Storage/Backup 

EXCEL STREAM 60 TAPE 

(INT) $899 

IOMEGA BERNOULLI 

BOX-NEWI $2445 

IRWIN 310A 10MB TAPE 

(EXT) $850 

IRWIN 110D 10MB TAPE 

(INT) $499 

MAYNSTREAM 60MB TAPE 

(INT) $1199 

MOUNTAIN ORIVECARD 

10MB $789 

TALLGRASS $Call 

TECMAR QIC-60AT TAPE 

(INT) $1199 



Monitors 
AMDEK 310A $169 

AMDEK 300/500 $249/349 

AMDEK 600/710 $449/469 

PRINCETON HX-12 
PRINCETON MAX-12E 
PRINCETON SR-12 
PRINCETON HX-12E $559 

PRINCETON HX-9 $529 

TAXAN 122 AMBER $159 

TAXAN 630/640 $469/539 



Modems 

AST REACH 1200 
HAYES 1200 
HAYES 1200B 
HAYES 2400 
TRANSNET 1000 
VENTEL 1200 
HALF CARD 
WATSON 



$389 
$389 
$349 
$579 
$299 

$369 
$489 



Printers/Plotters 
BROTHER TWINWRITER $939 

DIABLO SCall 

EPSON FX-85 $369 

EPSON FX-185 $499 

EPSON LO-1500 $999 

HP 7475A $C»I 

JUKI 6300 $699 

NEC ELF 350 $439 

NEC 3550 $1139 

OKIDATA193 $539 

QUME SPRINT 1155 $1569 

SWEET P 600 $839 

Tl 855 $799 

TOSHIBA P351 $1129 

Input Devices 

KEYTRONIC 5151 $179 

KOALA $109 
MICROSOFT MOUSE $129 
PC MOUSE W 

PAINTBRUSH $129 



Accessories 
CURTIS SURGE 

PROTECTORS 
DATASHIELD BACKUP 

POWER 
GILTRONIX SWITCHES 
MASTERPIECE PLUS 
MICROFAZER INLINE 

(64K) 
TRIPPLITE BACKUP 

POWER 
256K RAM SET 
8087 MATH CHIP 



JCall 



Helcules Mountain 

Graphics Card I Drivecard 10 



$299 



$789 



Quadboard I Six Pak Plus I Smartmodem I Smartmodem 
384K 384K 1S00B 2400 



$219 



$249 



$349 



$579 



•CALL FOR SHIPPING COSTS 




LOWEST PRICE 
GUARANTEE!! 

We will match current 

nationally advertised 

prices on most products. 

Call and compare. 



free 



Diskette 

Library 

Case 

with your order 




TERMS: 

Checks— allow 14 days to clear. Credit processing— add 3%. COD orders— cash. 
MO or certified check— add $5.00. Shipping and handling UPS surface— add $3.00 
per Item (UPS Blue$8.00 per item). NY State Residents— add applicable sales tax. 
All prices subject to change. 



In New York State call (718) 438-6057 



■EZSSH 



MON.-THURS. 9:00AM-8:00PM 
■I SUN. & FRI. 9:00 AM-4:00 PM 




n -I I lit- 



Softline Corporation 
P.O. Box 729, Brooklyn, N.Y: 11230 
TELEX: 421047 ATLNUI 
FAX: 718-972-8346 



MARCH I986 -BYTE 71 



B36 



The right prices. The right 



IBM HARDWARE 

AST Lisl Oiirn 

SixPak Plus 64K $395 $239 

SixPak Plus, 384K, S/P/CC .... $895 $269 
Advantage Multif Brd lor AT. . . $595 $425 

CENTRAL POINT 

PC Option Board $ 95 $ 81 

COMX 

130 Walt Power Supply $179 $ 93 

CORE Hard Disks for AT 

ATplus 20 meg for AT «1S95 $1395 

ATplus 30 meg for AT $1995 $1695 

ATplus 56 meg for AT $3595 $3195 

EVEREX 

The Edge, Color/Mono Board . . $399 $269 

HAUPPAGE (HCW) 

8087 Chip $175 $125 

8087-2 Chip $225 $175 

80287 Fast-5 Chip $295 $229 

HERCULES 

Color Card with Parallel Port . . $245 $165 
Mono Graphics Card $499 $319 

INTEL 

Above Board 64K for PC $395 $299 

Above Board 128K for AT $595 $449 

KENSINGTON 

Masterpiece Plus $180 $129 

KEYTRONIC Keyboards 

KB5151 or KB5151 Jr $255 $189 

MICROSOFT 

Mouse $195 $125 

128K Booster with Mouse (Jr) . . $295 $195 

MOUNTAIN 

20 meg Drive Card $1195 $945 

MOUSE SYSTEMS 

PC Mouse with Paint $220 $145 

Mouse with Software (Jr) $220 $138 

PERSYST 

PC Mono Board w/Par Port . . . $250 $159 
Color Board $210 $139 

QUADRAM 

Quadboard no RAM to 384K . . . $295 $195 
Quadboard 384K S/P/CC/G . . . $595 $279 
Quadcolor 1 Board 4 colors $295 $175 

RACORE 

Expansion Chassis Plus (Jr) .... $675 $459 
256K Expansion Board (Jr) .... $275 $179 

TALLTREE 

JRAM II board $219 $159 

JRAM III 256K Board $399 $309 



TITAN 

PC Accelerator 128K 

VIDEO 7 

Mono Graphics Card 

MGC with Parallel Port 

VEGA Board IBM EGA Comp. . 



. $795 $595 



$250 $179 
$300 $215 
$599 $429 



IBM SOFTWARE 

ASHTONTATE 

Framework /I $695 $389 

dBase 111+ $695 $395 

dBase II (req. PC DOS & 128K). $495 $305 

BORLAND 

Traveling Sidekick $ 70 

Editor Toolbox or GameWorks . $ 65 

Turbo New Pack $ 95 

Traveling Combo $125 

Superkey/Sidekick Package. . . . $125 

Turbo Holiday Pack $125 

Turbo Jumbo Pack $245 

Reflex: The Analyst $ 99 

BOURBAKI 

1 dir $ 95 



$ 39 
$ 40 
$ 50 
$ 65 
$ 65 
$ 69 
$130 
$ 59 

$ 62 



BPI 

Gen. Acclg. AR. AP, or PR 



$595 $365 



CENTRAL POINT 

Copy II PC $ 40 $ 22 

PC Tools $ 40 $ 22 



DIGITAL RESEARCH List Ours 

CP/M 86 $100 $ 64 

Gem Draw $150 $ 95 

DOW JONES 

Market Analyzer $349 $229 

FUNK SOFTWARE 

Sideways NEW VERSION! $ 60 $ 42 

HARVARD 

Total Project Manager $495 $295 

HOWARD SOFT 

1986 Tax Preparer $295 $199 

HUMAN EDGE 

Mind Prober $ 50 $ 29 

UFETREE 

Volkswriter Deluxe $295 $159 

LIVING V1DEOTEXT 

Think Tank $195 $109 

LOTUS 

1-2-3 NEW VERSION $495 $329 

Symphony $695 $449 

MAGNUM COMPUTER 

Fastrak, RAMdisk & Print Spooler $ 50 $ 39 

MICROPRO 

Easy $150 $ 99 

WordStar $350 $189 

WordStar 2000 Plus $595 $295 

MICRORIM 

R:Base 5000 $695 $385 

R:Base Clout $249 $133 

MICROSOFT 

QuickBASIC $ 99 $ 69 

Windows $ 95 $ 69 

Macro Assembler $150 $ 99 

Access $250 $169 

Word $375 $239 

MICROSTUF 

Crosstalk XVI $190 $110 

MULTIMATE 

Multimate $495 $229 

Advantage requires 384K $595 $295 

PETER NORTON 

Norton Utilties $100 $ 56 

POLYTRON 

Polywindows $ 85 $ 45 

ROSESOFT 

Prokey $130 $ 80 

SATELLITE (SSI) 

WordPerfect NEW VERSION! . . $495 $229 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHING 

PFS: Write, File or Graph $140 $ 84 

DISKETTES 

CONROY-LAPOINTE DISKETTES™ 



10 ea SS/SD 35 trk (Apple) . 
100/1000 ea SS/SD, 35 trk . 
10 ea SS/DD 3.5" (Mac) .... 

50/100 ea SS/DD 3.5" 

10 ea DS/DD 40 trk (IBM) . 
100/1000 ea DS/DD 40 trk. 
10 ea DS/HD 96 TP1 (1BM-AT) 



$ 13 

$ 99/669 

$ 25 

$115/235 

$ 16 

$119/799 

$ 29 



100 ea DS/HD 96 TPI (IBM-AT) $269 

GENERIK 

10/100 SS/SD 35 TRK (Apple) . $ 8/75 
10/100 DS/DD 40 trk (IBM) ... $ 10/79 
10/100 DS/HD 96 TPI (AT) .... $ 27/249 



MODEMS 



HAYES 

Micromodem lie (Apple) $199 $149 

Transet 1000 Comm. Buffer . . . $399 $309 

Smartmodem 1200B (IBM Int.) . $549 $379 

Smartmodem 1200 (External) . . $599 $419 

2400 Modem (External) $899 $619 

PROMETHEUS 

ProModem 1200A (Apple) $449 $329 

VENTEL 

PC Halfcard (IBM Internal) $549 $389 



APPLE 
HARDWARE 

CCS List 

7711 or 7710-A Ser. Card $115 

CPS/EASTSIDE 

Wild Card II Copier $140 

COMX 

16K RAM Card (1 Yr Ltd Wty) . $119 

KENSINGTON 

System Saver Fan $ 90 

KOALA 

Muppet Keys $ 80 

Touch Tablet $130 

MICRO-SCI 

80Col. + 64KCard lie $179 

Full or Half Ht Drive ll + ,e .... $269 

MICROSOFT 

Z80 Softcard II, 64K $425 

ORANGE MICRO 

Grappler Plus (Par.Card) $145 

Hot Link S-P Cable lie $ 70 

TEAC 

T40 Half Ht Disk Drive $249 

TITAN 

Accelerator He $319 

128K RAM Card $329 

VIDEO 7 

V Color He $130 

V Color He $250 

APPLE 
SOFTWARE 

ADVANCED LOGIC SYS. (ALS) 

Word or List Handler $ 80 

ASHTON-TATE 

dBase II (req. CP/M) $495 

BEAGLE BROTHERS 

Big U or D Code $ 40 

Fat Cat or Pro Byter $ 50 

BORLAND 

Turbo Pascal (req. CP/M) $ 70 

Turbo Toolbox $ 55 

BPI 

AR, AP, PR, or INV $395 

BRODERBUND 

Karateka $ 35 

The Print Shop $ 50 

Print Shop w/Refill $ 65 

CENTRAL POINT 

Copy 11 Plus $ 40 

FUNK 

Sideways $ 60 

INFOCOM 

Zork I, II, or III $ 40 

LIVING VIDEOTEXT 

Think Tank $145 

MICROPRO 

WordStar w/Starcard $495 

WordStar Professional $495 

MICROSOFT 

Typing Tutor II $ 25 

MICROSTUF 

Crosstalk $195 I 

MONOGRAM 

Dollars & $ense Il + ,e $100 

Dollars & $ense 128K $120 

ORIGIN 

Ultima III 

Ultima IV 



Ours 

$ 95 
$ 79 
$ 39 
$ 65 

$ 44 

$ 75 

$ 79 
$139 

$295 

$ 72 
$ 44 

$149 

$229 
$149 



$ 36 
$305 



$ 25 
$ 27 



$ 36 
$ 30 

$240 

$ 25 
$ 31 
$ 39 

$ 22 

$ 37 

$ 29 

$ 89 

$265 
$265 

$ 17 

$109 



SATELLITE (SSI) List Ours 

WordPerfect NEW! $179 $115 

SIMON & SCHUSTER 

Typing Tutor 111 $ 50 $ 33 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHING PFS Series 
File, Write, Graph or Report ... $125 $ 79 

SPECTRUM HOLOBYTE 

GATO (req. 128K) $ 40 $ 25 

SUBLOGIC 

Flight Simulator II $ 50 $ 30 

TIMEWORKS 

Swiftax $ 70 $ 49 

MACINTOSH 

AEGIS 

Challenger or Pyramid $ 50 $ 37 

ASSIMILATION 

Numeric Turbo CALL 

Mac Port Adaptor $ 79 $ 59 

BORLAND 

Sidekick (copiable) 

CENTRAL POINT 

Copy II Mac 

HABA SYSTEMS 

800K DS/DD Disk Drive 



LIVING VIDEOTEXT 

Think Tank 

LOTUS 

Jazz 



MICROSOFT 

Multiplan, Word or File . 

Fortran 

Excel 

Business Pak 



. $ 85 $ 45 

. $ 40 $ 22 

. $599 $299 

. $145 $ 92 

$595 $389 

. $195 $125 

. $295 $199 

. $395 $259 

. $595 $395 



We carry thousands more 
products than are listed here. 
If you don't see what you 
are looking for, call I ... 



PRINTERS 

BROTHER 

HR25 Daisywheel $695 $555 

EPSON 

LX80 100 cps, 16 cps NLQ .... $299 $249 

FX286 200 cps, 40 NLQ $749 $609 

LQ800 180 cps, 60 LQ $799 $649 

LQ1000 180 cps, 60 LQ, 15" . . . $995 $795 

LQ1500 200 cps, 67 LQ, 15" . . . $1295 $995 

OKIDATA 

Okimate 20, 182, 84 LOW 

92, 192,193, 2410 Pacemark . . . PRICES 

PANASONIC 

P1092 180 cps $599 $349 

P1093 180 cps 15" $699 $469 

P3151 22 cps Daisywheel $659 $439 

STAR MICRONICS 

SG10 120 cps, 30 cps NLQ $299 $249 

SD10 120 cps. 40 cps NLQ, 10" $449 $379 

MONITORS 

AMDEK 

300G 12" Green Composite .... $179 $119 
300A 12" Amber Composite . . . $199 $129 
310A 12" Amber TTL (IBM) . . . $230 $159 

PRINCETON 

MAX-12 12" Amber TTL (IBM) . $249 $179 

HX-12 12" Color RGB $795 $445 

HX-l2e RGB for IBM-EGA $785 $545 

ZENITH 

ZVM-1220 12" Amber Comp.. . . $159 $109 
ZVM-1230 12" Green Comp. ... $159 $109 
ZVM-1240 & ZVM-135 SAVE 



ORDERING INFORMATION & TERMS 



Mail to: 12060 S. W.Garden Place, Portland OR 97223 "Include telephone number" We immediately honor cashiers checks. 

money orders. Fortune 1000, and Government checks* Personal and other company checks allow 20 days to dear • Advertised prices 
reflect a 3% discount for cash, so add 3% tor credit card purchases "We ship Federal Express Standard Air* U.S. and Puerto Rico 
add 3% 05 minimum)* Canada add 12% (JJ5 min)* Foreign add 18% (125 min)* APO. FPO other U.S. Territories add 6% ($10 min)* 
All prices, availability and specifications subject to change without nolice*AII sales final* We do not guarantee compatibility • You 
must call for R. A. number to return defective goods. 




CONROY-LAPOINTE COMPUTER STORES 3 Locations. Retail Sales Only. Store Prices May Vary. 
San Francisco, CA • 415-982-6212 • Across From The Pyramid On Washington St. Near Montgomery 
' Portland, OR • 503-620-5595 • Business Park 217 In Tigard, At Intersection of Hwys 217 & 99W 
Seattle, WA • 206-455-0206 • Belgate Plaza In Bellevue, 2 Blocks North Of Bellevue Square 




"We'll give you the best service anywhere" 



72 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



products. The right choice. 



B36 




Internal 
Hard Drives 

10 meg s$389 

with controller *-* 

20 meg & $489 

with controller «-* 
Fast access time beats the standard IBM drive by 30% . 90 day limited warranty. 




64KRAMs$ 9 

9 each, 4164 200 ns chips 1-99 sets $ 1 1 

256KRAMs$32 

9 each, 4256 150 ns chips 1-99 sets $34 

128KRAMs$37 

9 each, 4128 150 ns chips 1-99 sets $39 

.4// prices subject to change without notice. 90 day limited warranty 



CDC 360K 
Floppy Drives 

HalfHt.,™$ 75 
FullHt. s$119 

Half-Height for AT $95 Call for quantity prices. 30 day limited warranty. 




MAGNUM EconoRAM 

384Ks$89 



• Full 384K of RAM 

• Short Board 

• Fastrak Printer Spooler 
& RAMdisk Software 

• Snap-In Installation 

• 1 Year Limited Warranty 



For IBM PC, XT and compatibles, 
with 256K of installed memory. 



MAGNUM PCMasterCard 



COMX/IRWIN 
Tape Backup 

10 megs$495 
Kit s$549 

with Tape, Cable & Software 
90 day limited warranty. 




More Features Than 
SixPak or Quadboard 

• Expandable to 1.5 MB 

• 1 Serial RS-232C Port 

• Parallel Printer Port 

• Clock/Calendar & Battery 
■ Game Port 

• SiliconBullet Software: 
Printer Spooler, RAMdisk, 
and Bank Switching Driver 

• 1 Year Limited Warranty 



For IBM PC, PCXT 
or Compatibles. 




384 KB s,$179 
1.5 MB s,$329 



/VjAQNUM 



XT Mark 2 



• Fully IBM PC/XT Compatible 

• Dual Speed 4.77 and 8 MHz 8088-2 

• RAM Expandable to 640K On Motherboard 

• 360K Floppy Disk Drives 

• 135 Watt Power Supply 

• IBM Selectric AT Style Keyboard (84 Keys) 

• 5 Expansion Slots 

• 2 Serial RS-232C Ports Built-in 

• Parallel Printer Interface Built-in 

• Clock/Calendar Built-in 

• Floppy Disk Controller Built-in 

• Tape Backup Interface Built-in 

• MS-DOS Operating System 

• Complete User Operating Manual 

• Reset Button Switch Built-in 

• 8087-2 Co-Processor (optional) 

• RAMdisk & Printer Spooler 

• 90 Day Limited Warranty 



Get Magnum 
In Your Corner 

Only $895 



System A 

128K.1 360K Floppy drive 



Systems 

B. 640K, 2 360K 
Floppy Drives .... 

C. 640K, 1 Floppy, 

10 MB Hard Drive . 

D. System C plus 
Tape Backup 

J. 640K, 1 Floppy, 
20 MB Hard Drive. 



$ 995 
$1595 
$2295 
$1795 



Other systems available, please call. 

Above prices exclude video card and monitor. 




Our 
References 



• First Interstate Bank (503) 643-4678 

• Portland Chamber of Commerce (503) 228-9411 

• Direct Marketing Association 



• Dun and Bradstreet 

• Others On Request 



«3£S> 



1»800«547M289 



Oregon Toll Free 1«800'451'5151 Telex 910 380 3980 
Foreign. Local (503) 620-9878 hours 6-6 (Pacific) Mon-Fri. 8-4 Sat 
Customer Service (503) 620-9877 hours 8-5 (Pacific! Mon-Fri 



Conroy-LaPointe 




Inquiry 95 for Apple. Inquiry 96 for IBM Peripherals. Inquiry 97 for all others. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 73 



Inquiry 53 



, GANG PROGRAMMER, 
A SET PROGRAMMER, 
A UNIVERSAL PROGRAMMER, 



Corporation ' 

I Instrument Systems Division 



I LIKE THESE: 
CHNOLOGIES 

• UP TO 1 MEGA BYTE OF RAM 

• CENTRONIC PARALLEL PRINTER 
PORT 

1 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY 
CH, MUCH MORE. 

1ST PERFORMANCE/COST 
AVAILABLE TODAY 

.R MODELS AVAILABLE 
PRICES START AT $995 
UV ERASERS FROM $67 
AVAILABLE FROM STOCK 

L NOW TO ORDER 
(305) 994-3520 

1 South Rogers Circle, Bees Raton, FL 33431 
,..5) 994-3520, Telex 4310073 MEVBTC 



JAPANESE QUALITY 

AT INCREDIBLE LOW PRICES 




Fast delivery — We manufacture and control every stage 
of design and production. Many outstanding and unique 
products never shown before. 




We are willing to take care of small orders, too. 



INQUIRE TODAY 
EAST DIGITAL CO., LTD. 
2nd PI,, No. 432 Kuang-Fu S. Rd. 
TalpaJ, Taiwan. R.O.C. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



with changing the shapes of the waves in two different 
voices. You can choose from sine, square, or sawtooth 
waveforms, or you can design your own by drawing with 
the mouse. The whole thing is also a good review of 
BASIC'S menu and button commands. 

Lasting Impressions 

By the time I acquired Microsoft BASIC for my own Macin- 
tosh, I'd had five years of experience with the same com- 
pany's interpreters for the Radio Shack Color Computer 
and Model 100 portable. As a result, I anticipated little 
trouble in picking up the details of the new package. That 
may have been optimistic; the process seemed to take 
longer than it should have. While I still think it possible 
for the veteran user to get by with nothing but the Micro- 
soft manual, a well-illustrated and less terse book can 
make the learning process a lot easier. 

Microsoft Macinations is one of the best such books. It is 
well paced (with the exception of the very early pages), 
and it is written in a style that avoids Mac-cutesiness. The 
book's emphasis on special features of the user interface, 
combined with the useful program components, leads me 
to believe that I will be referring to my copy for some time 
to come. 

Scott L. Norman (8 Doris Rd.. Framingham, MA 01701) is a fre- 
quent contributor to computer magazines. 



THE COMPUTER LAW ANNUAL 1985 

Reviewed by David A. Price 

Few industries have created as many difficult legal 
issues in as short a time as the computer industry. Al- 
though some lawyers have developed specialized exper- 
tise in "computer law," as it is now called, the industry is 
far too large and the issues too pervasive to be left to 
specialists. Miles R. Gilburne, Ronald L. Johnston, and 
Allen R. Grogan, the editors of The Computer law Annual 
1985, have performed a valuable service by assembling 
an excellent group of articles about the legal problems 
that computer businesses often face. 

Its 20 articles are from a legal journal, The Computer lawyer. 
They cover a wide variety of issues, most of them perti- 
nent to computer businesses of all sizes. Not surprising- 
ly, the topic receiving the most coverage is that of pro- 
tecting proprietary rights to software. Instead of giving only 
a recitation of the legal doctrines governing copyright and 
trade-secret protection, the articles go further by tackling 
some difficult questions. To what extent can a firm per- 
missibly "reverse-engineer" a copyrighted software prod- 
uct by disassembling it? When should a firm require a 
license agreement for the sale of software and when 
should it just rely on copyright? When does a program- 
mer own the copyright to a software product that he or 
she wrote as an employee? How can a firm enlist the help 

{continued) 



74 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 147 



BUSINESS 



SCIENCE 



EDUCATION 



STATISTICAL 
PACKAGES 



StatSoft 



m 



TM 



data-analysis software from: 
unbeatable power and flexibility for unbeatable prices! 

We developed complete, 
high-performance 
statistical packages 
for all computers: 

1. STATS-2™ (release 2.0): Statistical supplement for Lotus 1-2-3™ and 

other spreadsheet programs. Can also be used as a stand-alone statistical d^ H /[Q 

package, runs on IBM and compatibles, 256k, 2dd, 8087 support .... ^ I *¥%# 

(release 2.0): The most powerful statistical package ^4 4 A 
Macintosh™ 128k or 512k, 1dd $ I 19 

™ family of <tQQ 



4 rile [ 


B 


: r ^H Hdunfitet] Non-Paromel 

Ontrlpllui Slain llci 
I-iBtl - Indi mum nl in mole i 
1 toil - Correlated inmnlei 
Crtrrelollon 






i 11 








.." 


'\ 




""»JL1L»»" 



2. STATFAST™ 

developed for the 



3. APP-STAT™: Acompletestatistical packagefortheApple II 
computers, 1dd 



4. PSYCH0STAT-3 7 

and all CP/M™ 



$99 



™: A complete statistical package, available for Kaypro™ 
computers, 1 dd 

Ask for our statistical packages for other computers. 

All of these statistical packages are user friendly and super-easy to use. They include 
the full range of basic statistical analyses (descriptive statistics, t-tests, correlations, 
crosstabulations, nonparametric statistics, and more) and advanced multivariate 
statistics (multiple regression, multifactor analysis of variance and covariance, 
repeated measures, contrasts, unbalanced designs, and more). All packages can 
handle data files of unlimited size, include flexible Data Editors, and can access data 
files from spreadsheets, data-bases, and mainframes. 

TO ORDER: Send check, credit card number, or money order (plus $5 shipping and handling) to: 




m 



StatSoft 



ViSA* 



2832 EAST 10TH STREET, SUITE 4, TULSA, OK 74104 
(918) 583-4149 

To order by phone (Visa, MasterCard, C.O.D. orders accepted) or talk 
to our technical staff for more information, call (918) 583-4149. 

STATSOFT, STATSOFT logo, STATS-2, STATFAST, APP-STAT, PSYCHOSTAT-3, LOTUS 1-2-3, Symphony, IBM, Macintosh, 
Apple II, Kaypro, and CP/M are registered trademarks of respective companies. 



Inquiry 327 



MARCH 1 986 



iYTE 75 



THE PRICE LEADERS!!! 



BUILD YOUR OWN PC! 



^ 



& 



& 



^ i 



ty 



*A 



**h 



•itsmm 



«to 



»/> 



<* 



*m\ 



IBM PC-XT TYPE CASE $ 39.00 

150 WATT POWER SUPPLY $ 79.00 

5150 IBM-TYPE KEY BOARD $ 49.00 

MOTHER BOARD EXPANDABLE TO 640K 

WITH 128K INSTALLED $135.00 

MONOCHROME GRAPHIC PRINTER BOARD $ 85.00 

FLOPPY CONTROLLER BOARD $ 35.00 

2-FLOPPY DISC DRIVES @$85 EACH $170.00 

12" TTL HIGH RESOLUTION MONITOR $ 97.00 

COMPLETE WITH INSTRUCTION & ASSEMBLY MANUALS. === 

YOUR COST $689.00 

OPTIONAL: 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED WITH MS DOS & GW BASIC $127.00 

RAM CHIPS TO EXPAND TO 640K $ 75.00 

Any of these components may be purchased separately. $891 .00 

All boards guaranteed lor 1 year. m .v pc/xt ire indnmrki di uumtiniui buimu mumim. in 



SmarTeam Modem 

103/212A - 
Operates at 300 
Baud & 1200 Baud 

• Hayes 
Compatible 

• Auto Answer, 
Dial& Redial 

Uses RS 232-C Connector 
#91990 $165.00 



tA 



Brother® Printer 




Dot Matrix Printer 

#DM5 . $75.00 



Messenger Modem 




Has all the features of the SmarTeam 
Modem, so why pay more? 
#97900 .$148.00 



Key Boards 



5151 IBM Type Key Board 

Caps and Num Lock 

#5151 $79.00 

5050L XT Key Board-looks like AT, 
has big return key & LED indicators. 
#5050L $59.00 



ADD ON BOARDS ibm compatible 



Monochrome Graphic Printer Board 

• Built in Parallel Printer Port 

• Text: 25 line x80 column 

• Graphics: 720 x 348 resolution 

• TTL High Resolution Output 
#92270 $85.00 



Multifunction Board 

• Expandable to 384K RAM 

• Serial Port, Game Port 

• Parallel Printer Port 

• Clock Calendar w/ Battery Backup 

• Software, Manuals and Cables 
#92290 $89.00 



Color Graphics Board 

• RGB and Composite Port 

• Light Pen Interlace 

• Graphics: 320 x200(color): 
640x200(BW) 

• Text: 25 x80 
#92280 $72.00 

Plus A Huge Selection of 



3B4K RAM Expansion Board 

• Fully buffered 

#92305 $35.00 



51 ZK RAM Expansion Board 

• Fully buffered 

#92300 $49.00 



RS 232 Serial 

• 1 Serial Port 

• 2nd Port optional 
#92310 



Board 



.$29.00 



Parallel Printer Card 

Also may be used as I/O Port 
#92700 S29.00 



Floppy Disk Controller 

• Drives 2 internal drives 

• Includes cable 

• IBM PC compatible 

#92260 $35.00 

Cables <S Accessories! 



THE WHOLESALE OUTLET 

' / / / / Dep\ BY. 1 Interstate Avenue. Albany, NY 12205 To order call 

/ / // 1-800-344-4387 (Non-NYS Res.) or 518-459-7883 (NYS Res.) 

' Personal and company checks accepted ( on mail-in orders. ) Customer pays 

freight & handling FOB Albany, NY. Non-credit card order shipped UPS, CO. D 

Minimum order $25. Dealer and large quantity 

orders call 51 8-459-7883 . Ask for Computer Dept. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



of the U.S. Customs Service to prevent the importation 
of an infringing product? 

The book also discusses such diverse topics as avoiding 
antitrust liability, drafting warranties, securing access to 
a vendor's proprietary information in case the vendor 
becomes bankrupt, obtaining start-up capital, compen- 
sating employees, and reducing taxes. Because the annual 
is intended for practicing lawyers, its emphasis is on solv- 
ing real problems rather than on academic theorizing. To 
help a lawyer investigate a question further, the book gives 
citations where appropriate to legal references such as 
case reporters, which contain the published decisions of 
courts; the U.S. Code, which contains federal statutory law; 
and the Code of Federal Regulations, which contains the 
regulations issued by federal agencies. 

The contributors display an unusual command of the 
technical aspects of the field. For example, in two articles 
that examine copyright issues in writing a BIOS compati- 
ble with the IBM Personal Computer, the contributors free- 
ly discuss the use of software interrupts— a topic beyond 
the grasp of most lawyers and more than a few program- 
mers. That level of technical understanding is necessary, 
however, for an intelligent analysis of the question in- 
volved. To avoid infringing IBM's copyright, is it enough 
simply to avoid copying exact sequences of IBM's code? 
Must you also avoid copying IBM's algorithms, which 
happen to be available from a source listing in an IBM 
manual? Must you avoid copying IBM's device-dependent 
timing loops? Can IBM claim protection for its interrupt 
scheme? 

Despite its astute handling of technical matters, the book 
maintains its focus primarily on lawyers. Nonlawyers would 
have difficulty following some of the articles; unexplained 
legal terms appear throughout. An article about contract 
negotiation, for instance, refers to "liquidated damages" 
and "choice of law and forum provisions" with the assump- 
tion that these phrases need no explanation. 

One slightly disappointing aspect is that the contributors 
rarely make arguments about policy. They describe the 
directions in which the legal rules are forming, but they 
say little about what kinds of rules are desirable. One of 
the articles about antitrust is a refreshing exception. After 
showing how the operation of the Robinson-Patman Act 
frequently thwarts its own stated purpose of increasing 
competition, the article concludes that the Act "is difficult 
to defend." Equally blunt arguments about other areas of 
computer law would be enlightening. 

This omission is understandable, however, because the 
purpose of the book is to inform rather than persuade. 
For lawyers who have computer firms as clients, and for 
managers who are willing to wade through some legal 
jargon, The Computer law Annual 1985 is first-rate. It dis- 
cusses the nuts and bolts of computer law with precision 
and authority. ■ 

David A. Price (57 Roseland St. #2, Somerville, MA 02143) is 
a third-uear law student at Harvard University. 



76 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 376 



Powerful MS-DOS Software. 

For the IBM® -PC, XT, AT & others with generic MS-DOS/PC-DOS 2.0 or higher. 




Only 




UTAH 



• :<• 



I TM 



D 

□ 

D 
D 
□ 



D 



Whether student, teacher or professional programmer, 

this is the one you've heard so much about. 

It's easy to use. Compiles 5000 statements on a 128K 

machine. 

170 clear error messages, i.e. DATA-NAME IS 

MISSING OR MISSPELLED. 

Distribute your object code programs royalty free. 

Small object code programs conserve disk space. 

Fast compile times to increase programmer pro- 
ductivity. Over 25 times faster than one compiler 

costing $995! 

You get a diskette and 213-page manual with lots of 

examples and 16 complete COBOL source code 

programs. $39.95. 
Also available: COBOL Application Packages. Book 1 $9.95. 

UTAH 

PASCAL 

14-digit precision, BCD math, no round-off errors 

with decimal arithmetic for business and floating point + 63 

-64 for scientific. 

A very nice TRACE style debugging. 

Arrays up to 8 dimensions and 64K strings. 

External procedures and functions with dynamic 

auto-loading. 

One-step compile, no assembly or link required. 

You get a 132-page manual and diskette. $39.95 



□ 



□ 
□ 
□ 

□ 
□ 



UTAH 



TM 



□ 



□ 



□ 



□ 



PILOT 



Perfect for industrial training, office training, drill 

and testing, virtually all programmed instruction, word 

puzzle games, and data entry facilitated by prompts. 

John Starkweather, Ph.D., the inventor of the PILOT 

language, has added a built-in full-screen text editor, 

and much more. 

Meets all PILOT-73 standards for full compatibility with 

older versions. 

You get a diskette, 125-page manual and ten useful 

sample programs. $39.95. 



Also still available for 8-bit machines with CP/M® is our world famous 
Nevada Software Series used by 50,000 customers in 40 countries. 
These include Nevada COBOL, Nevada FORTRAN, Nevada PASCAL, 
Nevada PILOT, Nevada BASIC and Nevada EDIT. $39.95 each. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. If for any reason you're not completely 
satisfied, just return the package within 15 days in good condition, and 
we'll refund your money. 

IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. MS is a trademark 
of Microsoft Corp. © 1985 Ellis Computing, Inc. 



Each! 



UTAH 

FORTRAN 

D FORTRAN IV based upon ANSI-66 standards. 

□ Very fast compile times and easy to use. 

□ IF.. THEN.. ELSE constructs. 

□ Chaining with blank and named common. 
D Copy statement. 

□ ENCODE and DECODE. 

□ Free-format input and output. 

□ A very nice TRACE style debugging. 

□ 150 English language error messages. 

□ You get a diskette, and 223-page manual. $39.95 



TM 



UTAH 



EDIT 



TM 



D 



□ 



LI 



□ 



A character-oriented full-screen video display text 

editor designed specifically to create COBOL, 

FORTRAN and PASCAL programs. 

Only requires 15K disk space so it can fit on the 

same disk as your compilers. 

Completely customizable tab stops, default file 

type, keyboard control key layout and CRT by menu 

selection. 

Diskette comes with easy to read 58-page manual. $39.95. 



UTAH 



TM 



BASIC 

□ This interpreter has a built-in full-screen editor. 

□ Single- and Multi-line user definable functions. 

□ BCD Math- no round-off errors. 

□ Full Matrix operations. 

□ You get 220-page manual and diskette. $39.95. 

Handling/Shipping: No shipping charge within US. Overseas 
add $10 for first package, $5 each additional. Checks must be 
in US Dollars, drawn on a US bank. 

Utah Software requires 128K RAM and PC-DOS or MS-DOS 2.0 or higher. 

HOW TO ORDER. Send check or money order to Ellis Computing, Inc. 
with VISA or MASTERCARD order by phone. Sorry no COD's. 



^|^^ Ellis Con 

M ^ 5655 Rig. 

m m Reno, Ne 

W Phone (7 

^^^^ SINCE 1977 

ELLIS COMPUTING 



Ellis Computing, Inc. 
5655 Riggins Court, Suite 10 
Reno, Nevada 89502 
Phone (702) 827-3030 



Inquiry I23 



MARCH 1986 



IYTE 77 



March 1986 



EVENT QUEUE 



Discovery III: Training 
and Technology for the 
Disabled, Milwaukee, WI. 
Office of Continuing Educa- 
tion and Summer Session, 
University of Wisconsin- 
Stout, Menomonie, WI 
54751, (800) 457-8688; in 
Wisconsin, (800) 227-8688. 
March 3-5 

Seventh Annual Computer 
Graphics Conference: 
Emerging from the Chaos, 

Hollywood, FL. Carol Every, 
Frost & Sullivan Inc., 106 
Fulton St., New York, NY 
10038, (212) 233-1080. 
March 5-7 

Effective Analysis and 
Design of Information 
Systems, Worcester, MA. 
Office of Continuing Educa- 
tion, Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute, Higgins House, 
Worcester, MA 01609, (617) 
793-5517. March 10-12 

J 986 Eastern Simulation 
Conferences, Norfolk, VA. 
The Society for Computer 
Simulation, POB 17900, San 
Diego, CA 92117-7900, 
(619) 277-3888. March 10-12 

C1MTECH '86, Boston, MA. 
Cheri Willetts, Society of 
Manufacturing Engineers, 
One SME Drive, POB 930, 
Dearborn, MI 48121. (3 1 3) 
271-1500, ext. 374. 
March 10-13 

Fourth Annual Tech- 
nology in Training and 
Education Conference 
(1986 TITE), Montgomery, 
AL. Thomas S. Allman, HQ 
AU/XPZ, Maxwell AFB, AL 
36112, (205) 293-6160. 
March 10-13 

Ethics and Excellence 
in Computer Education: 



Choice or Mandate, 

Tempe, AZ. Gary Bitter, 
College of Education, 
Payne 216, Arizona State 
University, Tempe, AZ 
85287, (602) 965-7363. 
March 12-14 

Hannover Faire: CeBIT 
'86, Hannover Fairgrounds, 
West Germany. Hannover 
Fairs USA Inc., POB 7066, 
103 Carnegie Center, 
Princeton, NJ 08540, (609) 
987-1202. March 12-19 

1986 IEEE Work Station 
Technology & Systems 
Conference, Atlantic City, 
NJ. Helen Yonan, IEEE Of- 
fice, Moore School of Elec- 
trical Engineering, University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 
phia, PA 19104, (215) 
898-8106. March 17-20 

Numerical Methods and 
Digital Computer Tech- 
niques for Engineers and 
Scientists, Los Angeles, 
CA. Short Course Program 
Office, UCLA Extension, 
10995 Le Conte Ave., Los 
Angeles, CA 90024, (213) 
825-1295. March 17-21 

1986 IEEE VLSI Test 
Workshop- Microsystem: 
New Test Challenges, 

Atlantic City, NJ. Wesley C. 
Radcliffe, IBM Corp.. East 
Fishkill Facility, Dept. 277, 
Building 321-5E1, Hopewell 
lunction, NY 12533. 
March 18-19 

INFOMART, Dallas, TX. In- 
ternational Information Pro- 
cessing Market Center, 1950 
Stemmons Freeway, Dallas, 



TX 75207, (214) 746-3500. 
March 18-20 

1986 Software & Com- 
puter Conference for In- 
formation Managers & 
Librarians, Atlanta, GA. 
Meckler Publishing, 11 Ferry 
Lane West, Westport, CT 
06880, (203) 226-6967. 
March 18-20 

Southcon/86, Orlando, FL. 
Electronic Conventions 
Management, 8110 Airport 
Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 
90045. March 18-20 

Personal Computer Inter- 
facing for Scientific In- 
strument Automation, 

Blacksburg, VA. Dr. Linda 
Leffel, C.E.C Virginia 
Polytechnic Institute and 
State University, Blacksburg, 
VA 24061, (703) 961-4848. 
March 19-21 

Third Annual Physicians 
and Computers: Applica- 
tions in Patient Care, Las 

Vegas, NV. Beverly 1. 
Johnson, University of 
Southern California School 
of Medicine, Postgraduate 
Division, 202 5 Zonal Ave., 
KAM 318, Los Angeles, CA 
90033, (213) 224-7051. 
March 19-23 

Western Educational Com- 
puting Workshops, Orange 
Coast College, Costa Mesa, 
CA. Alexia Devlin, California 
Educational Computing Con- 
sortium, San Francisco State 
University, Accounting Data, 
NADM-3 58, 1600 Holloway 
Ave., San Francisco, CA 
94132. March 21-22 



IF YOU WANT your organization's public activities listed in BYTE's Event 
Queue, we need to know about them at least four months in advance. Send 
information about computer conferences, seminars, workshops, and courses 
to BYTE, Event Queue, POB 372, Hancock, NH 03449. 



OAC '86 -Integrated 
Systems: Merging Islands 
of Technology, Houston, 
TX. OAC '86, American 
Federation of Information 
Processing Societies Inc., 
1899 Preston White Drive, 
Reston, VA 22091, (800) 
622-1986. March 24-26 

Artificial Intelligence '86 
Conference, Singapore. 
John Tagler, Elsevier Science 
Publishers, 52 Vanderbilt 
Ave., New York, NY 10017. 
March 24-27 

COMTEL '86, Dallas, TX. 
International Conference 
Management Inc., 15851 
Dallas Parkway, Suite 1155, 
Dallas, TX 75248, (214) 
458-7011. March 24-27 

Interface '86 Conference 
and Exposition, Atlanta, 
GA. The Interface Group 
Inc., 300 First Ave., 
Needham, MA 02194, (617) 
449-6600. March 24-27 

1986 Spring National 
Design Engineering Show 
and Conference, Chicago, 
IL. Show Manager, Spring 
National Design Engineering 
Show, 999 Summer St., 
Stamford, CT 06905, (203) 
964-0000. March 24-27 

Computer-Aided Drafting 
and Design (CADD), Austin, 
TX. College of Engineering, 
The University of Texas at 
Austin, Austin, TX 78712, 
(512) 471-3506. March 24-28 

INFO (European Informa- 
tion Technology and Of- 
fice Automation Exhibi- 
tion), Olympia, London, 
England. British Information 
Services, 845 Third Ave., 
New York, NY 10022, (212) 
752-8400. March 25-27 ■ 



78 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



PC NETWORK GOES TO THE 





How do you suppose most manufacturers of personal computer 

products get started? 

They go to the Orient . . . taking either their designs or simply their 

ideas to one or more of the major electronics manufacturing 

concerns, getting bids for making these devices under contract to 

the creators. Multifunction Cards, Video Cards, Disk Controllers, 

Modems and I/O Boards all begin their life in this way. 

This relationship between the manufacturing capabilities of the East 

and die design and marketing talents of the U.S. has resulted in the 

incredible selection of enhancement products for the IBM and 

Apple computer markets. 

Well, with 100,000 members and growing strong, The Network 

sent its buyers east to visit some of these manufacturing 



concerns to check out the feasability of direcdy importing these 
products in the necessary volumes to save our members money! 
What they came back with was astounding. 
Now, we always figured that there were some pretty substantial 
markups as these boards came into the country and got fancy boxes 
and marketing promotions under any one of a number of well 
known brand names in the peripheral add-on markets but we had 
no idea they were so large! 

To prove our point, consider what they brought back. Each board is 
constructed to the same precise specifications, on exacdy the same 
machinery as tiieir name-brand duplicates. The difference? As a 
Network member, you pay only 8% over our unusually low 
wholesale price. . . and you get our full 1 year warranty! 



Hercules™ Smarter 
Brother 

A Monochrome Graphics Card with 
Printer Port... 100% compatible 

with Hercules™ product. 




Wholesale 

$99.00 



Graphics Printer 
Interface 

If all you want is a printer, this is the 
card for you. Supports all text and 
graphics printer features. 

Wholesale price . 



$29.00 



The Multi-384 Board 

A clone of the AST's SixPakPlusI" 

includes up to 384Kb of expansion 
memory, 1 serial, 1 parallel, 1 game 
port, a clock/calendar and 
software 
i standard 





With K 

$79.00 

Wholesale 



IBM Color Card 

100% compatible with the 

IBM offering. The wholesale price? 



$69.00 




I/O Multifunction Card 

Identical I/O board to the AST's I/O+" 

with 2 serial, (1 standard) 1 parallel, 
1 game port and clock/calendar 
with software. 




512 K Memory 

The least expensive way to add 
memory to your current system. 
With K installed. 

Wholesale priced at only . . 

$59.00* 



Wholesale price 

$65.00 




™Six Pack, I/O Plus and AST are all registered Irademarks of AST Research Inc. Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer Technology Inc. 

'PC NETWORK Members pay just 8% above this wholesale price, plus shipping. 

All prices reflect a 3% cash discount. Minimum shipping $2.50 per order. International orders 
calffor shipping & handling charges. Personal checks: please allow 10 working days to clear. 



CALL TOLL-FREE 1-800-621-SAVE ^'^^o^ 




GET THE NETWORK ADVANTAGE!!! 



Inquiry 263 




:i=*iYf];K 




BUY HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE AT WHOLESALE + 8%, 
AND GET 1 4-30 DAY SOFTWARE RENTALS*. . . 



Listed below are just a few of the over 30,000 products available at our EVERYDAY LOW PRICES'. 
The Network carries products for Apple, IBM, CP/M and most other popular computer families. 



GAMES & EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE FOR YOUR APPLE II & MACINTOSH 

(Please add $1 shipping and handling tor each title ordered from below.) 
Wholesale 



Arra, sne Accountant-Mac Only 
Anion Art Portfolio & CardShoppe 
Biuechip Baron/ Millionaire/ Tycoon 
Broderbund Loadrunner 

Broderbund Prinf Shop 
Broderbund Dazzle Draw 
CBS Mastering the GRE 
CBS Murder by the Dozen 
CBS Goren Bridge Made Easy 
Counterpoint The News Room 
Davidson Speed Reader II 
Davidson Math Blaster 
Davidson Word Attack! 
1st Byte Smooth Talker-Mac Only 
Hoyden DaVinci-House! Interiors! Landscapes 
Hay den Sargon III 
Infocom Deadline or Suspended 
Intocom Enchanter. Planetfall 
Cutthroats. Witness or Zork I 
Intocom Hilchikei's Guide or Seastalker 
Mocom Suspect. Sorcerer or tnlidet 
Infocom Zork II or 111 
Layered Front Desk-Mac Only 
Mirage Concepts Trivia 



£65.00* Miles Computing Mac Attack-Mac Only 

31.00* PalatirMac Type-Mac Only 

26.00" Penguin Graphics Magician 

1 9.75* Penguin Pensate orXyphus 

19.00 - Penguin Transylvania-Mac Only 

28.75' Professional Software Trivia Fever 

31 .97* Prvorrty Software Forbidden Quest 

53.50* Scarborough Master Type 

20.97* Scarborough Run tor the Money 

45.00' Simon & Schuster Typing Tutor III 

26.97* Sir-Tech Wizardry 

36.50" Sir-Tech Knight ol Diamonds 

26.50' Sir-Tech Rescue Raiders 

26.50* Sublogic Night Mission Pmball 

47.00' SubtogicRigfil Simulatorf) 

24.75* ► Spinnaker Alphabet Zoo. Face Maker 
25.75* KjrtderComp. Hey Diddle Diddle. 

24.00* Rhymes & Riddles. Story Machine 

20.00' ►Spinnaker The Most Amazing Thing 

►Spinnaker Delta Drawing 

20.00' T/Maker Click Art-Mac Only 

22.00' Warner Desk Organizer 

22.00" Vide* Fun Pack-Mac Only 

65.00' Videx Mac Checkers & Reversal 

1 1 .00" Virtual Combinatics Micro Cookbook 



BUSINESS SOFTWARE FOR YOUR APPLE II & MACINTOSH 

(Please add $2.50 shipping and handling for each title ordered from below.) 



►Apple Apple Works $160 00* 

Borland International Turbo Pascal 30.00' 

BP1 GL, APAR. PR, orlNV 205.00* 

BroderbundBankSlreelWriler 40.00' 

Central Point CopyltPtusor Copy II Mac 20.00" 

Funk Software Sideways 32.00' 

Funsoft Macasm 60.00" 

Haba Habadex 40.00" 

Haba Quartet 97.00* 

HarvardMacManager 29.95' 

►Human Edge Mind Prober 24.UIT 

► Human Edge SaiesEdge 110.00' 

Human Edge Communication Edge 98,00' 

►Living Videotext ThlriA-TriaiiJi-MacTbo.i 65.00' 

Main Street Filer-Mac Only 67.00* 

MECA Managing your Money 87.50* 



►Microsoft Word lor Macintosh 
►Microsoft File tor Macintosh 
►Microsoft Multiplan for Macintosh 

Microsoft Basic for Macintosh 

Microsoft Chan tor Macintosh 

Monogram Dollars & Sense tor Apple lie 

Monogram Dollars & Sense for Macintosh 

Odesta Helix lor Macintosh Reg's 51 2K 

Provue Overvue-Mac Only 

Sensible Software Sensible Speller IV 

Softcraft Fancy Fonts 

Softech Microsystem:. UCSDPascal 

Software Arts TKSoiverHor Mac 

Software Publishing PFS: File. Write, or Graph 

Stoneware 08 Master-Mac Tool 

Telos Filcvision for Mac 



Wholesale 
$23.00' 
23.50' 
28.97' 
20.00* 
20.00* 
19.00" 
21.00" 
26.50" 
26.00* 
28.25* 
26.97' 
18.97* 
18.97* 
20.00* 
27.25* 
15.97* 



20.77* 
24.97- 
25.00* 
65.00* 
19.77' 
25.17' 
21.00' 



$102.00* 
102.00* 
102.00* 
79.00' 
66.00- 
55.00' 
70.00' 
200.00* 
135.00* 
67.50* 
125.00" 
37.00" 
134.00- 
68.00" 
95.00* 
87.50* 



HARDWARE FOR YOUR APPLE // & MACINTOSH 

(Please add shipping and handling charges found in italics next lo price.) 



Wholesale 
$309.00' (7.00) 

349.95* (7.50) 

939.00* (20.28) 

1.250.00* (27.00) 



DISK DRIVES 

Alps AP-100A Dual Apple Drives m 

One Case 
Apple MAC 400KB External Drive 
Corvus 5.5MB Hard Drive 
lOmega Macnoulli 5MG Removable 

Drive tor Macintosh 
Micro Sci A2 143KB Drive 1 50.00* (5 00) 

Just tike Apples Own 
Micro Sci Floppy Controller 55.00' (2 50/ 

► ParadrseWdc tOMB Hard Otrve 750.00' (16.20) 

Subsystem 

► Paradise Mac ?0MB Hard Drive 950.00' (2052) 

Subsystem 

► PCNetwork 140K External Drive 95.00* (2 50) 

lor Apple l!c 

Rana Elite 1 163K Drive 225.00' (500) 

Tecmar 5MB Removable Drive for MAC 999.00- (21 58) 

Tecmar WMBMACDme 999.00" (21.58) 

Tecmnr 5MB MAC Drive Upgrade 1 ,235.00' (26.68) 

BOARDS AND BUFFERS 



ALSZ-Engme 5115.00* (2.50) 

ASVMuttitlO-2senal/Clock 155.00" (2 50) 

Microsoft Premium Softcardtle 243.67* (2.50) 

Microtek DumplmgfGX 55.00' (2.50) 

Orange Micro Grappler + 66.00' (2.50) 

Orange Micro Serial Grappler 66.00* (2.50) 

PC Network Z80 Card 35.00* (2.50,1 

Quadram APIC/G Graphics Interface 62.00* (2.50) 

Ouadram eRAM-80 88.00* (2.50; 

Quadram Multicore- 1 Parallel! I Serial/ 140.00* (2 50) 

Clock Expandable to 256K 

Thunderware Thunderciocfr 104.00' (2.50) 



MODEMS 

Wholesale 

Hayes Mictomodem lie w/Smartcom $1 25.00" (2 50) 

Novation Apple Cat II 1 74.45* (3 50) 

Prometheus 1200A 276.00' (6.00) 

low Cosl 1200 Baud Internal Modem lor Applet! 

Prometheus Promodem 1200 299.00' 16.00) 

w! Mac Pack 

Zoom Zoom/ Modem tie 95.00" (2.50) 

Micromodem Compatible-Free Dow Jones 

ACCESSORIES 

Apple Macintosh Carrying Case 
Apple Macintosh Security Ktl 
Apple Macintosh Numeric Keypad 
Hayes Macfi III Joystick 

w/Fire Button for lie 
Kensington Dust Cover (or MAC 

orimagewriter 
Kensington Starter Pack 
Kensington Surge Protector 
Kensington System Saver Fan 
► Koala Ma E Vision 
Koala Koalapad touch Tablet 
U&RSup-R-ModRF Modulation 
PC Network Cooling Fan with Surge 

Protector & Dual Outlets 
PC Network SS/DD Diskettes (Box ol 10) 
PC Network Macintosh Diskettes 

Includes Free Flip & File Case 
These Diskettes are Guaranteed tor Life! No 
Sony MAC Diskettes (Box of 10) 



569.00' 


(1.49) 


29.00* 


(1 50) 


69.00- 


(2.50) 


31.00* 


(150) 


8.25* 


(1.50) 


54.00' 


(3.00) 


33.47* 


(2 50) 


56.97* 


(150) 


158.00* 


<3 00) 


78.00* 


(150) 


44.00* 


(150) 


25.00- 


(2.50) 


7.95' 


(1.00) 


15.95- 


(1.50) 


Generics' 




19.00- 


(150) 



GAMES & EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE FOR YOUR IBM 

(Please add $1 shipping and handling for each tide ordered from below.) 





Wholesale 




Wholesale 


ATI Intro to PC DOS Vol. 1 & II 


$23.00- 


►Infocom Deadline, or Suspended 


524.00' 


ATI Intro to BASIC 


23.00* 


Microsoft Flight Simulator 


27.00* 


Bluebush Chess f Vour Touches! Opponent) 


34.00* 


Mouse Systems PC Paint— Turn your PC 


59.95* 


Bluechip Millionaire! Oil Baron or Tycoon 


28.25* 


into A Color Macintosh ! 




Broderbund LodeRunner 


19.75* 


Scarborough Maslerlype 


26.50' 


CBS Goren-Bndge Made Easy 


40.00' 


Sierra On-Line King s Quest II 


27.00' 


CBS Mastering the SAT 


50.00" 


Sierra On-Line Crossfire 


18.00* 


CDEX Training for Word Star 


37.25* 


Spectrum Holobyte GATO 


18.00* 


Comprehensive Intro to Personal Computing 


32.00* 


► Spinnaker Alphabet Zoo KinderComp. 


15.97- 


Davidson Math Blaster, Word Attack! 


26.50' 


Story Machine, Face Maker. Hey Diddle. Diddle 




Davidson Speed Reader 11 


36.50" 


Rhymes & Riddles 




HaydonSargonlll 


25.75" 


►Spinnaker Delia Drawing 


24.97* 


Individual Professor DOS 


32.50* 


►Spinnaker Mosl Amazing Thing 


20.77* 


Individual The Instructor 


24.50* 


Subiogic Night Mission Pmball 


20.00" 


►Intocom Zork I or Witness 


20.00" 


Virtual Combinatics Micro Cookbook 


21.00- 


BUSINESS SOFTWARE FOR YOUR IBM 




(Please add $2.50 shipping and handling for each title ordered from below.) 




►Ashton-Tate DBase II 


$365.00" 


MicroPro Wordstar 2000 


$219.00* 


►AshtonTate Framework II 


365.00" 


MicroPro Wordstar 2000* 


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BUTE 



Features 



Product Preview: The Atari 1040ST 

by Phillip Robinson and ]on R. Edwards .... 84 

Finding the Titanic 

by Marti Spalding and Ben Dawson 96 

Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar: 

Real-Time Clocks: 

A View Toward the Future 

by Sieve Ciarcia 112 

Programming Project 

A Simple Windowing System, 

Part I: Basic Principles 

by Bruce Webster 128 

An ANSI Standard 
for the C Language 

by Steve A. Hersee and Dan Knopoff 135 

Programming Insight 
Macintosh Explorer 

by Olav kndrade 145 



THIS MONTH, BYTE PRESENTS a preview of Atari's new $999 1 -megabyte 
machine-the 1040ST. Although the system is similar to Atari's 520ST, it has 
twice the memory capability, an internal double-sided disk drive, an empty 
socket for a graphics coprocessor, and it is the first computer to begin its 
retail life at a cost of less than one dollar per kilobyte. The article also in- 
cludes an interview with Shiraz Shivji, Atari's vice president of research and 
development, who discusses the company's plans for the future. 

In "Finding the Titanic," Marti Spalding and Ben Dawson take a look at the 
state-of-the-art image-processing equipment used in the underwater explora- 
tion that located the sunken Titanic. The ship was lost in the Atlantic for 73 
years until teams of French and American researchers, with millions of dollars 
worth of equipment, were able to pinpoint the wreck. 

In Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, Steve offers us a choice of real-time clocks. The 
first one uses a CMOS chip that you attach to the computer through parallel 
ports. This conventional approach appeals to those who want a quick resolu- 
tion of a problem. The second clock uses a unique concept that Steve believes 
will prevail long into the future. It uses a new clock "socket" that requires no 
independent interfacing and merely plugs in with a static-RAM chip. 

The Programming Project is the first of a two-part article by Bruce Webster. 
Bruce mentions that windowing systems can be and have been implemented 
on most of the more "mundane" computers. The goal of his article is to show 
you how to do this. In Part 1, Bruce covers basic principles and examines the 
problems involved in opening a window. 

As C has become more popular among developers and programmers, it 
has become necessary to establish a standard to keep C programmers work- 
ing with the same language. "An ANSI Standard for the C Language," by Steve 
A. Hersee and Dan Knopoff, describes the standard that has been proposed 
by the ANSI Standardization Committee and invites participation in 
establishing the standard. 

This month's Programming Insight describes a disassembler program. In 
"Macintosh Explorer," Olav Andrade explains that when using a Macintosh 
he discovered that the Toolbox/Operating System routines would be vital to 
his applications. His problem was that he needed to know how the Toolbox 
calls were made and Macintosh Explorer was his solution. It is written in Micro- 
soft BASIC for the Macintosh. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 83 



PRODUCT PREVIEW 

The 

Atari 1040ST 



A megabyte 



of memory for $999 



Editor's note: The following is a BYTE prod- 
uct preview. \t is not a review. We provide 
an advance look at this product because we 
feel that it is significant. A complete review 
will follow in a subsequent issue. 

Atari's new $999 1-mega- 
byte 1040ST (see photo 1) 
establishes a price break 
reminiscent of the Com- 
modore 64's. And, as table 1 shows, 
the 1040ST will be the first computer 
to begin its retail life at a price that 
represents less than one dollar per 
kilobyte. The 1040ST is clearly a 
bargain, with over 1 megabyte of 
RAM (random-access read/write 
memory), its operating system in ROM 
(read-only memory), an internal 720K- 
byte double-sided drive, an internal 
power supply, and the same features 
and functionality that already make 
the Atari 520ST an attractive pur- 
chase. (Editor's note: See "The Atari 
520ST" by }on R. Edwards, Phillip Robin- 
son, and Brenda McLaughlin. January 
BYTE, page 84. | 

System Description 

Our coverage of the 520ST adequate- 
ly describes most of the features of 
the 1040ST (see also the "In Brief" 
box on page 86). The new computer 
has the same keyboard, the same 
ports (although these are now in new 
locations, see photo 2), and the same 
architecture. We remain uncomfort- 
able with the keyboard, but the key- 
tops are removable. We suspect that 



some speedy entrepreneur will pro- 
vide alternative tapered keys for the 
ST machines. 

The most obvious changes are 
cosmetic: The keyboard/computer 
unit is 2 inches deeper and 4'/2 
pounds heavier than the 520ST and 
the keyboard provides a much more 
substantial feel. The mouse/joystick 
ports are now located under the bot- 
tom right front of the unit, a signifi- 
cant improvement for left-handed 
users. 

A number of changes are more than 
cosmetic. The internal power supply 
eliminates two of the external power 
supplies needed by the 520ST (wire 
haters rejoice). We left the unit on for 
five days and experienced no dif- 
ficulties with overheating. There is no 
internal fan, but the unit appears to 
adequately dissipate heat. The inter- 
nal disk drive supports both single- 
and double-sided disks. An RF (radio 
frequency) modulator will allow you 
to hook up the 1040ST to a television 
set; you might, therefore, obtain the 
high-resolution monochrome system 
for word processing and program- 
ming without sacrificing the use of 
low- and medium-resolution color. 
However, we received a preproduc- 
tion unit lacking the RF modulator 
that will accompany the final product; 
therefore, we were unable to test the 
television quality of the computer's 
output. 

The megabyte of RAM in the 
1040ST isn't crammed into the case. 
The 520ST uses a custom Memory 
Controller chip to handle its sixteen 
2 56K-byte dynamic RAM chips. The 
1040ST uses the same Memory Con- 
troller. Because the controller can 
handle 32 RAM chips at a time, the 



Atari engineers simply had to find 
room for 16 more 2 56K-byte dynamic 
RAMs on the 1040ST circuit board to 
pump RAM capacity to a full mega- 
byte (see photo 3). In fact, the 
Memory Controller can also govern 
1 -megabit dynamic RAM chips. Atari 
should have little difficulty designing 
an ST with 4 megabytes of memory. 
Undoubtedly, the most interesting 
addition to this computer, apart from 
the extra memory, will be an empty 
socket for a graphics coprocessor. 
Our preproduction unit also did not 
include the socket, and it may not be 
offered with the first releases of the 
1040ST Phil Robinson discussed this 
and Atari's future plans with Shiraz 
Shivji, vice president of research and 
development for the company (see 
the text box "An Interview with Shiraz 
Shivji" on page 90). 

TOS IN ROM 

With TOS (the operating system for 
both the 520ST and the 1040ST) in 
ROM, the 1040ST boots more quick- 
ly than the 520ST. [Editors note: Atari 
is currently supplying the ROM chips to 
520ST developers and will be making the 
chips available through users groups.] 
Booting with a nonsystem disk takes 
less than 6 seconds, down from 37 

[continued] 
Phillip Robinson is a senior technical editor, 
and \on R. Edwards is a technical editor for 
BYTE. They can be contacted at BYTE. POB 
372, Hancock. NH 03449. 



84 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



by Phillip Robinson and Jon R. Edwards 




Photo 1: The Atari 1040ST. 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY PAUL AVIS 



MARCH 1986 • BYTE 85 



ATARI 1040ST 



IN BRIEF 

Name 

Atari 1040ST 

Company 

Atari Corp. 
1196 Borregas Ave. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 
(408) 745-2000 

Price 

With monochrome monitor, $999 
With color monitor, $1199 

Microprocessor 

Motorola 68000, a 32-/16-bit microprocessor (32-bit internal architecture with 24-bit, 
nonsegmented, external data bus) running at 8 MHz 

Main Memory 

1024K bytes of dynamic RAM 

ROM 

192K-byte TOS in ROM, not including the desktop accessories 

Graphics 

Three modes: 640- by 400-pixel monochrome, 320 by 200 with 16 colors, and 640 by 200 
with 4 colors 

Sound 

Three independent sound channels from 30 Hz to 125 kHz 

Floppy-Disk Drive 

Internal 3'/2-inch double-sided double-density drive with capacity of 720K bytes. System 
supports maximum of two floppy-disk drives. 

Keyboard 

94-key Selectric-style QWERTY keyboard with numeric keypad, cursor controls, and 
rhomboid function keys 

Interfaces 

MIDI in and MIDI out ports 

Monitor port (supports RGB analog, high-resolution monochrome) 

RF modulator 

Centronics parallel printer port (supports Epson-compatible printers) 

RS-232C serial port 

Floppy-disk port 

Hard-disk port (10-megabit-per-second DMA transfer rate) 

128K-byte ROM cartridge port 

Ports for mouse or two joysticks 

Bundled Software 

Atari Logo 
ST BASIC 

Optional Peripherals 

SF354 single-sided drive 
SF314 double-sided drive 

Planned Expansion 

Graphics coprocessor, SMM801 dot-matrix printer, SDM121 daisy-wheel printer, 
10-megabyte fixed disk, 8-slot expansion interface, CD-ROM, local-area network for MIDI 
port 



seconds on the 520ST. After booting, 
the color system displays blue and 
yellow crossbars instead of the 
multicolor display shown on the 
520ST. The desktop icon also appears 
in much brighter green on the 1040ST, 
which Neil Harris of Atari explains is 
more effective on color television 
screens for those who will make use 
of the RF modulator. 

Although it increases the time to 
1 7 seconds, you may prefer to boot 
with a nonsystem disk that includes 
the desktop accessories. By so doing, 
you can maintain access to the Con- 
trol Panel (to change the back- 
ground color, for example), the 
RS-232 Port Configuration, and the In- 
stall Printer facilities. You also have the 
option of placing the operating 
system (38 seconds), and presumably 
any alternative operating system, in- 
to RAM. 

The ROM TOS appears to be func- 
tionally identical to the first release of 
TOS in RAM, but there have been 
some additions. In the interest of sup- 
porting business applications, the 
ROM TOS raises the limit on open 
files from 30 to 100. A new dialog box 
informs you if you have insufficient 
memory to run an application. The 
earlier versions of TOS simply return 
you to the desktop. Two new GEM 

functions, form button and form 

keyboard, will allow developers to 
bring up dialog boxes without freez- 
ing the current application. You could, 
for example, postpone your response 
until you finish a task. 

Most of the other changes involved 
crunching the code from over 200K 
bytes to 192K bytes (Landon Dyer, 
software design engineer for Atari, 
reports that the production ROMs are 
a mere 14 bytes short of 192K bytes), 
but there have also been a number of 
modifications and corrections, many 
in response to the experiences of ST 
developers. Early versions of TOS did 
not allow you to print from the 
desktop if you set your printer to 
the serial port. Now you can. Full 
type-ahead buffers will no longer 
eat characters. And icon grabbers 
can take comfort in the fact that 
rapid movements of icons into the 



86 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



ATARI 1040ST 



menu bar can no longer crash the 
system. 

A Sample Session 

We obtained similar results on BYTE's 
standard benchmark tests for both the 
520ST and the 1040ST. Using ST 
BASIC (see photo 4), both machines 
ran the Sieve of Eratosthenes in 85 
seconds and the Calculations bench- 
mark of 10,000 multiplication and 
10,000 division operations in 32 
seconds. Both formatted single-sided 
disks (3 57,376 available bytes) in 54 
seconds. The 1040ST took 102 
seconds to format a double-sided 
disk (726,016 available bytes). It took 
16 seconds with the 520ST to transfer 
a 40K-byte file from one single-sided 



drive to another. It took 17 seconds 
to transfer the same file from the 
1040ST's internal drive to an external 
single-sided drive. 

In conducting the tests, we had two 
small problems. First, when we con- 
nected an external single-sided drive 
and took a directory of the internal 
drive, the 1040ST appeared to poll 
both drives. We got the directory we 
requested, but the fact that the inter- 
nal drive is so quiet made it seem that 
we had inadvertently addressed the 
external drive. The whirring of the 
external drive was a continual 
annoyance. 

Second, Atari's ST BASIC reserves 
approximately 160K bytes to buffer 
graphics, store arrays, and so on. On 



the 1040ST with TOS in ROM and 
when booting with the desk acces- 
sories, you still obtain a workspace in 
excess of 700K bytes. On the 520ST 
with TOS in RAM, we obtained a work- 
space of only 5K bytes. To run the 
Sieve, which dimensions an array to 
7000 elements, we had to boot with- 
out the desk accessories (a savings of 
about 30K bytes), eliminate graphics 
buffering (an additional savings of 32K 
bytes), and dimension the array as an 
integer array. Using a real array, the 
1040ST ran the Sieve in 90 seconds. 

Software 

The earliest critics of the 520ST be- 
moaned the lack of software, but the 

[continued] 




Table 1: The Atari 1040ST is the first computer with an original list price that represents less than a dollar per kilobyte. The 
price-per-kilobyte figures were determined by using the original list price for each system on the chart. Prices reflect those for the 
original system configurations; many but not all of the systems were originally bundled with disk drives and monitors. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 87 



ATARI 1040ST 



list of available packages has grown 
and is still growing. The major 
criticism left is that most of the early 
products are ports that don't take ad- 
vantage of the ST's full capabilities. A 
significant exception is DEGAS from 
Batteries Included, a full-featured 
paint package that makes the color 
monitor worth having (see photo 5). 
For those of you who are anxious 
for information about available soft- 
ware: Michtron has a variety of 
utilities for the ST machines, including 
a printer spooler, a RAM disk, and ter- 
minal software. SST Systems has Chat, 
version 1.2, a terminal program with 
support for XMODEM. A variety of 
word processors are available, in- 
cluding Mince and Final Word from 



For some time, the 
Atari 1040ST \M be 

the dear leader 
in price/performance. 



Mark of the Unicorn, Express from 
Mirage Concepts, Haba Writer from 
Haba Systems, Regent Word from 
Regent Software, and both 1st Word 
and ST Writer from Atari. The last of 
these is in the public domain. DB- 
Master One from Atari, Hippo Simple 
from Hippopotamus Software, and 
Zoomracks from Quickview Systems 



are database managers. Regent Soft- 
ware also offers a spelling checker 
with full GEM features. VIP Systems 
offers The Professional, a Lotus-like 
spreadsheet. And XLENT software of- 
fers Typesetter ST, which supports 
DEGAS and Neo formats and Pro- 
writer, NEC, and Epson printers. 

Conclusion 

The 1040ST has a remarkable price, 
and for some time it will be the clear 
leader in price/performance. More- 
over, the graphics coprocessor chip 
may convince skeptics to take a sec- 
ond look at the ST. Some of our 
criticisms of the Atari 520ST remain: 
The desktop is less effective than the 

[continued) 




£U 




(C) 

Photo 2: The 1040ST has the same ports as the 520ST. but in different locations. The joystick and mouse ports are underneath 
the right front of the unit, (a) The disk drive is on the right side, (b) On the left side are the MIDI out and MIDI in and the 
\28K-byte ROM cartridge port, (c) From left to right on the back panel are the RS-232C serial port, the 25-pin Centronics 
parallel printer port, the DMA (hard-disk) port, the floppy-disk port, the monitor port, the onloff switch, the AC power connector, 
and the reset button. 



88 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



ATARI 1040ST 



■c 
o 
a. 

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Q. 

a. 

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O EC 




3 

a. 
o 



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CD 



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Photo 3: T/ie 1040ST motherboard. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 89 



ATARI 1040ST 




Photo 4: The Sieve of Eratosthenes in ST BASIC. The screen shows the high- 
resolution monochrome display. 




Photo 5: The main menu of DEGAS, a deluxe paint package from Batteries 
Included, in low-resolution color graphics. 



Macintosh's and the keyboard has an 
awkward feel. But the 1040ST ad- 
dresses most of our concerns. It will 
have an RF modulator, the power 
supply is internal, and TOS is in ROM. 
And given the outstanding price, our 



overall impression is even more 
positive. 

Who knows, perhaps the next price 
break will be on Atari's coming ef- 
forts: 2- and 4-megabyte machines 
and 640- by 592-pixel graphics. 



Editor's note: This text box contains portions 
of Phil Robinson's December 1985 interview 
with Shiraz Shivji. Atari's vice president of 
research and development. 

The Graphics Coprocessor 

BYTE: Tell us about the graphics coprocessor. 
When will there actually be a socket waiting 
for it in the machine'} 
Shivji: That's up to the marketing peo- 
ple, but perhaps by April or May. I 
really am pushing for the machines to 
be upgradable— at least to have sock- 
ets—and it may not happen in the first 
machines. As far as the engineering is 
concerned, we have some artwork in 
the 1040 footprint ready to go that has 
the socket for it. 

BYTE: How far advanced is the design of the 
chip? 

Shivji: We're running checks on the lay- 
out right now. We expect to see parts 
by the end of January [1986]. 

BYTE: It's not going to be an expensive 
addition? 

Shivji: No, very inexpensive. You'll on- 
ly need to put in the coprocessor and 
change the ROMs. It's not a simple 
part, it's quite complex. That's why we 
waited until now to get it out. But it's 
going to be fairly inexpensive. We're 
doing it in a 2-micron, double-metal 
CMOS [complementary metal-oxide 
semiconductor] process, which is the 
latest process you can get. 

BYTE: What kind of power will it add and 

how? 

Shivji: Some of the screen operations 

will become about 20 times as fast. 

BYTE: What kind of screen operations? Life 
blitting one area over another? 
Shivji: Yes, it does fairly sophisticated 
blit operations. I believe we have some 
nice features that some of the other blit 
chips don't have. The problem with 
some of the other blit chips is that the 
way they glue to the bus is not very 
good. I have a blit chip from an out- 
side vendor right now that has just 



90 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



ATARI 1040ST 



An Interview 
with Shiraz Shivji 

CONDUCTED BY PHILLIP ROBINSON 



come out, but the chip needs a lot of 
glue around it; in fact, it needs exter- 
nal counters and so on. I would say we 
do as much as what's in the Amiga 
chip, and we have some things in it that 
make it nice in the way it fits on the bus. 
The cleanliness of the architecture is 
very important to us. It's a 68-pin PLCC 
(plastic leaded chip carrier| part. It sits 
on the bus. It's benign unless it's ac- 
tivated, and then it comes over and 
takes the bus. But again, a lot of the 
things like the DMAs |direct memory 
accesses! are not affected because the 
DMA will preempt the chip; it has the 
same priority as the processor. 

BYTE: How does it share time with the 
processor? 

Shivji; It takes over stuff from the pro- 
cessor, but it doesn't hog it complete- 
ly. We allow the processor to have a 
few cycles. 

BYTE: How many gates? Is it a gate array 
or will it be a fully custom-designed chip? 
Shivji: It will be a fully custom chip. As 
far as complexity is concerned, I would 
say it's around 20,000 transistors, so it's 
medium complexity. One of the things 
that is important in any design is how 
you partition things. I feel we have the 
best partitioning, as good as you can 
get. And again, it's like the early days 
of computers where things were hard- 
wired and the concept of having sub- 
routines came along. That was a 
tremendous breakthrough— to be able 
to modularize stuff. This is what I feel 
we've done on the ST We are modular. 
For example, the blit is completely 
coordinate-free. We will use the same 
part in the new version of the ST, which 
is high-resolution. So, it's nice the way 
we can do those kinds of things and 
not have it tied to the machine. 

Emulating the IBM PC 

BYTE: The V20 board that's in the lab for 

emulating the IBM Personal Computer— is that 

experimental? 

Shivji: No. We will actually show it at 

an upcoming CES (Consumer Elec- 



tronics Show]. In fact, we can either run 
an 8088 or a V20. We're running it at 
8 MHz, and we're going through the 
DMA channel to get the speed for the 
display. 

BYTE: You're going through the DMA chan- 
nel, so this is going to be an external board 
in a little box? 

Shivji: It's a self-contained box with its 
own power supply. It will have quite a 
bit of its own memory, it has the 8088. 
it also has an 8253 because a lot of 
people go directly to the timers in the 
IBM PC. But the problem in any kind 
of an emulation is the speed of scroll- 
ing things on the screen because you 
have to effectively reproduce what 
is being done in the PC environment 
into something else, and it's very 
slow. We don't think it will be that slow 
in the case of the ST. Our graphics 
modes are a superset of the IBM PC's 
anyway. 

BYTE: Are you using some BIOS [basic input/ 
output system] from an outside source? 
Shivji: Actually, we have the work done 
on a machine that provides IBM PC 
compatibility with the 800XL. Initially 
there was an Atari project that was 
compatible with the IBM PC, the Apple 
II, and the 800XL. They eventually 
abandoned the Apple II compatibility, 
but they made it compatible with the 
800XL. We're essentially following from 
that effort; we're using a lot of software 
from that era. 

Future Machines 

BYTE: Will the next machine be 2 or 4 mega- 
bytes? 

Shivji: We are using the base architec- 
ture for future machines. We will have 
a 2-megabyte version out fairly soon, 
perhaps in the same case. As you 
know, the chip is designed to handle 
1-megabit parts. If I-megabit parts are 
in sufficient quantities, then today we 
can use sixteen 1-megabit parts: that's 
a 2-megabyte machine. And if you use 
32 parts, which the chip is designed to 
handle. . . . 




BYTE: You'd just need to have a new board 
layout, drill new holes. 
Shivji: Yes. And as a matter of fact, it 
would be easy to upgrade a 1040 .... 
1-megabit parts are 18-pin parts. It 
would not be that difficult to upgrade 
your 1040 to make it a 4-megabyte 
machine by using 1- megabit parts. 

BYTE: How would you do that? 
Shivji: You have two banks, you'd have 
to remove the chips, but you could do 
it because it's not that difficult. In fact, 
we have built a prototype with 1-mega- 
bit parts. 

Choice of the 68000 

BYTE: About the 68010 and the 68020. 
You were saying that the 68010 didn't improve 
ST performance that much. 
Shivji: Not as much. We designed the 
ST in part as a front end for a compute 
engine through the DMA channel. 
That's where we're going to put our 
compute engine, whatever it is. The 
people that have bought STs and are 
buying STs in the future will have the 
capability of expanding painlessly and 
using their existing peripherals and 
everything and get on to a full 32-bit 
machine such as a 68020. 

{continued} 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 



ATARI 1040ST 



BYTE: So you're thinking more in terms of 
a box out back with a 68020 in it and not 
of an internal 68020. 
Shivji: Yes. We now know how to do a 
good job in putting a 68000 as part of 
something that drives video displays 
in various modes. In fact, we have not 
run out of steam yet as far as band- 
width of data is concerned for even dis- 
plays that are 1024 by 1024. We think 
1987 is approximately when we might 
have another generation of machines 
where the base I/O |input/output| driv- 
ing the video, and so on, may not be 
enough, especially if you're talking 
about 4 to 8 planes of 1024 by 1024. 
Then you need something like a 68020. 
But even that is not enough. You 
couldn't run just raw 32-bits. You would 
probably have 64- and 128-bit-wide 
data paths to take care of all the planes 
that you're talking about. 

We have the architecture sketched 
out; we are doing the custom parts for 
it. By the way, these parts are fully 
custom. Some of the chips we've met 
are really huge. You wouldn't be able 
to do it even with semicustom. You cer- 
tainly could not use gate arrays; there's 
no gate array built at the moment that 
can handle one of the chips we're talk- 
ing about. It would be the equivalent 
of about 25,000 gates. It's also very 
high speed. We're looking, in some 
cases, to run things at about 100 MHz. 

BYTE: Do you have to go to bipolar then in 
the custom chips? 

Shivji: We will actually have custom 
chips at 2-micron, double-metal CMOS. 
But then there's going to be an inter- 
face chip to drive external things. The 
reason we can go to high speeds is 
because the structures we're using are 
very regular. There's no loading. Sup- 
posing you run a shift register. There's 
no loading in between cells. All you're 
doing with a flip-flop cell is driving 
another cell, and so on. You can get 
quite a bit of performance if you use 
such a structure, and we're using a 
similar structure. 

BYTE: And when you're 'at 2-micron, too. 
Shivji: Yeah, 2-micron double-metal is 
quite fast. So we can run close to 100 
MHz, but only on a small section of the 
chip. Everything is not running at that 
speed. 



CD-ROMs and Floppies 

BYTE: What about the disk memories? the 
CD-ROM? 

Shivji: We're waiting for audio. The first 
version of the CD-ROM players was a 
small unit; the power supply was a 
separate box. The second batch has a 
built-in power supply. Now Sony has a 
third batch, starting around April, 
which has audio as well as digital. 
That's the one that we're waiting for. 
We feel that if a customer spends $600, 
he might as well have audio, too. 

BYTE: What about the floppies? Is there go- 
ing to be a change at some point, going to 
higher densities, 1.2 megabytes? 
Shivji: Two megs is almost here. The 
thing that's going to be important is the 
media, because it is special media that 
can handle 2 megs. Some of our Japa- 
nese friends who are drive manufac- 
turers are working on a 10-megabyte 
floppy in the 3.5 format. They think that 
sometime around mid to late 1986 
there will be 10-megabyte drives. 

Multitasking 

BYTE: What about multitasking? When will 
that be coming as an option, or do you see that 
as necessary at all? 

Shivji: To get useful multitasking you 
have to have things like protection, 
which is not the case in many existing 
machines. Although we have protected 
space, as you've noticed, it's not very 
much. The architecture is there to pro- 
vide more protection, and in future ver- 
sions of the machine we may provide 
a lot more protection. 

BYTE: That's why you're looking at the 
memory-management chips and such? 
Shivji: Yes, we're looking at memory- 
management chips, but doing logical- 
to physical-address translation is 
perhaps not as important as the pro- 
tection feature for multitasking. So 
we're looking closely into protection. 
Again, the future versions of the ST ar- 
chitecture could have more; we have 
only 2K bytes at the moment, and we 
could probably protect about half a 
megabyte. And then that would make 
it a lot easier to run a protected kernel 
and then multitask. 

BYTE: What about UNIX System V? 
Shivji: We're looking at System V now. 



We're constantly looking at multitask- 
ing, and we're constantly getting pro- 
posals for a multitasking environment. 
As a matter of fact, I think it has 
become a bit of a buzzword. But it is 
something that people now are look- 
ing forward to having in their machines. 
So with the amount of memory the 
1040 has, it will not be out of place to 
have a multitasking operating system 
that could run, coexist with TOS 
perhaps, by at least the third quarter 
of 1986. 

BYTE: What about peripherals? Is Atari go- 
ing to get in the business of printers and 
modems and the like? 

Shivji: Yes, we have printers. We are 
working on a modem. We feel that a 
1200-baud modem should be inexpen- 
sive. There have been a lot of advances 
in technology (such as the modem 
chips from Sierra Semiconductor). We 
hope that around the middle of 1986 
we will have something to show. 

BYTE: What about higher-end printers? With 
Atari leading this price/performance curve now, 
what about laser printers? 
Shivji: We started talking to the peo- 
ple, around the time that the laser 
printers came out from Apple and 
Hewlett Packard. We have talked to a 
lot of the manufacturers. We're looking 
at something that costs about $1200 
retail, but we don't feel that it's really 
a mass item. Although imagine an ST 
in an engineering environment where 
you can get prints. 

Yes, we were looking at it. As a mat- 
ter of fact, the interesting thing is that 
the cost of building the ST board is so 
low that we were thinking of using the 
ST board as a driver for the printer. At 
300 dots per inch, if you want to have 
a full page in the unit, you've got to 
have about one and a half meg of 
RAM. And we actually can support 
more than that. It's something that's in 
the pipeline. We unfortunately don't 
have control over the manufacturers. 
We actually looked at the LCS tech- 
nology—the liquid-crystal shutter— 
which is similar to that. Casio uses that. 
It wasn't quite as good. Nowadays peo- 
ple are also pushing the LEDs | light- 
emitting diodes). The company that is 
farthest along the line of good printers 
in LEDs is NEC. They have a really nice 



92 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 144 



ATARI 1040ST 



one. We've been talking to them about 
getting their engine for quite a while. 
But right now it's too expensive. We 
could probably get it down to about 
SI 500 right now. We're looking more 
toward SI 200 and then under $1000. 

BYTE: What about sound capabilities? 
Shivji: We had a project here started 
during Alan Kay's tenure— a chip called 
Amy. And the ST was designed to have 
the Amy. But the Amy did not happen. 
We had silicon, the first pass, in Oc- 
tober or November, and we had severe 
problems with it. It was kind of an or- 
phan project. There were a lot of peo- 
ple who had worked on it. And if you 
have a chip that has six or eight peo- 
ple who have worked on it at different 
times, chances of the chip working are 
slim. But it's a good design. 

BYTE: What does it do? What's so special 
about it? 

Shivji: The approach of others is that 
during horizontal-refresh time you go 
out to some place and put some mem- 
ory out automatically, and that goes 
through a DAC |digital-to-analog con- 
verter! and you have sound. Essential- 
ly you're sampling at 1 5.75 kHz, which 
is the typical frequency. So it's like a 
digital tape recorder. You have a digi- 
tized sound and you're just putting it 
out. And it needs enormous amounts 
of memory. The key is: How do you en- 
code sound? From an information- 
theoretic point of view, there are two 
problems with this approach. One is it's 
an enormous waste of memory. 
Because you could encode whatever 
sound you're going to play, as far as 
data is concerned in a sound piece, the 
data rate is extremely low. And doing 
it in the digital tape recorder way, 
you're wasting an awful lot of band- 
width and a lot of memory. The second 
problem with other implementations is 
that you only have 8 bits and it's not 
really that good. Especially with CDs 
coming out. 

Amy was a chip that had 16 bits of 
information coming out. So you could 
have 96 decibels of range. What you 
could hear! Amy was a complete digital 
sound chip. It's called an additive- 
digital synthesizer. It had an adder and 
64 independent oscillators. It has a 
model for sound and you feed it the 



parameters. But if you do that you have 
to do an awful lot of preprocessing. We 
had hired a lot of people. We had a 
VAX 780 devoted to it. We had equip- 
ment, fast floating-point array pro- 
cessors, and so on, to analyze notes. 
We would get a tape of piano playing 
and then the VAX would analyze it and 
would take the Amy model and give 
the parameters. To play anything you 
only needed to have parameter tables 
and feed it to the chip. 

BYTE: Is it still a possibility then? 
Shivji: It is still a possibility. We were 
going to have the Amy, and then it 
didn't happen. Then we said, look, we 
want to have a base machine that's a 
good machine. Everybody doesn't 
really care about great sound, right? So 
let's not penalize people that don't 
care. Let's put something that will allow 
people who really care about sound to 
be able to play things. That's how the 
MIDI came in. And so if you get Amy, 
we could even have it out as a MIDI 
device. It's a great chip. Essentially all 
you do is you load it up. Off line you're 
doing an analysis of all the different 
things, and then you have it in table 
form. And you can play it any time you 
want. And you're not using up the bus 
that much. 

BYTE: 1/ it has that kind of processing capa- 
bility, it could probably build models for voice, 
too. 

Shivji: Exactly. We actually could 
reproduce opera sound. As a matter 
of fact, we had a sound lab. The type 
of sound that you could hear from that 
chip was just incredible. Again, 16-bit. 
Actually, the chip could even give you 
17 bits if you wanted it to. The two 
problems are it needs too much mem- 
ory and it hogs the bandwidth. The 
bandwidth you could probably get 
around. However, that's not the whole 
thing. You still have to move all that 
data around. Of course you don't get 
the data at the right place for free. For 
example, you have to move it somehow 
from a disk drive. 

BYTE: So the Yamaha chip is in there just 
to give it the basic sound? 
Shivji: Yes. just the basic sounds you 
need. Though, of course, the ports are 
very useful. ■ 




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MARCH 1986 -BYTE 95 




Figure I : This drawing 

of the front of the Titanic 

shows where some 

of the photographs 

in this article were taken. 



96 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



ILLUSTRATED BY DANIEL PELAVIN 



by Marti Spalding and Ben Dawson 



FINDING THE 

TITANIC 

Image processing helped locate the historic wreck 



n April 14, 1912, the "un- 
sinkable" Titanic sank 
when it collided with an 
iceberg in the North 
Atlantic, taking with it more than 1 500 
of its 2000 passengers. When the 
Titanic slid into its grave, the tech- 
nology of the day could indicate only 
that it sank somewhere in a 150- 
square-mile area of the Atlantic 
Ocean. The combination of such a 
large search area and the tremendous 
depth of the water frustrated attempts 
to find the ship. 

Then, after 73 years of being lost in 
the vast and frigid waters of the Atlan- 
tic, the Titanic was located 370 miles 
south of Newfoundland on Septem- 
ber 1, 1985, at 13,000 feet (more than 
2 miles) below sea level. The team 
that found her consisted of 13 re- 
searchers aboard the U.S. Navy vessel 
Knorr, a group of French scientists 
from the vessel Le Suroit, and millions 
of dollars worth of equipment. The 
success of this expedition was due 
largely to advances in deep-sea ex- 
ploration and image-processing tech- 
nology. 

How Do You Find 
a Sunken Ship? 

The French ship he Suroit was 
equipped with an advanced remote- 
acoustic system (SAR) that was origi- 
nally developed for finding valuable 
manganese nodules on the ocean 
floor. As the ship moves, the SAR side 
scans kilometer-wide strips of the 
ocean floor. The system synthesizes 
these high-resolution strip images to 



provide a continuous two-dimen- 
sional image. 

Using the SAR, the French exam- 
ined most of the 1 50-square-mile 
search area but missed finding the 
Titanic by 300 yards. 

he Suroit certainly could have located 
the Titanic or its debris but might have 
had trouble making a positive identi- 
fication. Because SAR images are two- 
dimensional, they do not allow you to 
determine the height of an object on 
the ocean floor unless the object casts 
a shadow. As with an optical shadow, 
you can estimate the height if you 
know the viewing angle and distances. 
If the Titanic were not intact or viewed 
from the proper angle, identification 
might have been difficult even if the 
SAR had located it. 

Meanwhile, the Americans explored 
using the Argo, named for the ship 
sailed by the Greek hero Jason in his 
search for the Golden Fleece. The 
Argo is a 1 5-foot-long unmanned vehi- 
cle developed at the Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution in Massa- 
chusetts as part of a system for ocean- 
bottom research. It acquires wide- 
angle television pictures while "flying" 
120 feet above the sea floor and 
zooming in for close-up shots. 

With only a few days remaining in 

(continued) 
Marti Spalding (imaging Technology, 600 
West Cummings Park, Woburn. MA 01801) 
has a B.A. in education and is a senior 
technical writer for Imaging Technoiogy. Ben 
Dawson (E10-120 MIT, 79 Amherst St., 
Cambridge, MA 02139) is a research scien- 
tist at MIT. 



MARCH 1986 



I Y T E 97 



TITANIC 




Photo I : One of the first views of the Titanic seen since it sank into the frigid 
waters of the North Atlantic almost three-quarters of a century ago. This video 
image was taken by the Argo from approximately 2 5 feet above the wreck and 
shows the gash in the bow area where the iceberg struck. The time-code numbers 
along the top of the image are blurred due to the averaging process. [All photos 
and figures courtesy of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.) 




Photo 2: This view clearly shows the teakwood deck and railing of the Titanic. 
Photos 2 through 6 are 35mm photographs taken by the ANGUS. Although 
they are of much higher quality than the video images used to locate the 
Titanic, the 35mm images are somewhat cloudy due to light scatter from 
particles in the water. 



the expedition, the Argo started send- 
ing back video images of the debris 
from the Titanic. Within hours the 
researchers had found and identified 
the wreck of the Titanic itself (see 
photo 1). 

Because the video images provided 
by the Argo were of relatively poor 
quality, the researchers dispatched a 
second towed vehicle, the ANGUS 
(acoustically navigated geological 
underwater survey), which zoomed in 
and took high-quality 3 5mm photo- 
graphs. The ANGUS was designed 
primarily to work in rugged volcanic 
terrains to depths of 20,000 feet. The 
ANGUS'S depth is controlled by the 
amount of tow cable let out and 
typically flies 25 to 35 feet above the 
ocean floor. Its heavy-duty steel frame 
must be capable of withstanding jar- 
ring head-on collisions with rock out- 
crops, because it sends no visual in- 
formation back to the surface ship. 

Within the ANGUS'S frame are three 
large-capacity 3 5mm color cameras, 
each containing 400 feet of film (3200 
photos) and capable of photograph- 
ing a swath of sea floor about 200 feet 
wide. These cameras take photo- 
graphs at 20-second intervals, using 
strobe lights to illuminate the ocean 
bottom. At the speed at which the 
ANGUS travels, this rate provides a 
generous photo overlap. (Photos 2 
through 6 were taken by the ANGUS. 
Figure 1 shows the approximate site 
of the photographs in this article.) The 
ANGUS must be pulled up on board 
the Knorr and the film processed 
before the images can be viewed. 

Getting Pictures 
from the Abyss 

The Argo (see photo 7), with its abili- 
ty to send real-time video images to 
the Knorr, was the key to finding the 
Titanic. Even after the French had ex- 
plored and eliminated 80 percent of 
the search area, a large area re- 
mained. Real-time video imaging 
allowed the researchers to do a rapid 
search of the ocean floor and obtain 
a positive identification of the wreck, 
which could not have been done with 
the delays inherent in processing film 
from the ANGUS. 



98 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



TITANIC 



The Argo carries three video 
cameras, strobe lights and floodlights, 
a sonar system, and a variety of elec- 
tronics (see figure 2). One camera 
looks forward while the other two 
look down. A video switcher selects 
a camera signal for transmission up 
the tow cable to the Knorr where video 
images are then processed, moni- 
tored, and recorded. The sonar sys- 
tem on the Argo is similar to the 
French SAR system but has lower res- 
olution and is used to augment the 
video capabilities. The Argo's depth 
is controlled by changing the length 
of the tow cable. 

The Argo uses two modes of opera- 
tion. In snapshot mode, the strobe 
lights fire every 10 seconds to survey 
a wide area of ocean floor. The Argo 
is towed at a speed of 0.6 to 2.4 miles 
per hour (0.5 to 2 knots) so that suc- 
cessive video snapshot images over- 
lap. When the researchers locate 
something of interest, they lower the 
Argo and use a continuous mode of 
operation. In this mode, two 2 50-watt 
floodlights illuminate a smaller sec- 
tion of the ocean floor, as the cameras 
send continuous video images back 
to the Knorr. 

In shallow water, the design for an 
Argo-like vehicle would be simple: At- 
tach TV cameras and lights to a frame, 
and send the video pictures back 
through a coaxial cable to the surface 
ship. With a deep submersible vehi- 
cle, however, two factors— the ocean 
environment and the tow cable- 
make this design a formidable prob- 
lem. 

The environment at great ocean 
depths is in some ways more hostile 
than the vacuum of space. The water 
is completely dark and its pressure 
crushes any unprotected equipment. 
In addition, the conductive and cor- 
rosive properties of salt water destroy 
equipment or quickly make it unreli- 
able. Solutions to these problems in- 
cluded enclosing the electronic equip- 
ment in heavy-pressure housings and 
connecting equipment with pressure- 
compensated oil-filled cables. The 
small size of the housings and the 
cost of this protection constrained the 
amount of electronics that could be 




Photo 3: The gaping hole left bu the collapse of the Titanic's first [forward) 
smokestack. The huge liner had four smokestacks. 




Photo 4: An area of major damage between the first and second smokestacks. 



placed aboard the Argo. 

Ocean water contains a large 
amount of suspended particles (such 
as dirt and silt) that reflect illuminating 
light and partially blind the cameras. 
The problem is similar to using head- 
lights in fog. The designers of the 



Argo reduced these reflections by 
mounting its lights and cameras as far 
apart as possible. In a similar way, fog 
lights on a car are usually mounted 
as far below the driver's eyes as pos- 
sible. 

(continued) 



MARCH 1986 



! Y T E 99 



TITANIC 



At these tremendous ocean depths, 
the design of the tow cable is a major 
problem; let's consider what the cable 
must do. It must support thousands 
of pounds of equipment, operate 
under tremendous water pressure, 



and provide an electronic path for all 
power delivered to the Argo and the 
control, telemetry, and video signals 
sent between the Argo and the Knorr. 
In shallow water, you could use multi- 
ple cables for these functions. At any 




Photo 5: Some of the debris surrounding the Titanic. The serving tray is 
about 3 feet across. The black lumps are coal. The ocean bottom at these depths 
is usually featureless. 




Photo 6: This twisted machinery is the base of the aft crane. Surprisingly, some 
items {the serving tray and wine bottles) were gently deposited on the ocean floor, 
while others were ripped off the ship and destroyed. 



great depth, however, multiple cables 
are unmanageable. The design of the 
Argo required that all the support, 
power, and signal functions be built 
into a single coaxial tow cable. 

The tow cable consists of a single 
center conductor surrounded by a co- 
axial shield and a waterproof barrier 
wrapped in two layers of steel armor. 
The steel armor prevents the cable 
from being crushed by the water pres- 
sure. The cable is 0.68 inches in diam- 
eter and 20,000 feet long, and it 
weighs over seven tons. 

The cable's weight becomes a major 
problem when handling and testing 
it— the cable spool literally sinks into 
pavement or floors. The cable can 
support 40,000 pounds of properly 
terminated load, a substantial portion 
of which is its own weight. Because 
the cable is unwound from a spool, 
all electrical connections must be 
made through rotating contacts. A 
single coaxial cable can withstand 
repeated flexures and other abuse 
better than a multiconductor cable 
and makes the design of the rotating 
contacts simple and reliable. 

Power for the Argo's equipment is 
transmitted down the tow cable using 
440 volts AC. At the same time, con- 
trol signals are sent down the cable 
and telemetry signals are sent up the 
cable (including one channel for the 
video information). Frequency-divi- 
sion multiplexing allows the power 
and signals to travel on a single cable. 
That is. the power and each of the 
control and telemetry signals occupy 
a different frequency band in a 5-MHz 
total bandwidth. Modulators shift 
signals to appropriate bands, and 
demodulators recover the signals at 
the receiving end. 

The problems with this scheme in- 
clude limited power transmission, 
noise, and limited bandwidth for 
signals. The limited amount of power 
that can be sent down the cable 
means that in snapshot mode, the 
strobe lights have to charge for 
several seconds before they can fire; 
in continuous mode, only 500 watts 
of illumination is available. 

The researchers on the Knorr made 

[continued) 



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TITANIC 



the best use of the Argo's limited 
power by switching between the two 
modes. In snapshot mode, the Argo 
briefly illuminated a large area to 
allow a survey, while for close-up 
viewing it continuously illuminated a 
smaller area. To maximize the limited 
light available, the system utilized 
highly sensitive Silicon Intensified 
Target (SIT) video cameras. While the 
comparison between film and video 
is not exact, the approximate sensi- 
tivity of these cameras is 200,000 
ASA (an ISO [International Organiza- 
tion for Standardization! film-speed 
rating). 

The video signals returned from the 
Argo are degraded by cable noise 
and bandwidth limitations. Imagine 
the kind of noise problems that arise 
from running 440 volts AC on the 
same line as a video signal! Again, the 
bandwidth of the cable is only 5 MHz, 
so to transmit all the power and 
signals the video signal had to be 
modulated at 5 MHz. Half the video 
signal occupied the frequency band 
between 5 and 10 MHz, which was 
well past the bandwidth of the cable. 
Thus, at 5-MHz frequency, the cable 
attenuated the video signal by 80 



decibels, which resulted in a signifi- 
cant reduction in power. 

Image Processing 
Improves Images 

The problems of poor illumination, 
particle backscatter, cable noise, and 
attenuation meant that the video 
signal delivered to the Knorr was 
significantly degraded. Image pro- 
cessing aided in the restoration and 
enhancement of the video signals. 
Figure 3 shows the specialized hard- 
ware configuration used to capture, 
transmit, and process the video 
images obtained from the Argo. Some 
common image-processing terms are 
explained in the glossary on page 
110. 

Depending on the mode of opera- 
tion, the Argo sends the output from 
its cameras directly up the tow cable 
to an analog video preprocessor or 
temporarily stores it in a frame store 
located aboard the Argo. This frame 
store is a modular 5/2-inch-high unit 
(manufactured by Toko Inc.) that is 
small enough to fit into a pressure 
housing. On the Knorr. the analog 
video preprocessor reinserts syn- 
chronization signals to correct for 




Photo 7: The Argo remote vehicle. This vehicle was towed near the ocean bottom 
and sent back video images of the Titanic. The cylindrical pressure housings hold 
cameras, strobe lights, and other electronics. 



losses caused by the frequency- 
modulation telemetry system. 

Image processing and control 
equipment aboard the Knorr includes 
a single-board computer, the 
Heurikon HK68, and three image-pro- 
cessing boards: an analog processor 
(AP-512), frame buffer (FB-5I2), and a 
high-speed arithmetic image pro- 
cessor (ALU-512), made by Imaging 
Technology Inc. 

The AP-512 digitizes the video images 
(analog signals) transmitted from the 
Argo. The ALU-512 is a high-speed 
pipelined processor that supports 
real-time full-frame arithmetic and 
logical operations (such as add, sub- 
tract, AND, and OR) on video images 
in real time (l/30th second per frame). 
Output from the ALU is routed to the 
FB-512 frame buffer for storage. 

The FB-512 is a general-purpose 
frame buffer that stores the resulting 
digitized image in its 2 56K bytes of 
RAM (random-access read/write 
memory) as 512- by 512-bytes by 8 
bits (RS-170 specification results in the 
image being acquired and displayed 
as 480 lines). This module stores and 
outputs a digitized image in real time, 
at a rate of 30 frames per second. 

The image-processing system was 
controlled by the HK68 68000-based 
computer running VRTX (Versatile 
Real-Time Executive), a real-time multi- 
tasking operating system. This board 
has 1 megabyte of memory and 
allows DMA (direct memory access) 
transfer of images between CPU (cen- 
tral processing unit) memory and the 
FB-512 frame buffer. A second 
Heurikon HK68 system on the Knorr 
was used for modifying this software 
while the ship was at sea. 

VRTX manages the assignment of 
memory and the input/output of data 
in a real-time system environment. As 
such, it functions somewhat like a 
switchboard operator, making sure 
that priority calls are handled im- 
mediately and that other calls are 
answered as soon as possible without 
allowing any call to fail to get 
answered. VRTX helps direct data 
transmission between the Argo and 
the Knorr, helps control the Argo and 

(continued) 



102 B YTE • MARCH 1986 




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TITANIC 



the data recording, and displays 
status information on an operator 
console. 

Image Acquisition 

As we mentioned earlier, the Argo 
transmitted video signals to the 
analog preprocessor either directly 
from the cameras or from the Argo's 
frame store. In snapshot mode, 
camera signals were first digitized and 
stored in the frame store, then con- 
verted to an analog signal for trans- 
mission up the tow cable. Digitization 
converts an analog signal to a digital 



code, where represents black and 
2 55 white, with values of gray having 
digital values between and 255. The 
stored video image was transmitted 
continuously up the cable and pro- 
cessed, as explained below, to im- 
prove its quality. 

In video terminology, one video 
image is called a frame. A frame has 
two fields; one of the fields contains 
all of the even-numbered lines, and 
the other field contains all of the odd- 
numbered lines. The even and the 
odd fields are interlaced into a frame 
with approximately 480 horizontal 



lines, each with 512 picture elements 
(pixels). 

Image Averaging 

Image averaging is a typical operation 
used in image processing to remove 
random noise ("snow") from an 
image. In this case, averaging was nec- 
essary to reduce the noise introduced 
by the tow cable and telemetry sys- 
tem. Image averaging sums the bright- 
ness values of two or more frames on 
a pixel-by-pixel basis and then divides 
by the number of frames summed. 
The signal from the tow cable con- 



TOW CABLE 




Figure 2: This drawing of the Argo shows the tow cable, pressure housings, cameras, and lights. Other housings hold the altimeter. 
attitude package (depth, heading, heave, etc.), and control and communication electronics. 



104 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



TITANIC 



sists of the desired video signal plus 
the added random noise. These ran- 
dom-noise values may either increase 
or decrease the digital value of the 
desired video signal and appear in 
different spatial positions from frame 
to frame. When the system sums the 
tow cable signal values, the random- 
noise values tend to cancel but the 
desired video signal increases. The 
final division scales the sum back to 
a range that can be displayed on a 
television monitor. The actual increase 
in the signal-to-noise ratio is propor- 
tional to the square root of the 



number of images averaged if the 
noise is completely random. The 
result of averaging two or more 
frames of the same noisy image is a 
much clearer picture. 

Consider the values of a single pixel 
in a sequence of eight frames. Sup- 
pose that the correct signal value for 
this pixel should be 5, but noise 
values of -2, 0, and 2 are being ran- 
domly added to the signal. A typical 
sequence of frame values for this 
pixel might be 

5 7 3 3 7 5 7 5 



The sum of the pixel values is 42 and 
when divided by 8 the average is 5.25. 
This estimate is very close to the cor- 
rect signal value of 5. The limited 
range of numbers represented in the 
frame buffer truncates the fractional 
value to 5. 

From a hardware standpoint, the 
video signal was digitized by the 
AP-512 analog processor and 
summed with existing values con- 
tained in the FB-512 frame buffer by 
the ALU-512 arithmetic logic unit. 
These summed values were returned 

(continued) 



VIDEO IMAGE-PROCESSING SYSTEM 



AVERAGED VIDEO 



TELEMETRY- 



ANALOG 

VIDEO 

PREPROCESSOR 



TOW CABLE 



3:1 

CAMERA 

SELECTOR 

AND 

FRAME 

STORE 




CONTROLLER 



FRAME 
STORES 



-»■ FORWARD 
-*• TELEPHOTO 



VIDEO BUS VIDEO BUS 



M S2-, , k<> 



ALU-512 



FB-512 



t 




HK68 

SINGLE-BOARD 

COMPUTER 



SERIAL I/O 



ARGO 
COMMAND 
AND 
CONTROL 



I 

ARGO 

DIGITAL 

DATA 

ACQUISITION 



VIDEO- 
DISC 
AND 
TAPE 



OPERATOR 
CONSOLE 



Figure 3: The video image-processing system on the Argo and Knorr. The cameras and frame stores on the Argo are shown on 
the lejt and the processing and display hardware on the Knorr to the right. 



MARCH 1986 • BYTE 



TITANIC 



to the FB-512. Since a separate sum 
is kept for each of the more than 
2 50.000 points (512 by 512 bytes) in 
the image and is updated 30 times 
per second, the ALU-512 performs 
over 7,000,000 sums, multiplies, and 
shifts (divisions) per second. A last 



pass through the ALU-512 divides the 
final sum to produce the average. 

It should be noted that if the image 
changes, this averaging process 
results in a blurred image. The human 
eye performs a similar averaging, so 
that fast-moving objects appear 



Photo 8: The bow of the Titanic, showing the port and starboard anchor 
chains and capstans. 



Photo 9: Histogram of the image values in photo 8. The horizontal axis 
represents the gray level and the vertical axis represents the number of pixels that 
have that gray level. The menu shown is part of the Image Action software 
package made by \maging Technology. 



















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blurred. To avoid this problem, the 
Argo sent the same stored image re- 
peatedly while in snapshot mode and 
used fewer images while in con- 
tinuous mode. 

The illumination provided by the 
strobe light in snapshot mode was 
very brief. Because the SIT camera 
has a nonlinear signal decay, the 
video image transmitted was so de- 
graded that only one field of informa- 
tion was used. Thus, in snapshot 
mode, the spatial resolution of the 
image was 240 by 512 pixels. 

In both modes, the system used ad- 
ditional frame stores to hold and dis- 
play the last average from each of the 
three cameras while new averages 
were being accumulated. Photo 1 
shows one of the first video images 
of the Titanic taken with this video 
system. 

Real-time video imaging and subse- 
quent processing were keys to finding 
the Titanic. After locating the ship, the 
ANGUS provided thousands of addi- 
tional 35mm film images. Although of 
a much higher quality than the video 
images, these images are fuzzy due 
to suspended particle scattering and 
limited and nonuniform illumination. 
If enough information is available in 
a photograph, however, image pro- 
cessing can improve its apparent 
quality. Note that image processing 
cannot magically create new informa- 
tion, but it can enhance existing 
information. 

To show how this might be done, we 
digitized two images (photos 8 and 1 1 ) 
and processed them using an IBM PC 
XT containing a PCVISION Frame 
Grabber made by Imaging Tech- 
nology. 

In this case, the system could 
average only two to four images 
before blurring, due to the motion of 
the Argo. Because fewer images were 
averaged, the resulting images were 
noisier than snapshot images; how- 
ever, their resolution was double that 
of snapshot-mode images, as con- 
tinuous illumination provided the sys- 
tem with full frames (two fields total- 
ling 480 by 512 pixels) for averaging 
rather than the single field (240 by 512 
pixels) of snapshot mode. 



106 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



TITANIC 



Contrast Enhancement 

One class of image-processing opera- 
tions modifies the intensity values at 
each image point to enhance the ap- 
parent contrast of the image. Because 
these operations work only on a 
single image point, they are known as 
point processes. For example, if the 
intensity values in an image range 
from to 100, the apparent contrast 
of the image may be increased by 
multiplying the value of each image 
point by 2. 

The range of intensity values can be 
determined by a histogram operation, 
that is, by counting the number of 
pixels of each intensity. The histogram 
of photo 8, for example (photo 9), 
shows that the intensity values range 
from 130 to 2 5 5. 

The contrast of this photo can be 
improved by transforming each pixel 
point by the following equation: 

transformed pixel value = 
M * (original pixel value- K) 

where K= 130 and M = 2. 

This results in "sliding" the value of 
all pixels down the gray scale by 130, 
followed by a linear "stretch" of the 
values by 2. 

In essence, this makes the lightest 
pixels white, the darkest pixels black, 
and linearly arranges the intermediate 
intensities to span the range of to 
2 55. This transformation can be done 
by lookup tables (LUTs) on the frame 
grabber. To understand the action of 
an LUT, consider that the LUT is a 
small block of memory that receives 
an 8-bit address as an input and out- 
puts the 8-bit data stored at that ad- 
dress. The input addresses are pixel 
values and the values stored at these 
addresses are the transformed values 
that are output. Thus, rather than do- 
ing the transform on each and every 
pixel, the system checks the LUT to 
find the precalculated value. This 
saves time since, for example, every 
pixel with an intensity value of 200 
will have a transformed value of 140. 

Any arbitrary intensity transform 
can be generated and loaded into the 
LUT. We programmed the transform 



shown above into the LUT and the 
resulting enhancement and contrast 
of photo 8 is shown in photo 10. 

Edge Enhancement 

Another class of image-processing 
operations uses the information from 



the area surrounding each pixel to 
change the spatial contrast of the 
image. When an area operation is 
used to sharpen or enhance the 
edges in an image, it is called an edge 
enhancement. Edge enhancements 

(continued) 




Photo 10: The result of contrast-enhancing the image shown in photo 8. 
The process adds no new information to the image but adjusts the pixel values 
to improve the contrast. 




Photo 1 1 : Digitization of a photo taken by the ANGUS. This image shows the 
foredeck of the Titanic directly in front of the bridge, with the entire starboard 
crane, the boom of the port crane, part of the mast, and an open hold. 



MARCH 1986 • BYTE 



107 



TITANIC 




Photo 12: The result of contrast-stretching and edge-enhancing the image shown in 
photo 11. These operations improve the contrast and accentuate the high-frequency 
information components of the image, resulting in a sharper image. 




Figure 4: Edge enhancement involves taking an image {a), multiplying the intensity 
values in each 3- by 3-pixel area (as in the heavily outlined area) by the corresponding 
values in a preset kernel (b), summing the products, and placing the results in the 
center pixel. The result of performing this process on [a) is shown in (c). Note how edge 
enhancement makes the dim inner square of (a) easier to view in (c). 



can use convolution to implement a 
spatial filter that accentuates high 
frequencies. 

The convolution operation consists 
of multiplying pixels in the "neighbor- 
hood" of a given pixel by constants, 
summing and scaling, and replacing 
the center pixel by the result. The con- 
stants used for the multiplication are 
called the kernel of the convolution. 

If the neighborhood is 3 pixels hori- 
zontally by 3 pixels vertically and the 
center pixel is at location (x,y), the 
convolutions operation can be repre- 
sented by the following formula: 

0(x,y)=M,[I(x-l,y-l)|+M 2 |I(x,y-l)] + 
Ms(I(x+ l,y- l)|+M 4 |I(x- l,y)]+M 5 
[I(x,y)|+M 6 |I(x+l,y)]+M 7 [I(x-l.y+ 

. l)|+M 8 [I(xy+l)|+M 9 |I(x+l,y+l)| 

You can extract the kernel values 
(M-i to Mg) and represent them as a 
single table. For an edge enhance- 
ment, you can use the following 
kernel table: 



-1 9 -1 
-I -1 -1 

To see how this accentuates edges 
(changes) in an image, imagine one 
area of an image with intensity values 
as shown in figure 4a. If you overlay 
the kernel table (see figure 4b) on 
each 3- by 3-pixel section of the 
image, multiply the corresponding 
numbers, add all the products, and 
place the result in the center pixel, the 
resulting image is shown in figure 4c. 

The effect of the convolution is to 
enhance spatial changes in intensity. 
In this example, the brighter square 
(with the original value of 20) is accen- 
tuated by decreasing the surrounding 
values to and increasing the edge 
values to 70 at the corners and 50 in 
between. Note that areas that do not 
have any spatial change in intensity 
are left unchanged— the area sur- 
rounding the center square is still of 
intensity 10, and the center of the 
square is left at intensity 20. 

Some of the resulting values of the 
convolution operator are negative 
numbers. Because negative intensity 

[continued] 



108 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



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TITANIC 



Glossary 



Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): Hard- 
ware that performs arithmetic functions 
such as add or subtract and logical 
functions such as AND or OR. 
Digitize: The process of converting an 
analog (in this case, video) signal's 
amplitude to digital values. 
Display: The device in which an image 
is converted from electrical to optical 
signals: typically, a television monitor. 
Field: In an interlaced scanning sys- 
tem, the set of even or odd lines into 
which a frame is divided. 
Filter: In image processing, an opera- 
tion that changes the spatial and inten- 
sity characteristics of an image. 
Frame: The total number of lines of 
scan that represent an image. 
Frame Buffer: A high-speed memory 
designed to store a single image and 
allow simultaneous video display, ALU 
processing, and CPU (central process- 
ing unit) access. 

Frame Memory: Any area in memory 
(host-computer memory or frame- 
buffer memory) that is used to store 
an image. 

Frame Store: A high-speed memory 
designed to temporarily store a single 
image. 

Image Processing: The alteration and 
analysis of a picture for such purposes 
as enhancement and recognition. 
Intensity: The strength of light at a 
particular point in an image. Pixels 
represent intensity values that are per- 
ceived by the eye as brightness. 



Interlace: The means by which an 
image is scanned in standard video for- 
mat, where the odd and even fields are 
displayed alternately. 
Lookup Table (LUT): Hardware that 
provides map values for transforming 
or modifying pixels. Each pixel in the 
frame buffer has a value ranging from 
to 2 55. LUTs allow you to modify 
these values for purposes of enhanc- 
ing the image. 

Pixel: The smallest unit of storage in 
a digital image, addressed by that unit's 
horizontal and vertical coordinate or 
location within an image. 
Real Time: In image processing, an 
operation or a function that is com- 
pleted in one frame time is said to be 
performed in real time. For standard 
television (RS-170) equipment, a frame 
time is 1/30 of a second. 
Resolution: In image processing, the 
number of bits of accuracy or number 
of gray levels that can be represented 
in a pixel: for example, 8 bits = 256 
levels, 6 bits = 64 levels. 
Spatial Resolution: In image process- 
ing, the number of pixels into which an 
image is divided, indicating the preci- 
sion or accuracy horizontally and ver- 
tically. For example, a spatial resolution 
of 480 by 512 pixels means that the im- 
age has 480 lines, with 512 pixels each 
(for a total of 245,760 pixels). 



is meaningless, we have changed 
these values to 0. 

The image shown in photo 1 1 , two 
cranes on the foredeck of the Titanic, 
was enhanced using the LUTs and 
convolved with an edge-enhancing 
kernel (see photo 12). 

Conclusion 

Deep-sea exploration is just one of 
the many applications in which image 
processing is being used. For exam- 
ple, image processing is used in 
medical imaging for digital radio- 
graphy, microscopy. X-ray averaging 
and recording, and in factory inspec- 



tion for robotic vision, quality control 
on production lines, and X-ray inspec- 
tion. Finding the Titanic is certainly a 
spectacular example of the processes 
that scientists and technicians in a 
variety of fields are using to coax 
useful information from two-dimen- 
sional images. ■ 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 
We thank Robert Squires and Stewart Harris of 
the Woods Hole institution Deep Submergence 
laboratory for information and assistance in prepar- 
ing this article, hob and Stu are part of a team 
of scientists and engineers on the Titanic expedi- 
tion and under the direction of Dr. Robert Ballard, 
who designed and built the hrgo. 



110 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



/// 




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112 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



PHOTOGRAPHED BY PAUL AVIS 



CIARCIAS CIRCUIT CELLAR 



REAL-TIME CLOCKS: 

A VIEW 

TOWARD THE FUTURE 



by Steve Garcia 



One of these clocks also 
provides nonvolatile RAM 




Ever have one of those 
occasions when every- 
thing is progressing 
smoothly and then you hit 
a big snag? Here 1 was, 
standing on a 6-foot lad- 
der with screwdrivers in 
my back pockets, electric drill in my right 
hand, hammer in my belt, mouth full of 
screws, a pencil over my ear, and the audio/ 
video multiplexer that I described last 
month balanced in my left hand. A pre- 
carious climb if ever there was one, I assure 
you. 

I had solved the ever-present do-it-your- 
self problem of forgetting some needed 
tool by dragging everything along with me 
up the ladder. 1 cursed as I banged my head 
on an overhead heating duct and swore that 
the next time I set aside an area to mount 
all this home-control junk, I'd know every- 
thing I was going to put on it in advance 
and leave plenty of room. Instead of a con- 
venient shoulder-high location where life 
would be easy, I was halfway up under the 
floor joists sniffing concrete dust and soot. 
(Installing this stuff is getting about as 
pleasurable as writing software for me these 
days. Back when all I had was 48-instruction 
processors and lots of empty wall space, 
everything was copacetic.) 

The only saving grace to this temporary 
agony was that it would soon be relieved 



by the enhanced automatic living afforded 
through the intelligent audio/video multi- 
plexer (AVMUX). Using the BCC-52 com- 
puter and a smart terminal board from a 
couple of previous Circuit Cellar projects, 
the AVMUX would take inputs from a vari- 
ety of audio and video sources and chan- 
nel them to any of a number of specific out- 
puts. My intention was to enhance my pres- 
ent level of automatic living to include pro- 
grammed light, sound, and music. 

I wiped my brow after turning the last 
mounting screw for the AVMUX and instinc- 
tively dodged another floor joist as I looked 
down at the card cage containing the com- 
puter that I still had to mount. I had in- 
cluded all the necessary cabling and mount- 
ing hardware between it, the multiplexer, 
and the Home Run Control System (HCS) 
already in operation. My control program 
was already written and saved in EPROM 
(erasable programmable read-only mem- 
ory) so that it would automatically start 
when I powered up the system. Depending 
upon the day, time, direct signals from the 
HCS, and a yet-to-be-designed remote- 

(conlinued) 
Steve Garcia (pronounced "see-ARE-see-ah") is an 
electronics engineer and computer consultant with ex- 
perience in process control, digital design, nuclear in- 
strumentation, and product development. He is the 
author of several books about electronics. You can 
write to him at POB 582, Glastonbury. CT 06033. 



COPYRIGHT © 1986 STEVEN A. CIARC1A. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



MARCH 1986 



113 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



control interface, specific or 
dynamically variable I/O (input/output) 
configurations would be mapped into 
the AVMUX. By retaining the different 
I/O maps in RAM (random-access 
read/write memory), the controller 
could switch among different com- 
mand situations easily and rapidly. 



Time? Memory maps? Uh-oh. It's 
terrible getting revelations on a lad- 
der. Instead of the normal reaction- 
stand up, slam my hand on the desk, 
and yell "That's it!"— 1 had to be cogni- 
zant of the limited headroom and the 
dust I would raise by yelling. 

In actuality, I had discovered 



nothing— nothing except a realization 
that what I had remembered was 
what 1 had forgotten to incorporate in 
my controller design. While the 
BCC-52 had a real-time clock/calendar 
within BASIC, it lacked the capability 
of retaining the I/O maps in RAM or 
the time if a power failure occurred. 



(a) 



AO TO A3 


ADDRESS INPUTS 


v DD C 


1 


—^T~ 


18 


"J HOLD 


WRITE 


WRITE ENABLE 


WRITE C 


? 




17 


3XT 


READ 


READ ENABLE 












HOLD 


COUNT HOLD 


READ C 


3 




Jb 


"J XT 


CS 


CHIP SELECT 


A C 


4 




IS 


D ±30 ADJ 


DO TO D3 
TEST 


DATA INPUT/OUTPUT 
TEST INPUT 


Al C 


5 


MSM 
5832 


14 


7J TEST 


±30 ADJ 


+ 30-SECOND CORRECTION INPUT 


A 2 C 


6 




13 


7J GND 


XT a XT 


XTAL OSCILLATOR CONNECTIONS 


ft 3 C 


7 




1? 


D D 3 


Vdd 


+ 5V SUPPLY 








GND 


GROUND 


cs C 


8 




11 


Zl D 2 






D C 


9 




10 


=!D, 



(b) 



BCC-52 
ADDRESS & ( 
CONTROL BUS 



29 



30 



34 



35 



D7 
D6 
D5 
D4 
03 
D2 
Dl 
DO 

RD 
WR 



A0 
Al 



Vcc 
8255 



BCC-52 

J5 PARALLEL-PORT CONNECTOR 

(PIN NUMBER) 



+ 5V 

_k 



il 



PA0 
PA1 
PA2 
PA3 

PB0 
PB1 
PB2 
PB3 

PC4 
PC5 
PC6 



10K 
TYPICAL (11) 



(26) 



(24) 



(22) 



(9) 



19 I 



(7) 



20 



(5) 



(17) 



11 I 



(13) 



DO 

Dl 
D2 
D3 

A0 
Al 
A2 
A3 

HOLD 
READ 
WRITE 



Vcc 



rti 

BCC-52 BOARD 



5-35pF 






-)h 



XTAL 
32.768KH2 



20pF 



^p"VF ^ 



4001 Q 

\4 9 — I 



1N34A 



lOOfl 



13 



i 



I 



m 

INTERFACE CIRCUIT 



Figure I: (a) Pin-out of the Oki MSM5832 clock chip, (b) Schematic diagram of a real-time clock circuit using the chip from 
(a) and an 82 5 5 P1A (already on the BCC-52). 



114 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



The EPROM-resident control program 
was self-initiating and would not be 
destroyed. But it would start up with 
a time and date of zero and RAM 
cleared. 

My first reaction was to consider a 
UPS (uninterruptible power supply) or 
backup battery power for the whole 
computer. Either option was expen- 
sive and would consume a lot of cir- 
cuit-board real estate that 1 didn't 
have. Even if successful, what good is 
powering the whole computer system 
unless all the peripherals that it con- 
trols are operational as well? In reali- 
ty, all I needed to power was less than 
IK byte of RAM and whatever com- 
ponent or system functions as the 
real-time clock/calendar. Of course, 
powering the whole computer would 
indeed provide nonvolatile memory 
and an uninterruptible clock/calendar. 

Another trek up this ladder to 
mount a half-dozen rechargeable bat- 
teries didn't appeal to me. 1 needed 
a self-contained, battery-backed real- 
time clock that operated indepen- 
dently of the BCC-52 yet could be in- 
terrogated periodically regarding the 
time. Along the way, I'd look into mak- 
ing some portion of RAM nonvolatile. 

Within seconds, I was down the lad- 
der and shuffling through my junk 
box: piles of unopened news releases 
and an eyebrow-high pile of trade 
publications. The dimensions of this 
pile are usually affected only by an 
earthquake or a desperate search for 
some new technical idea around arti- 
cle time. Fortunately, my search was 
rewarded, and I came upon two solu- 
tions. One of them uses conventional 
technology; the other one is rather 
innovative. 

This month, I'll describe two real- 
time clock/calendars and let you be 
the judge of which one you want to 
implement in your application. While 
both circuits are applicable to any 
computer, I was specifically looking to 
attach a clock and nonvolatile RAM 
to the BCC-52. Also, since I have 
covered the basics of real-time clocks 
and the specific attributes of the 
BCC-52 computer in previous Circuit 
Cellar articles, I refer you to them for 
additional information: "Everyone 



Can Know the Real Time" (May 1982, 
page 34) and "Build the BASIC-52 
Computer/Controller" (August 1985, 
page 104). 

The first device uses a CMOS (com- 
plementary metal-oxide semicon- 
ductor) clock/calendar chip that at- 
taches to the computer through paral- 



lel ports. Easy to exercise in software 
but consumptive of I/O, this conven- 
tional approach appeals to many of 
us who simply want a quick resolution 
of a problem and are not concerned 
about the I/O costs or having to 
manufacture thousands of them. The 

{continued) 



READ CYCLE 




\ 



D0-D3 

(DATA OUT). 



XE 



3<L 



WZ. 



HIGH IMPEDANCE 

t HW ■ 1 sec MAX 
'RA * 6jisec MAX 
t HS = 150 M sec MIN 




KP? 



\ 



50% 



)G 



DATA INVALID 



DATA INVALID 



HIGH IMPEDANCE 



:\- 



tRH = Ofisec MIN 



Figure 2: The read-cycle timing diagram for the MSM5832. 



write cycle 
'hw 




WRITE 



/5o % \m./~ ~\^y \_ 



HW= 1 sec MAX 

HH = 0/^sec MIN 

AW = l.7/*SBC MIN 

DW = 1 •? fjt sec MIN 



*DS= 0.5/isec MIN 
IqH ■ 0-2 /xsec MIN 
*WW= lM sec MIN 
t HS = lSO^sec MIN 



Figure 3: The write-cycle timing diagram for the MSM5832. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 115 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



second approach uses a new clock 
"socket" from Dallas Semiconductor 
that requires no independent interfac- 
ing and merely plugs in with a static- 
RAM chip that might already be resi- 
dent in the computer system. While 
software-intensive compared to the 
conventional clock chips, the concept 
is unique and will surely prevail long 
into the future. First, a little tradition. 

A Single-Chip Clock 

Without chopping traces and gluing 
a clock chip directly onto the BCC-52 
bus lines, the only logical way 1 could 
add a hardware real-time clock was to 
build another interface card (with its 
associated bus drivers and address- 
decoding logic) or attach it to the 
parallel I/O connector (three parallel 
I/O ports are generated by an on- 
board 82 5 5 P1A [peripheral interface 
adapter) and attached to a 26-pin con- 
nector designated as 1 5). For simplici- 
ty and ease of programming, I chose 
the latter route. 

Figure 1 is the schematic of a single- 
chip battery-backed real-time calen- 
dar clock. As far as clock circuits go 
it is relatively low-tech, but it does 
work and was easy to build. It uses an 
Oki MSM5832 clock chip that func- 
tions as follows: 



• Read cycle (see figure 2): The HOLD 
line goes high first, followed by the 
1 50-microsecond hold setup time 
(W). After this, READ is set high, and 
the specific MSM5832 registers are 
sequentially (or randomly) addressed. 
There is a 6-^ts read-access time delay 
Ura) between setting the address and 
reading the data. This procedure is 
repeated to read all 16 registers. 
The HOLD line is then returned to a 
logic 0. 

• Write cycle (see figure 3): The write 
cycle starts by raising the HOLD line, 
followed by a 1 50-/u.s t HS . Next, the 
MSM5832 register address and the 
data to be loaded into it are pre- 
sented on the address and data lines. 
While these lines are set, the write- 
input line is strobed high for a mini- 
mum of 6 /j.s. Concluding writing to 
the 13 counter/registers and three 
flags, the HOLD line is set again to a 
logic 0. 

I chose the 5832 because it is prob- 
ably the simplest clock on the market 
to use in a parallel-port connection. 
While the timing constraints just de- 
scribed make the 5832's use as a bus- 
connected clock chip a more difficult 
connection, they are of little conse- 
quence when using it with a PIA, 





MSM5832 




Function 


Hex Address 


Hex Entry Range 


X1 Seconds 


00 


0-9 


X10 Seconds 


01 


0-5 


X1 Minutes 


02 


0-9 


X10 Minutes 


03 


0-5 


XI Hours 


04 


0-4 


X10 Hours 


05 


0-11 


Bit and Bit 1 — X10 Hours 






Bit 3 — AM(0)/PM)1) 






Bit 4 — 12(0)/24(1) Hours Format 






Day of Week 


06 


1-7 


X1 Day of Month 


07 


0-9 


X10 Day of Month 


08 


0-7 


Bit and Bit 1 — X10 Days 






Bit 2 — 28(0)/29(1) Day Leap Year 






Bit 3 — N/C 






X1 Month of Year 


09 


0-9 


X10 Month of Year 


0A 


0-1 


X1 Years 


0B 


0-9 


X10 Years 


OC 


0-9 



Figure 4: A map of the MSM 5832's registers. 



especially one operated in BASIC. 
Many clock chips are available to 
match the speeds of today's pro- 
cessors. By connecting them through 
a PIA, however, this increased speed 
is filtered by the PIA and is of no extra 
value. Specific bits on the PIA func- 
tion to simulate the computer bus, but 
the range of control is greater, and 
bus timing constraints are eliminated. 

The 5832 functions by counting 
pulses from a 32-kilohertz crystal. 
These counters can be individually 
preset (setting the time) or read 
(reading the time) under program con- 
trol. The chip is CMOS, and while it 
operates on 5 volts, it retains its status 
and continues keeping time with a 
power supply of only 2.2 V. Two hear- 
ing-aid batteries (1.5-V alkaline) are 
soldered together to produce 3 V. 
(While lithium batteries are preferred, 
all the lithium batteries I had were 
larger than I cared to use on this 
clock.) When the computer is 
powered, 5 V is applied to V cc and 
the clock chip-select line, enabling all 
I/O and programming functions. With 
the absence of power, the chip con- 
tinues to function on 2.8 V supplied 
through a germanium diode, but I/O 
and programming functions are in- 
hibited because the chip-select line 
will be at logic 0. 

Five volts is not normally available 
on the 1 5 parallel I/O connector, so I 
had to add a jumper to the back of 
the board. Rather than try to reroute 
the circuit connections of J 5, I wired 
+ 5 V to pin 10 of the 12 serial-printer 
header and attached a jumper wire 
with a 2-pin header to connect this 
power to the prototype board. This 
pin is not normally used on a serial 
printer and will not obstruct its use. 
If you want both the real-time clock 
and a printer to function together, 
however, you'll have to make an alter- 
nate connection point. 

The entire clock is constructed on 
a 3-square-inch piece of prototyping 
board that piggybacks on the BCC-52 
and plugs directly into the 15 parallel- 
port connector. Four bits of port A (on 
the 82 55) function as the clock chip's 
bidirectional data bus; 4 bits of port 
B serve as the address bus. Three ad- 



116 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



ditional bits of port C provide control 
signals that gate data into and out of 
the clock chip. The addresses and 
functions of these clock registers are 
shown in figure 4. 

As listing 1 demonstrates, the 5832 
is easy to set and read in BASIC. To 
set the time, the three ports are all 
configured as outputs by loading 80 
hexadecimal into the 82 55s control 
register (P4). Since 1 was writing the 
program (and you know how 1 feel 
about programming), I didn't get too 
fancy with PRINT statements in the 
clock-setting routines. Considering 
that the clock should have to be set 
only once forever, I think you can do 
a little hand calculation on the bit con- 
figurations and enter each of the 
presets with a simple prompt of which 
register is being loaded. If it's August 
8th, for example, I expect that you 
could translate that into an 8 for 
register 9 and a for register 10. As 
each entry is made, the port C (P3) 
control lines are activated in this 
sequence— hold on, write on, write 
off. hold off— thus functioning as a 
simple write strobe. 

Reading the device is much simpler. 
Port A is set as input; ports B and C 
are set as outputs by loading 20 hexa- 
decimal into the 82 55's control reg- 
ister. The 1 3 clock registers are read 
by sequentially setting an address on 
port B and storing the value pre- 
sented to port A. Because we are do- 
ing this all in BASIC, timing is non- 
critical. Even the hold command, nor- 
mally enabled whenever the 5832 is 
read or set, can be ignored if counter- 
update ripple-through is not critical. 
After reading all the registers, the 
values are multiplied by the appropri- 
ate constants and added. My software 
is bare bones, and 24-hour timing was 
chosen for simplicity. (I realize I could 
have done it with 1 1 bits on only two 
ports— and probably never have 
finished the software.) 

A Realtime Clock with 
No Interface Required 

As I wrote the above subhead, I tried 
to imagine how you would interpret 
it. Would the skeptical among you say, 
"Who's he trying to kid?" Or would 



Listing 1: A BASIC program to set and read the MSM5832 real-time 
clock chip. 

100 DIM N(200) : DIM M(200) 

110 REM 

120 REM REV 1.5 11/8/85 

130 REM 5832 REAL TIME CLOCK FOR BCC-52 I/O PORT 

140 REM 

150 P1=51200 : P2=51201 : P3=51202 : P4=51203 

155 REM SET 8255 PORT A AS INPUT AND B&C AS OUTPUT 

160 XBY(P4)=90H 

170 REM PORT B IS ADDRESS AND PORT C IS CONTROL BUS 

180 PRINT "ENTER TO SET TIME OR 1 TO READ TIME", 

: INPUT A 

190 ON A GOSUB 350,220 

200 GOTO 180 

210 GOTO 145 

220 REM READ 13 5832 REGISTERS 

230 XBY(P3)=20H : REM SET READ MODE 

240 FOR A=0 TO 12 

250 XBY(P2)=A : N(A)=XBY(P1) 

260 NEXT A 

270 REM DISPLAY CONTENTS 

280 PRINT "DATE ", 

290 PRINT N(10)*10+N(9),"/",N(8)*10+N(7), , y\N(12) 

*10+N(11) 

300 PRINT "TIME ", 

310 IF N(5)>=8 THEN N(5)=N(5)-8 

320 PRINT (N(5)*10)+N(4)," : " , (N(3)*10)+N(2) , " : ", 

(N(1)*10)+N(O) 

330 PRINT 

340 RETURN 

350 REM SET TIME 

360 XBY(P4)=80H : REM SET PORTS A.B.&C AS OUTPUT 

370 REM MSB OF REG 5 12(0)/24(1) HRS & MSB-1 AM(0)/PM(1) 

380 FOR A=0 TO 12 

390 PRINT "REGISTER", A, : INPUT X 

400 XBY(P2)=A : XBY(P1)=X 

405 REM WRITE STROBE 

410 XBY(P3)=10H : XBY(P3)=50H : XBY(P3)=10H : XBY(P3)=00H 

420 NEXT A 

430 XBY(P4)=90H : REM RESTORE READ PORT SETTINGS 

440 PRINT 

450 RETURN 



you take it on faith that I've had the 
answer up my sleeve all along? 

While the previous circuit works 
very well, and many of you no doubt 
will build it, it is l/O-intensive. The 
value of a single-board computer like 
the BCC-52 is that it is often desirable 
to implement it as a single-board con- 
trol solution. As such, the parallel 
ports might be needed for the ap- 
plication and not be available for the 
clock interface I've described. 

Not using the PIA means that the 
clock chip must be connected to the 
bus and addressed as memory or ad- 
ditional I/O. Short of using one of the 
already-decoded 8K-byte memory- 



block address strobes and building 
the clock to plug it in in place of a 
memory chip, it would appear that 
the only alternative is to attach the 
clock circuit through the external 
expansion-bus connector. That, how- 
ever, would be the traditional answer 
to the problem. 

Using one of the RAM-chip loca- 
tions sounds like the most logical ap- 
proach, until you realize that you are 
sacrificing 25 percent of the available 
on-board RAM (the BCC-52 holds 32K 
bytes of RAM in four 8K-byte chips on 
board) for less than 1 bytes of clock 
data. It would be much better if both 

(continued) 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 117 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 





PIN CONNECTIONS 






Dl 28D-1 


Vcc 




D2 27 D 






D3 26 CH 






D4 25 D 






D5 24 D 






06 23d 






□ 7 22 D 

DS1213 
D8 21 D 






D9 20 D 


CE 




□ 10 19 D 






Dll 18 D 






Dl2 17D 






d 13 i6 n 




GND 


Dl4 15 D 




PIN DEf 


•INITIONS 




ALL PINS PASS THROUGH EXCEPT 20. 


26. 28 


PIN 20 CONDITIONED CHIP ENABLE 


PIN 26 SWITCHED V cc FOR 24-PIN RAM 


PIN 28 SWITCHED V cc FOR 28-PIN RAM 


PIN 14 GROUND 



Figure 5: A pin-out diagram 
of the SmartSocket. 



the clock and the RAM could share 
the memory-block address and any 
locations not those of the clock could 
be RAM. Better yet, why not keep all 
the RAM and attach the clock as a 
phantom interface that is there only 
when you need it? 

Just as 1 was cleaning off the solder- 
ing iron to build the ultimate real-time 
clock, I discovered that such a device 
was just introduced by Dallas Semi- 
conductor (43 50 Beltwood Parkway 
South, Dallas, TX 75244, (214) 450- 
0470). Called SmartWatch, it does 
everything I had hoped in a single 
package and has some startling side 
benefits, like 8K bytes of nonvolatile 
memory. This latter revelation neces- 
sitates starting at the beginning and 
discussing a few additional Dallas 
Semiconductor products that are in- 
corporated in the SmartWatch. The 
most notable of these is the DS1213 
SmartSocket. 

Nonvolatile RAM 

The DS1213 is a 28-pin 0.6-inch-wide 
DIP (dual in-line package) socket with 



a built-in CMOS controller circuit and 
lithium battery (see figure 5). It ac- 
cepts either a 28-pin 8K by 8 or 24-pin 
2K by 8 lower-justified IEDEC (Joint 
Electronic Device Engineering Coun- 
cil) byte-wide CMOS static RAM. 
When the socket is mated with a 
CMOS RAM, it makes the RAM con- 
tents nonvolatile by automatically 
switching the RAM to battery opera- 
tion and write-protecting it upon any 
occurrence of power interruption. 

The SmartSocket performs five cir- 
cuit functions necessary for imple- 
menting battery backup on a CMOS 
memory. First, a switch is provided to 
direct power from the battery or V cc 
supply, depending on which is 
greater. This switch has a voltage drop 
of less than 0.2 V. The second func- 
tion is power-fail detection at input 
voltages less than 4.75 V. The DS12 1 3 
constantly monitors the V cc supply. 
When Vcc falls below 4.75 V, a preci- 
sion comparator detects the condition 
and inhibits enabling of the RAM chip. 

The third function accomplishes 
write protection by holding the chip- 



v 



ceo 



+ 5-V OUTGOING 



VBAT1 " +BATTERY 1 
TOL - POWER-SUPPLY TOLERANCE 
GND - GROUND 
CE - CHIP ENABLE INPUT 

CEO - CHIP ENABLE OUTPUT 
VBAT2 " + BATTERY 2 
Vcci - +5-V INCOMING 
PIN NAMES 



FROM DECODER 5 



DS1210 

VcCO 

V BAT1 

V BAT2 



Vcc 

CMOS 
RAM 



/77 




PIN CONNECTIONS 



Figure 6: The pin-out and functional diagram for the DS1210 nonvolatile- 
RAM controller. 



PIN CONNECTIONS 



RST 



Dl 


28 D-] 


D2 


27 □ 


D3 


26 CH 


D4 


25 n 


D5 


24 O 


□ 6 


23 D 


D7 

DS12U 
D8 


22 D 
21 D 


□ 9 


20 D 


D10 


19D 


Dll 


18 D 


D12 


17D 


D13 


16 D 


Dl4 


15 □ 



PIN DEFINITIONS 

ALL PINS PASS THROUGH EXCEPT 20. 

26, 28 

PIN 20 CONDITIONED CHIP ENABLE 

PIN 26 SWITCHED V cc FOR 24-PIN RAM 

PIN 28 SWITCHED V cc FOR 28-PIN RAM 

PIN 1 RESET 

PIN 22 OUTPUT ENABLE 

PIN 27 WRITE ENABLE 

PIN 11 DATA INPUT/OUTPUT 

PIN 14 GROUND 



Figure 7: A pin-out for the 
DS1216 SmartWatch. 



118 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



enable signal to the memory to within 
0.2 V of V cc or battery supply. If the 
chip-enable signal is active at the time 
power-fail detection occurs, write pro- 
tection is delayed until after the 
memory cycle is complete to avoid 
corruption of data. During nominal 
power-supply conditions, the memory 
chip-enable signal will be passed 
through to the socket receptacle with 
a maximum propagation delay of 20 
nanoseconds. 

The SmartSocket's fourth function is 
to check battery status and warn of 
potential data loss. Each time that V cc 
power is restored to the SmartSocket, 
the battery voltage is checked with a 
precision comparator. If the battery 
supply is less than 2.0 V, the second 
memory cycle is inhibited. Battery 
status can, therefore, be determined 
by performing a read cycle after 
power-up to any location in the mem- 
ory, recording the contents of that 
memory location. A subsequent write 
cycle can then be executed to the 
same memory location, altering the 
data. If the next read cycle fails to 
verify the written data, the contents 
of the memory are questionable 
because the battery may not have re- 
tained it. 

The fifth function is battery redun- 
dancy. In many applications, data in- 
tegrity is paramount. The DS1213 
SmartSocket has two internal bat- 
teries. During battery-backup time, the 
battery with the highest voltage is 
selected for use. If one battery fails, 
the other automatically takes over. 
The switch between batteries is trans- 
parent to the user. A battery status 
warning occurs only if both batteries 
are less than 2.0 V. Each of the two 
lithium cells contains 3 5 milliampere/ 
hour capacity, making the total 70 
mA/hr. 

If you are contemplating a new 
design and want the benefits of non- 
volatile static memory, the essential 
ingredients of the SmartSocket are 
available in chip form. Designated as 
DS1210, DS1224, and DS1212, they 
coordinate and perform the above de- 
scribed backup and write-protect 
functions for banks of 1, 4, or 16 in- 

(conlinued) 



SMART WATCH 


COMPARISON- 


REGISTER 


DEFINITION 
























HEXADECIMAL 


i=E 


7 

















h— 


VALUE 

C5 

3A 

A3 

5C 

C5 

3A 

A3 

5C 


1 


1 











1 





1 


c± 








1 


1 


1 





1 





>J 


n< 


1 





1 











1 


] 


>"" 


lz£ 





1 





1 


1 


1 








>J 


czE 


1 


1 











1 





1 


>-l 


czE 








1 


1 


1 





1 





T-l 


izE 


1 





1 











1 


1 


>J 


: 





1 





1 


1 


1 








>-" 


NOTE: 
























THE PATTERN 


RECOGNITION IN 


HEXADECIMAL IS C5 


3A, A3, 5C. C5, 


3A, A3 


, 5C 


THE ODDS OF 


THIS PATTERN 


ACCIDENTALLY 


OCCUR- 


RING 


\ND 


CAUSING 


INADVERTENT 


ENTRY 


TO THE 


SMARTWATCH 


ARE LESS 


THAN 1 


IN 10 1 


9 















Figure 8: The SmartWatch's comparison bit pattern. 



REGISTER 




SMARTWATCH REGISTER DEFINITION 
7 





0.1 SEC 


0.01 SEC 


















7 














10 SEC 


SECONDS 




1 














7 














10 MIN 


MINUTES 




1 














7 











12/24 





lCv/ 
/A/P 


HR 


HOUR 




1 














7 

















OSC 


RESET 


DAY 


















7 

















10 DATE 


DATE 


















7 




















10 MONTH 


MONTH 


















7 











10 YEAR 


YEAR 









RANGE (BCD) 
00-99 



01-12 
00-23 



01-07 



00-99 



Figure 9: The SmartWatch's registers. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 119 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



dividual CMOS RAM chips. (Contact 
Dallas Semiconductor directly for 
data sheets.) The DS1210 is shown in 
figure 6. 

The DS1216 SmartWatch 

A new socket-style device called the 
DS1216 SmartWatch retains the non- 
volatile-RAM capability of the Smart- 
Socket and adds a calendar time func- 
tion (see figure 7 for the pin-out). The 
SmartWatch includes its own crystal 
time base and maintains time infor- 
mation, including hundredths of 
seconds, seconds, minutes, hours, day 
of week, day of month, month, and 
year. The date at the end of the 
month is automatically adjusted for 
months with fewer than 31 days, in- 
cluding correction for leap year. 
Hours of the day can be tracked in 
both 12- and 24-hour formats. 

Communication with the Smart- 
Watch is established by pattern rec- 
ognition on a serial bit stream of 64 
bits that must be matched by execut- 
ing 64 consecutive write cycles con- 
taining the proper data on DQO. All 
accesses that occur prior to recogni- 
tion of the 64-bit pattern are directed 
to memory. After recognition is estab- 
lished, the next 64 read or write cycles 
either extract or update data in the 
SmartWatch; memory access is 
inhibited. 

Data transfer to and from the time- 
keeping function is accomplished with 
a serial bit stream under control of 
chip enable (CE), output enable (0~E), 
and write enable (WE). Initially, a read 
cycle to any memory location using 
the CE and OE control of the Smart- 
Watch starts the pattern-recognition 
sequence by moving a pointer to the 
first bit of the 64-bit comparison 
register. The next 64 consecutive 
write cycles are executed using the CE 
and WE control of the SmartWatch. 
These 64 write cycles are used only 
to gain access to the SmartWatch. 
Therefore, any address to the memory 
in the socket is acceptable. However, 
the write cycles generated to gain ac- 
cess to the SmartWatch are also 
writing data to a location in the mated ' 
RAM. The preferred way to manage 
this requirement is to set aside one 



Listing 2: A BASIC program that sets and reads the SmartWatch. 



10 

20 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

170 

180 

190 

200 

210 
220 
230 
240 
250 

260 
270 
280 
290 

300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 

360 
370 
380 
390 
400 
410 
420 

430 
440 
450 
460 
470 

480 
490 
500 

510 
520 
530 
540 
550 



REM 



REM 



APPLICATION PROGRAM USING ONLY BASIC 

TO DEMONSTRATE 

SMARTWATCH REAL TIME CLOCK ON BCC52 COMPUTER 

CONTROLLER BOARD 

CLEAR 

STRING 200,15 
$(1)="SUNDAY" 
$(2)="M0NDAY" 
$(3)="TUESDAY" 
$(4)="WEDNESDAY" 
$(5)="THURSDAY" 
$(6)="FRIDAY" 
$(7)=" SATURDAY" 

REM 

REM ********* MAIN MENU ******** 

REM 

PRINT "0=READ DATE/TIME 1=ENTER NEW DATE/TIME ?" 
G=GET 

GOSUB 1350 : REM GET NUMBER 0-9 

PRINT CHR(18),CHR(27),"Y" : REM CLR & HOME TERMITE 

IF G=0 THEN GOSUB 790 : REM READ & DISPLAY 

DATE/TIME INFO 

IF G=1 THEN GOSUB 250 : REM GATHER & SAVE 

NEW DATE/TIME INFO 

GOTO 150 

REM 

REM ********* GATHER $ SAVE NEW DATE/TIME INFO 

REM 
J=XBY(4000H) : REM SAVE BYTE LOCATED IN 4000H 
TO REPLACE WHEN DONE 

GOSUB 1420 : REM SEND PATTERN RECOGNITION CODES 

PRINT "ENTER DATE MMDDYY" 
G=GET 

FOR Z=6 TO 8 : REM USE G(6) FOR MM. G(7) FOR DD, 

G(8) FOR YY 

GOSUB 1350 : REM GET NUMBER 0-9 

PRINT G, : REM ECHO NUMBER 0-9 
H=G*16 : REM STORE NUMBER IN UPPER NIBBLE 

GOSUB 1350 

PRINT G, 
G(Z)=H+G : REM COMBINE NUMBERS 1 IN UPPER NIBBLE. 
1 IN LOWER NIBBLE 

NEXT Z 

PRINT 
G=G(6) : REM 
G(6)=G(7) : REM 
G(7)=G : REM 
G(1)=0 : REM SET TENTHS & HUNDREDTHS OF A 

PRINT "DAY OF THE WEEK SUN=0 M0N=1 TUE=2 

THU=4 FRI=5 SAT=6 ?" 
G=GET 

GOSUB 1350 

PRINT G 

PRINT 
G(5)=G.OR.10H : 
RESET FROM PIN 1 

PRINT "ENTER TIME 
G=GET 

STEP -1 



SWAP 6 & 7, NOW 6,7.8 IN DD/MM/YY 



REM OR BIT4 TO IGNORE 



SECOND = 
WED=3 



HHMMSS" 



FOR Z=4 TO 2 
G(3) FOR MM. G(2) FOR SS 
GOSUB 1350 
PRINT G, 
H=G*16 
GOSUB 1350 
PRINT G, 



REM USE G(4) FOR HH, 



120 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



560 
570 
580 
590 

600 
610 
620 
630 

640 
650 
660 
670 

680 
690 
700 
710 
720 
730 
740 
750 
760 
770 
780 
790 
800 
810 
820 

830 
840 
850 

860 

870 
880 
890 
900 
910 
920 
930 
940 
950 
960 
970 

980 

990 

1000 
1010 

1020 
1030 
1040 
1050 
1060 
1070 
1080 



0=24 HOUR FORMAT 



1230 : 
"TODAY 
STRIP OFF 
/ / 



REM SEND PATTERN RECOGNITION CODES 
REM READ SMARTWATCH REGISTERS 
IS ",$((G(5).AND.7H)+1) : 
DAY OF WEEK 

REM INITIALIZE DATE STRING 



G(2)=H+G 
NEXT Z 
PRINT 

PRINT "IS THE TIME IN 
1=12 HOUR FORMAT ?" 
G=GET 

GOSUB 1350 

IF G<>1 THEN 680 : REM IF NOT 1 THEN JUMP 
G(4)=(G(4).OR.80H) : REM OR BIT7 TO 

INDICATE 12 HOUR FORMAT 

PRINT "IS IT 0=AM 1=PM ?" 
G=GET 

GOSUB 1350 

IF G=1 THEN G(4)=(G(4).OR.20H) : REM OR 

BIT5 TO INDICATE PM 

REM HOLD FOR TIME SYNCHRONIZATION 

PRINT "HIT '0' TO GO SET THE NEW DATE/TIME" 

GOSUB 1350 

IF G<>0 THEN 700 

GOSUB 1530 : REM STORE DATE/TIME INFO TO SMARTWATCH 
XBY(4000H)=J : REM REPLACE BYTE TO 4000H 
G=0 

RETURN 

REM 

REM ********* READ & DISPLAY DATE/TIME 

REM 
J=XBY(4000H) 

GOSUB 1420 

GOSUB 

PRINT 

REM 
$(8)=" 
Z-7 : REM 
X=1 : REM 
AT POSITION 1 

GOSUB 1630 : REM GET 2 

AND PLUG INTO STRING $(8) 
Z=6 
X=4 

GOSUB 1630 
Z=8 
X=7 

GOSUB 1630 
$(9)=$(8) : REM SAVE IT IN $(9) FOR ANY FUTURE USE 

PRINT $(9) 
$(8)=" . " : REM INITIALIZE TIME STRING 
G(9)=Gf4) 

IF (G(4).AND.80H)=0 THEN 1020 : 

REM IF BIT7=0 THEN 24 HR FORMAT, JUMP 

IF (G(4).AND.20H)=0 THEN ASC($(8) , 13)=41H : 

REM IF BIT5 = 0, PLUG A 

IF (G(4).AND.20H)=20H THEN ASC($(8) , 13)=50H : 

REM IF BIT5 SET, PLUG P 
ASC($(8),14)=4DH : REM PLUG M 
G(9)=(G(4).AND.1FH) : 

REM STRIP OFF FORMAT FROM HOUR REGISTER 
Z=9 
X=1 

GOSUB 1630 
ASC($(8),3)=3AH : REM PLUG IN THE CHARACTER FOR COLON 
Z=3 
X=4 

GOSUB 1630 

(continued) 



USE G(7) MM REGISTER 

PLUG CHARACTERS INTO STRING STARTING 



CHARACTERS FROM G(Z) 



address location in RAM as a Smart- 
Watch scratchpad. 

When the first write cycle is ex- 
ecuted, it is compared to bit 1 of the 
64-bit comparison register. If a match 
is found, the pointer increments to the 
next location of the comparison reg- 
ister and awaits the next write cycle. 
If a match is. not found, the pointer 
does not advance, and all subsequent 
write cycles are ignored. If a read 
cycle occurs at any time during pat- 
tern recognition, the present se- 
quence is aborted, and the compari- 
son-register pointer is reset. 

Pattern recognition continues for a 
total of 64 write cycles until all the bits 
in the comparison register have been 
matched (this bit pattern is shown in 
figure 8). With a correct match for 64 
bits, the SmartWatch is enabled, and 
data transfer to or from the timekeep- 
ing registers can proceed. The next 64 
cycles will cause the SmartWatch to 
either receive or transmit data on 
DQO, depending on the level of the 
OE pin or the WE pin. Cycles to other 
locations outside the memory block 
can be interleaved with CE cycles 
without interrupting the pattern-rec- 
ognition sequence or data-transfer se- 
quence to the SmartWatch. 

The SmartWatch information is con- 
tained in eight registers of 8 bits each, 
which are sequentially accessed a bit 
at a time after the 64-bit pattern-rec- 
ognition sequence has been com- 
pleted. When updating the Smart- 
Watch registers, each must be 
handled in groups of 8 bits. These 
read/write registers are defined in 
figure 9. 

Data contained in the SmartWatch 
registers is in BCD (binary-coded 
decimal) format. Reading and writing 
the registers are always accomplished 
by stepping through all eight registers, 
starting with bit of register and 
ending with bit 7 of register 7. A few 
of the significant bits are the follow- 
ing: 

• AM-PM/12/24 mode: Bit 7 of the 
hours register is defined as the 12- or 
24-hour mode select bit. When high, 
the 12-hour mode is selected. In the 

(continued) 



MARCH 1986 



(YTE 121 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



1090 


ASC($(8),6)=3AH 


1100 


Z-2 


1110 


X=7 


1120 


GOSUB 1630 


1130 


Z=1 


1140 


X=10 


1150 


GOSUB 1630 


1160 


PRINT $(8) 


1170 


XBY(4000H)=J 


1180 


G=0 


1190 


RETURN 


1200 


REM 


1210 


REM ******** READ SMARTWATCH REGISTERS 


1220 


REM 


1230 


FOR Z=1 TO 8 


1240 


G(Z)=0 


1250 


FOR X=1 TO 8 


1260 


G=(XBY(4000H).AND.1) : REM G = BIT0 


1270 


IF G=0 THEN 1290 : 




REM BIT ■ 0, DON'T ADD ANYTHING TO REGISTER BYTE 


1280 


G(Z)=G(Z)+(2**(X-1)) : 




REM BUILD REGISTER BYTE FROM BITS RECEIVED 


1290 


NEXT X 


1300 


NEXT Z 


1310 


RETURN 


1320 


REM 


1330 


REM ******** GET NUMBER 0-9 


1340 


REM 


1350 


G-GET 


1360 


IF G<48.0R.G>57 THEN 1350 


1370 


G=G-48 : REM ASC TO 0-9 


1380 


RETURN 


1390 


REM 


1400 


REM ******** INITIALIZE PATTERN RECOGNITION CODES 


1410 


REM 


1420 


G(1)=0C5H 


1430 


G(2)=3AH 


1440 


G(3)=0A3H 


1450 


G(4)=5CH 
G(5)=0C5H 


1460 


1470 


G(6)=3AH 
G(7)=0A3H 


1480 


1490 


G(8)=5CH 


1500 


REM 


1510 


REM ******** SEND REGISTERS TO SMARTWATCH 


1520 


REM 


1530 


FOR Z=1 TO 8 


1540 


FOR X=1 TO 8 


1550 


IF (G(Z).AND.(2**(X-1)))<>0 THEN G=1 ELSE G=0 : 




REM STRIP OFF BIT 


1560 


XBY(4000H)=G : REM SEND BIT TO SMARTWATCH 


1570 


NEXT X 


1580 


NEXT Z 


1590 


RETURN 


1600 


REM 


1610 


REM ******* GET 2 CHARACTERS FROM G(Z) REGISTER 


1620 


REM ******* PLUG $(8) ® X 


1630 


G=INT(G(Z)/16) 


1640 


ASC($(8),X)-G+48 

ASC($(8) ,X+1 )=G(Z)-(G*16)+48 


1650 


1660 


RETURN 


1670 


REM 


1680 


REM ************ END 



12-hour mode, bit 5 is the AM/PM bit 
with logic high being PM. In the 
24-hour mode, bit 5 is the second 
10-hour bit (20-23 hours). 

• Oscillator and reset bits: Bits 4 and 

5 of the day register are used to con- 
trol the reset and oscillator function. 
Bit 4 controls the reset pin (pin 1). 
When the reset bit is set to logic 1, 
the reset input pin is ignored. When 
the reset bit is set to logic 0, a low in- 
put on the reset pin will cause the 
SmartWatch to abort data transfer 
without changing data in the watch 
registers. Bit 5 controls the oscillator. 
This bit is shipped from Dallas Semi- 
conductor set to logic 1. which turns 
the oscillator off. When set to logic 0, 
the oscillator turns on, and the watch 
becomes operational. 

• Zero bits: Registers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 

6 contain one or more bits that always 
read logic 0. When writing these loca- 
tions, either a logic 1 or is accept- 
able. 

Reading and Setting 
SmartWatch in BASIC 

While it is ultimately smarter to exer- 
cise the SmartWatch through an as- 
sembly-language routine, the univer- 
sality of BASIC suggests that it would 
be a better tool for demonstrating the 
intricacies of communicating with 
SmartWatch. Listing 2 is a BASIC pro- 
gram that sets and reads a Smart- 
Watch installed at 4000 hexadecimal 
on a BCC-52 computer/controller 
board. This program is more involved 
than the 5832 clock-chip program 
described earlier, primarily because it 
has more reporting features and com- 
municates with the operator through 
menus. Embedded among all the 
REM and PRINT statements are the 
essential time-setting and read 
routines that you can translate from 
BASIC- 5 2 to any other BASIC. 

An Assembly-Language 
Firmware Utility 

The assembly-language interface to 
the SmartWatch is also done on the 
bit level. The device requires that a 
particular pattern of 64 consecutive 
bits be written to data bit in order 
to access the time and date registers 



122 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



of the SmartWatch. Then, 64 more 
consecutive reads or writes are re- 
quired to examine or set the watch. 

The firmware EPROM consists of a 
set of routines that take care of 
manipulating the SmartWatch and 
conversion of the SmartWatch data 
from BCD to binary format (I call this 
firmware SmarTime). This allows the 
use of BASIC to directly read the data 
in memory with no conversion code 
necessary in the BASIC- 5 2 program. 
Year, month, date, day of week, hours, 
minutes, seconds, and hundredths of 
seconds are made available in the 
BCC-52 data memory for reading by 
the user program. SmarTime uses 
24-hour military time (00:00-2 3 : 59) in 
order to eliminate the need for an 
AM/PM indicator. If AM/PM time is re- 
quired, you can convert it to the more 
standard format in BASIC. 

The SmarTime system is contained 
within an EPROM at location 6000 
hexadecimal (for this demonstration) 
and occupies 300 (hexadecimal) bytes 
of memory (the SmarTime routines 
can be reassembled to run in any 
available 300 [hexadecimal|-byte 
EPROM space on the board). The rest 
can be used by your application if 
desired, but be careful to put your 
data into the EPROM from the top 
down. 

SmarTime stores its register save 
and load areas and date/time informa- 
tion in the area directly above 
BASIC-52's current MTOP pointer. 
Because of this, the MTOP address 
must be adjusted down by 30 bytes 
prior to calling the initialization 
routine at location 6000 hexadecimal. 
A memory map appears in figure 10. 

Three basic functions are found in 
SmarTime (figures 11-14 outline the 
logic flow of these programs). The first 
is a routine that sets up the memory 
environment for SmarTime to use. 
This routine, executed with a CALL 
6000H, creates a load table of infor- 
mation in the memory above MTOP. 
The table contains the base address 
of the SmartWatch device, as well as 
a pointer to where the time informa- 
tion is stored. 

A second routine, invoked with a 
CALL 6003H, uses the binary data 



stored in the time and date fields to 
set the SmartWatch. The required 
control bits for establishing 24-hour 
time and for turning on the Smart- 
Watch internal oscillator are added to 
the data prior to its being written to 
the SmartWatch device. The routine 
also does the binary-to-BCD con- 
version. 

The thirdfunction of the software is 
a routine for reading out the Smart- 
Watch date and time information, con- 
verting it from BCD to binary format, 
and storing it in the memory area 
above MTOP. It is executed with a 
CALL 6006H. 

Using the SmartWatch with Smar- 
Time is easy. With the DS1216 in- 
stalled at address 4000 hexadecimal 
and SmarTime at 6000 hexadecimal, 
simply enter and run the program 



SmarTime uses 



24-hour military time 
to eliminate the need for 
an AM/PM indicator. 



shown in listing 3. 

Finally, we are back to simple BASIC 
programs with the help of a little firm- 
ware tucked away in an EPROM. As 
this program runs, you should see the 
seconds location of the clock/calen- 
dar printed out once per second. If 
it is correctly incrementing, the 
EPROM is installed properly at loca- 
tion 6000 hexadecimal and the Smart- 

(continued) 



Program Memory 


6000H-6300H 


SmarTime 


EPROM-resident software 


External Data 


Offset Above 


Function 




Memory 


MTOP Value 








DEC 


HEX. 








24 


18 


YEARS 


(00-99) 




23 


17 


MONTHS 


(01-12) 




22 


16 


DATE 


(01-31) 




21 


15 


DAY 


(01-07) 




20 


14 


HOURS 


(00-23) 




19 


13 


MINS. 


(00-59) 




18 


12 


SECS. 


(00-59) 




17 


11 


HUNDREDTHS of SECS (0.00-0.99) 




16 


10 


BANK 3 REG 7 LOAD (RESERVED) 




15 


OF 


BANK 3 REG 6 LOAD (RESERVED) 




14 


0E 


BANK 3 REG 5 LOAD (RESERVED) 




13 


0D 


BANK 3 REG 4 LOAD (RESERVED) 




12 


OC 


BANK 3 REG 3 LOAD (TIME AREA LOW) 




11 


0B 


BANK 3 REG 2 LOAD (TIME AREA HIGH) 




10 


0A 


BANK 3 REG 1 LOAD (RESERVED) 




09 


09 


BANK 3 REG LOAD (WATCH BASE) 




08 


08 


BANK 3 REG 7 SAVE AREA 




07 


07 


BANK 3 REG 6 SAVE AREA 




06 


06 


BANK 3 REG 5 SAVE AREA 




05 


05 


BANK 3 REG 4 SAVE AREA 




04 


04 


BANK 3 REG 3 SAVE AREA 




03 


03 


BANK 3 REG 2 SAVE AREA 




02 


02 


BANK 3 REG 1 SAVE AREA 


MTOP + => 


01 


01 


BANK 3 REG SAVE AREA 



Figure 10: The SmafTime firmware memory map. 



MARCH 1986 



:YTE 123 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



Watch at location 4000 hexadecimal. 
You can now write your own BASIC-52 
programs to use SmarTime. 

In Conclusion 

Either real-time clock I've presented 
is applicable and valuable in control 
applications. Which you use depends 
primarily upon the application. It took 



only a few hours to build and test the 
5832 circuit, and it proved an im- 
mediate success for a one-shot prob- 
lem. In the long run, however, the 
SmarTime system incorporating the 
SmartWatch and nonvolatile RAM is 
a more useful BCC-52 peripheral that 
can be easily duplicated, especially 
now that the software is written. 



Speaking of software, the BASIC 
listings and a file of the SmarTime ex- 
ecutable code (to run at 6000 hexa- 
decimal) discussed in this article are 
available for downloading from BYTE- 
net Listings at (617) 861-9764 and the 
Circuit Cellar BBS at (203) 871-1988. 
They are also available from BYTE on 
disk (see page 358). 











f START J 














SAVE 8052 

CURRENT 

REGISTERS 














SAVE OLD 
REG. BANK 3 
REGISTERS 














CALCULATE 
ADDRESS OF 
TIME / DATE 
AREA 














SAVE 

SMARTWATCH 
POINTER AND 
TIME/DATE AREA 
ADDRESS 














RECOVER 
OLD BANK 3 
VALUES 














RECOVER 
SAVED 8052 
REGISTERS 














f RETURN J 



















( START J 














SAVE 8052 

CURRENT 

REGISTERS 














SAVE OLD 
REG. BANK 3 
REGISTERS 














LOAD OUR 
REG. BANK 3 
REGISTERS 














READ DATA 
FROM TIME /DATE 
TABLE 














CONVERT FROM 
BINARY TO BCD 
AND MASK 














WRITE 

SMARTWATCH 
COMMAND 
STRING 














WRITE DATA TO 
SMARTWATCH 














RECOVER 
OLD BANK 
3 VALUES 














RECOVER 
SAVED 8052 
REGISTERS 














( EX ' T ) 



















( START J 














SAVE 8052 

CURRENT 

REGISTERS 














SAVE OLD 
REG. BANK 3 
REGISTERS 














LOAD OUR 
REG. BANK 3 
REGISTERS 














WRITE 

SMARTWATCH 
COMMAND 
STRING 














READ 

SMARTWATCH 

DATA 














CONVERT 
FROM BCD 
TO BINARY 
AND MASK 














STORE DATA 
IN WATCH AREA 














RECOVER 
OLD BANK 3 
VALUES 














RECOVER 
SAVED 8052 
REGISTERS 














( EX,T ) 











Figure 1 1 : The SmarTime firmware 
flowchart— the initialization routine. 



Figure 12: The SmarTime firmware 
flowchart— a routine to set the 
SmartWatch. 



Figure 13: The SmarTime firmware 
flowchart— a routine to read the 
SmartWatch. 



124 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



CIRCUIT CELLAR 



1 


















f START J 


























SET BYTE 
COUNT TO 8 






STEP TO NEXT 
COMMAND BYTE 






1 


'-, 
























BYTE COUNT 
= BYTE 
COUNT - 1 






GET COMMAND 
BYTE FROM 
TABLE 


















NO /*^\ 




SET BIT 
COUNT TO 8 










\ DONE y/ 




' 


-, 






[yes 












( DONE J 






WRITE 
BYTE TO 
SMARTWATCH 






















ROTATE BYTE 
RIGHT 1 BIT. 
BIT COUNT = 
COUNT- ] 






'AL 

jr Bl T 


^^- 


to 


V DO 


me y 

YES 



















Figure 14: The SmafTime firmware flowchart- 
string or data to the SmartWatch. 



■a routine to write a command 



Listing 3: This BASIC program uses the SmafTime firmware to update a 
seconds counter on screen. Note that comments in parentheses next to the code 
should not be entered as part of the program. 

10 MTOP = MTOP - 30 (RESET MTOP POINTER) 

20 DBY(18H)=040H (ASSUME SMARTWATCH AT 4000H) 

30 CALL 6000H (INITIALIZE THE SYSTEM) 

40 REM NOW SET SMARTWATCH TIME 

50 FOR X=MT0P+24 TO MTOP+17 STEP -1 

60 READ C 

70 XBY(X)=C 

80 NEXT X 

85 REM ZZ/01/85 14:25:00.00 

90 DATA 85,11,01,05.14,25,00,00 

100 CALL 6003H (WRITE THE VALUES) 

110 CALL 6006H (READ THE VALUES) 

120 PRINT MTOP+18 (SECONDS COUNTER) 

130 GOTO 110 



Circuit Cellar Feedback 

This month's feedback is on page 3 54. 

Next Month 

Beating your own security system: a 
personal experience. ■ 

Special thanks to }eff Bachiochi and Bill 
Curlew for their software expertise. 

Diagrams pertaining to Dallas Semiconduc- 
tor components and Oki are reprinted by 
permission. 

The following items are available from 

The Micromint Inc. 

2 5 Terrace Dr. 

Vernon, CT 06066 

(800) 635-3355 for orders 

(203) 871-6170 for information 

The BCC-52 SmaiTime system consists of a 
DS1216 SmartWatch and a SmaiTime firm- 
ware EPROM (ROM C) written in 8052 as- 
sembly language. The EPROM contains the 
assembled executable code (address 7D00 
hexadecimal) and the power I/O system as 
described in the December 1984 Circuit 
Cellar. Using the assembler provided in the 
optional expansion utilities ROMs A and B. 
the SmaiTime routine can be reassembled 
to execute anywhere in memory. The Smar- 
Time manual contains the source file of the 
SmaiTime utility. 

1. SmaiTime firmware EPROM with Smart- 
Watch module. 

BCC-52 clock and SmartROM C. . . .569 

2. SmaiTime firmware EPROM with Smart- 
Watch module and 8K-byte RAM chip. 

BCC-52 8K clock and SmartROM C . $79 

3. DS1216 SmartWatch clock module 
separately. ' 

DS12I6 $39 

4. BCC-52 computer/controller board with 
manuals. 

BCC-52 $239 

Please include $5 for UPS shipping and 
handling in the continental United States, $12 
for ground or $18 for air shipment elsewhere. 
Connecticut residents please include 7.5 per- 
cent sales tax. 

Editor's Note: Steve often refers to previous 
Circuit Cellar articles. Most of these past ar- 
ticles are available in book form from BYTE 
Books, McGraw-Hill Book Company, POB 
400. Hightstown, NJ 082 50. 

Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar. Volume 1 covers articles 
in BYTE from September 1977 through 
November 1978. Volume II covers December 
1978 through |une 1980. Volume III covers July 
1980 through December 1981. Volume IV 
covers January 1982 through June 1983. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 125 



Introducing Pc 



Microsoft® Windows has arrived. 

For anyone who uses a computer in earnest, 
that is extremely good news. 

Windows gives you a practical way to integrate 
programs. It radically decreases the time it takes 
to move from one application to another. Dramat- 
ically simplifies the means of consolidating data 
from many different programs. 

And as a graphical extension of the MS-DOS® 
operating system, it gives you a highly visual way 
to work and to organize your work. 

In short, Windows brings efficiency to all those 
processes of personal computing which have 
till now been awkward, unwieldy, inconvenient. 

The joys of job hopping. 

With the advent of Windows, you can work 
with multiple applications. And switch from 
program to program with ease. 

Start up with one application, then another, 
and another. Leap back and forth between 
applications as your work routine dictates. 
Then pick up right where you left off. 

The ability of Windows to change quickly from 
program to program logically and naturally magnifies 
the utility and productivity of the personal computer. 
And is a recognition of the way people who exploit 
the power of PCs really do their jobs. 

Breaking the 640K barrier. 

]ust like you, Microsoft Windows can handle 
several projects at the same time. Juggle assignments. 
Deal with frequent interruptions. 

And Windows will ignore the 640K limit of the PC, 
especially if you have a hard disk, the Intel® Above™ 
Board, or expanded memory. It will execute the 
rather neat trick of working with more programs than 




memory can hold at one time. 

Spreading knowledge. 

Another significant service Windows performs is 
accelerating the movement of information from one 
program to another. 

Collecting and combining that information is as 
simple as taking a "snapshot" of data in one program. 
Editing it. Then consolidating it with data from 
other programs. 

With Windows, you can enjoy the advantages of 
conventional integrated programs without their 
compromises. Because Windows lets you put together 
the applications that you know, and that get a job 



126 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



wer Windows. 




done for you. 

Choose your best word processor, spreadsheet, 
database— you name it. They're all there for you at 
a keystroke. 

Common ground. 

Finally, Windows is not only an immensely power- 
ful tool for today, it's also a solid base for a new 
generation of Windows Applications. 

As an introductory offer, two of these— Microsoft 
Windows Write and Windows Paint— are included in 
the Windows package. Along with more than a dozen 
other Windows desktop applications. Including a 
DOS file management program, calendar, 



cardfile, notepad, calculator, and a telecommuni- 
cations program. 

In Windows Applications you have a common 
interface which includes drop-down menus, 
dialog boxes, icons. Along with a richer environ- 
ment that allows you to mix pictures and text. 
And to summon different type faces and styles 
at a keystroke. 

Windows is a bridge between today's applica- 
tions and the graphics based software now 
evolving. A way to work interchangeably with 
today's programs. And tomorrow's. 

Of course, all this is 
going to cost you: $99. 

A price that makes Windows the most startling 
value ever offered in software. A comparable 
collection of programs— a switching program, a 
graphic interface, desktop applications, a word 
processor, a drawing program— could easily 
cost hundreds of dollars more. 

If you're someone who uses personal com- 
puting as a natural part of your work life, who 
capitalizes on the productive powers of sophisticated 
applications, look into Windows. 

It offers a new vision of what a computer can do. 

Mcrosofr Windows 

The High Performance Software™ 



For the n 
In Canac 



e of your nearest Microsoft dealer, call (800) 426-94O0.1n Washington State and Alaska, (206) 828-8088. 
rail (800) 387-6616. 

Nuic. Photo shows color and resolution obtained on an IBM" PC equipped with IBM Enhanced Graphics Adaptec Monochrome 
display is generated when an IBM Color Graphics Adapter or compatible graphics adapter card is used. 

Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks and Tin' High Performance Software- is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation 
Intel is a registered trademark and Above is a trademark of Intel Corporation. IBM is a registered trademark of International 
Business Machines Corporation. 

System Requirements: IBM or COMPAQ Personal Computer lor 100";. compatibles) Z^oK memory, two double-sided, double- 
density disk drives (5I2K and a hard disk recommended, when usinj: multiple applications or DOS 3.0 or higher J. Graphics 
adapter card (IBM Color Graphic Monitor Adapter. IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter. Hercules Graphics Card, or compatible). 

MARCH 1986 -BYTE 127 







fv""'"' 

1; i- 


1 




■■ ■'■ ■".: '■"■■' 

















Xi. 



! 






128 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



ILLUSTRATED BY ROBERT T1NNEY 



PROGRAMMING PROJECT 



A SIMPLE 
WINDOWING SYSTEM 

PART 1: 
BASIC PRINCIPLES 

by Bruce Webster 



Windows can be implemented on almost any system 
with a memory-mapped display 




The use of windows for 
user interfaces is not 
new; the Xerox Palo Alto 
Research Center has 
been developing win- 
dow-based systems for 
years. But it wasn't until 
Apple released the Macintosh two years 
ago that windows became popular. Now, 
just about every major microcomputer has 
a window-based user interface available (if 
not actually bundled), and a wide range of 
software, from databases to games, uses 
windows as well. 

Though windows are most often associ- 
ated with high-powered bit-mapped com- 
puters, they can be implemented— and im- 
plemented well— on nearly any system with 
a memory-mapped display, be it graphics 
or text. There is nothing magic or secret 
about windows; the underlying concepts 
are easy to understand and usually easy to 
implement. Windowing systems can be and 
have been implemented on most of the 
more "mundane" computers; the goal of 
this article is to show you how. I will assume 
that you are using some existing set of 
graphics or text routines. Only a few rou- 
tines are essential; a viewport or screen 
bounds command, to restrict writing or 
drawing to the current window; a clear 
screen or fill screen command, to erase the 
portion of the screen where the window will 



appear; a cursor-positioning command for 
text displays, to draw (if desired) a border 
of characters; and a line-drawing command 
for graphics displays, also to draw a border. 
This month's installment will cover the 
basic principles of windows and then ex- 
amine the problems involved in opening a 
window. Next month, I will look at how to 
close a window, develop a pseudocode im- 
plementation of a windowing system, and 
show an actual implementation on a 
specific computer. 

Understanding Windows 

A window is simply a small screen that ap- 
pears within a larger screen (your com- 
puter's display). Its function is to let you per- 
form some task within it, then disappear 
when it is no longer needed. Often, two or 
more windows are created, each with its 
own purpose, and you can then select 
which window to use. Figure 1 shows an ex- 
ample of multiple windows in use on the 
Macintosh. 

When a window is created— or opened— it 
hides whatever is behind it, including por- 
tions of other windows that it might overlap. 
Usually, a border is drawn around the win- 
dow to visually set it apart from everything 

[continued) 
Bruce Webster is a consulting editor for BYTE. He 
can be contacted do BYTE, POB 1910, Orem, UT 
84057. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 



129 



PROGRAMMING PROJECT 



else on the screen; a title is some- pictures, or whatever your software 

times placed at the top as well. Hav- allows you to do. Attempts to write or 

ing opened the window, you can then draw outside of the window should be 

do things within it: write text, draw ignored. This is usually done by using 

« File Edit Uiew Special 



RHMdisk 



340K in disk 



1 198K available 



Syster 



4 items 



Pascal folder 



49K in folder 



79K available 



□ □ 



\^ 



o 



ReadStars.PAS SMap.R StarMap PAS SMap RSRC 



5E 



TP ^=r 



SysFolder StarMap ReadStars 



isa 



o 



""" ' " . .:., ,. . ' ,.;.. ' ■';■ ' 



Trasr 



Figure 1: An example of multiple overlapping windows on a Macintosh screen. 



54 


68 


69 


73 




69 


73 


20 


20 


61 


ZO 


20 


20 


74 


65 


73 


74 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 



T h 
1 s 

t e 



s t 



Memory (Hex) 



CRT (Text display) 



00 



FF 



FF 



FF 



FF 



00 



FF 



00 



00 



FF 



00 E0 07 00 



00 



FF 



00 



00 



FF 



00 



FF 



FF 



FF 



FF 



/ \ 

<i = ! i 



Memory (Hex) 



CRT (Graphics display) 



Figure 2: A simple example of a memory-mapped text display [top row) and a 
memory-mapped graphics display {bottom row). 



a viewport or screen bounds com- 
mand. 

You can write or draw in a window 
as long as it is active. If windows 
overlap, the one on top— that is, the 
one that is not overlapped by any 
other window— is the active one. If you 
have two or more nonoverlapping 
windows, only one is active at any 
given point in the program; for the 
sake of simplicity, I will always use the 
most recently opened window. Of 
course, by constantly switching be- 
tween windows, you can give the illu- 
sion of multiple windows being active 
simultaneously. (It is even possible— 
though difficult, or at least tedious— 
to have partially obscured windows 
be active. Such a technique is beyond 
the scope of this article; you'll have 
to work it out on your own.) 

Often, you will want to close a win- 
dow, that is, make it go away and re- 
store the display underneath it. You 
can use a few different approaches to 
deal with this problem. Digital Re- 
search's GEM and the Macintosh Tool- 
box both place the burden upon the 
programmer to redraw the now-ex- 
posed portion of the screen. This is 
done for two reasons. First, it saves 
memory, since nothing needs to be 
saved when the window first appears. 
Second, it makes it easy to reorder 
overlapping windows, that is, to bring 
a partially hidden window to the 
"top." The drawback is that your pro- 
gram must know how to redraw that 
portion of the screen and then take 
the time to do so. 

The other approach is to save what 
is underneath a window when it is 
opened, then restore that to the 
screen when the window is closed. 
This uses up memory and/or disk 
space, since that screen data has to 
be stored somewhere. It also enforces 
a last-opened/first-closed restriction 
for overlapping windows. Suppose 
you open window A, then window B 
(which overlaps A), then window C 
(which also overlaps A), and finally 
window D (which overlaps B). You 
must close window D before you can 
close B, and you must close both B 
and C before you can close A. If two 
windows do not overlap (such as B 



130 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



PROGRAMMING PROJECT 



and C), you can close either one in- 
dependent of the other. The advan- 
tages of this method are that your 
program doesn't need to remember 
how to redraw anything, it can be very 
fast (if properly written), and it's sim- 
ple. This is the approach that 1 will use 
in this article. 

Opening a Window 

Your first task is to open a window on 
the screen. You need to specify the 
location of the window (say, the upper 
left corner), the size of the window 
(width and height), and the address 
to save what is under the window. 

In addition, you need to decide if 
the window will have a border and/or 
a title and (if so) how they will be 
drawn. I'll defer discussion of the 
borders and titles for a little while and 
concentrate on creating the window 
itself. 

Notice that I've been vague as to 
whether your display is text (that is, 
a character-only ASCII display) or 
graphics (bit-mapped). The fact is, it 
doesn't really matter, as long as the 
display is memory-mapped and you 
can read from and write to that mem- 
ory. Memory-mapped means that 
there is some area in RAM (random- 
access read/write memory) that cor- 
responds to your display; anything 
written there appears on the screen 
in some form. In a memory-mapped 
text display, each byte usually repre- 
sents a single character; the value of 
the byte is the ASCII value of the char- 
acter being displayed. Memory- 
mapped graphics displays have more 
variety, depending upon the com- 
puter. One or more bits correspond 
to each dot on the screen; sometimes 
those bits are next to each other, 
sometimes they are quite a distance 
apart. See figure 2 for examples of 
memory-mapped displays. 

The Apple II and the IBM Personal 
Computer have both memory- 
mapped text and graphics, while the 
Macintosh has only memory-mapped 
graphics. The main difference be- 
tween the two kinds of displays is that 
the text display takes up less memory. 
For example, the 80-character by 
2 5-line text-mode display on the IBM 



PC Color Graphics Adapter takes up 
4000 bytes-2000 bytes for the 80 by 
25 text itself and another 2000 bytes 
for attributes (bold, underline, etc.) for 
each character— whereas the graphics- 
mode display takes up 16,000 bytes 
(high resolution: 640 by 200 pixels, 1 
bit/pixel: medium resolution: 320 by 
200 pixels, 4 bits/pixel). 



The amount of memory required by 
a graphics display increases propor- 
tionally to the resolution and/or the 
number of colors per pixel. One of 
the highest resolutions for a micro- 
computer display is that of the Amiga: 
640 by 400 pixels, with 16 colors (4 
bits) per pixel. A full screen at that 

{continued) 



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MARCH I986 -BYTE 131 



PROGRAMMING PROJECT 



resolution requires 128,000 bytes 
(640 x 400 x 4/8). By contrast, the 
original text display on the Apple II— 
40 by 24— requires only 960 bytes of 
RAM. 

To keep this windowing system sim- 
ple, you can assume that all windows 
start and end on byte boundaries. 
This means you won't split up any 
bytes, that a window will always be so 
many bytes wide. For text displays 
you have no choice, since each char- 
acter takes up a byte. For graphics dis- 
plays, however, you could try to work 
on the bit level, starting a window 
partway through a byte. But for most 
purposes this is unnecessary. Restrict- 
ing the x coordinates of the window 
to byte boundaries makes your sys- 
tem easier and faster because your 
code doesn't have to do the shifting 
and masking that bit-level boundaries 
would require. 

You need to specify the location of 
the window. Most of the popular 
microcomputers use the upper left 
corner of the screen as the starting 
point, or origin, for text or graphics. 
The first location in the memory map 
for the display corresponds to that 
corner; each successive location 
moves across to the end of the line, 
then to the start of another line 
(though, as Apple II programmers can 
tell you, not necessarily the next line 
down). By specifying the upper left 
corner of the window, you simplify the 



task of copying the underlying display 
memory to some other location. 
Since you're sticking to byte bound- 
aries, you'll define the upper left 
corner as (x,y), where x is the left byte 
and y is the top line. You'll also define 
the upper left corner of the entire 
screen as (0,0); that is, the topmost 
line is 0, and the leftmost byte of each 
line is 0. 

You now need to specify the width 
and height of the window. Two 
choices present themselves, each with 
its strengths and weaknesses. First, 
you could specify the coordinates of 
the lower right corner, (x2,y2). This 
would make it easier to avoid acciden- 
tally creating a window that extends 
beyond the screen boundaries, since 
you would have to deliberately 
specify illegal (out-of-range) coor- 
dinates. Second, you could give the 
width (in bytes) and height (in lines) 
of the window. This makes it clearer 
how big the window actually is. Argu- 
ments can be made for either 
method, and it is simple to implement 
either one. For now, let's go with the 
second, naming the parameters 
(width, height). You can then calculate 
(x2.y2), since x2 = (x+width- 1) and yl 
= (y+height-1). 

Finally, you need to specify the ad- 
dress of the buffer, that is, the area 
where the underlying screen data will 
be saved. You will need at least 
width x height bytes of storage; "at 



f 






— \ 


i A 






1 1 


•> 




1 3 




4 






v 






4 



(free) 



window 3 




CRT Display 



Memory 



Disk (file) 



Figure 3: 1/ you run out of RAM for storing window buffers, you can save some 
of those buffers to disk. 



least," because you may also want to 
store the information describing the 
position of the window (x.y.width, 
height) in the buffer, to make restora- 
tion of the screen data easier. Assum- 
ing you use 2 bytes for each of those 
values, you'll need a total of (width x 
height + 8) bytes. 

You now need to make some deci- 
sions concerning error checking. The 
following cases must be handled 
somehow: 

1. The coordinate x and/or y is out of 
range; i.e., it is less than or greater 
than the maximum allowable value. 

2. Width and/or height is too large; i.e., 
x2 and/or y2 is out of range. 

3. The buffer isn't big enough to save 
the screen data. 

You can take two general approaches. 
First, you can try to make things "fit." 
For example, if x is negative, you can 
set it to and proceed anyway; like- 
wise, if the window boundaries ex- 
tend below the bottom edge of the 
screen, you can chop off the excess. 
This is dangerous, however, since the 
calling program will get something 
other than it requested. The alter- 
native is to return an error code, in- 
forming the calling routine that the 
window was not opened and the 
reasons why. The program can then 
take whatever steps are necessary to 
adjust its request. This second ap- 
proach is safer, and we'll take it. 

You now need to deal with the issue 
of memory management. Two sepa- 
rate problems present themselves. 
First, you must decide how much 
memory to give to the window buffer 
or buffers. A simple solution is to find 
and set aside a chunk of memory (a 
"window buffer") equal in size to the 
largest window that you'll let be 
opened. Ideally, this would be the 
same size as the actual display, so that 
you could open up a window filling 
the entire screen. This is feasible for 
a 40 by 24 text display on the Apple 
II— but it might not be feasible for the 
280 by 192 graphics display on that 
same Apple II, especially if you have 
64K bytes (or less) of total memory. 
If you don't have enough free RAM, 
you'll need to set aside some lesser 



132 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 277 



PROGRAMMING PROJECT 



amount and let the open-window 
routine know what that amount is. It 
can then compare that size to the 
value (width x height + 8) and return 
the appropriate error code if it's not 
large enough. For now, assume that 
you've set aside as much RAM as you 
can spare, and that the address and 
size of that buffer are known to the 
open-window routine. (If your lan- 
guage lets you dynamically allocate 
memory, you may want to use that to 
create the buffer as needed.) 

The second problem occurs when 
you run out of available RAM for stor- 
ing window buffers. You can, of 
course, just refuse to open the win- 
dow. But that might be too much of 
a limitation, especially if you have 
only enough memory for a single buf- 
fer (and, therefore, a single window). 
One alternative is to write the buffer 
out to disk, then reuse the buffer for 
the new window. This involves more 
record keeping, as well as a check to 
be sure you have sufficient room on 
the disk. Again, the simplest solution 
here is to set aside an area on the disk 
big enough to hold some fixed 
number of fixed-size buffers. Each 
time you open a new window, you 
write the current contents of the buf- 
fer out to the next free slot on the disk 
(see figure 3). Once the disk area is 
full, you return the "too many win- 
dows" error message on any further 
attempts to open a window. 

The final decision is how to handle 
borders and titles. Let's drop titles but 
keep borders. For text displays, this is 
simple. You can draw the border using 
any special characters provided (like 
the IBM graphics characters or the 
MouseText characters on the Apple He 
and enhanced He) or by adapting 
some regular characters, like dashes, 
exclamation points (or vertical bars, if 
your display supports them), and plus 
signs. But you'll need to decide 
whether the border is inside or out- 
side the window. The border itself will 
eat up two lines (top and bottom) and 
two columns of bytes (left and right). 

If you put the border inside the win- 
dow, the display area within the win- 
dow itself will be smaller; for exam- 
ple, if you create a window that's 20 



bytes wide and 10 lines high, the ac- 
tual "screen" within the window will 
be only 18 bytes wide and 8 lines 
high. If the border is outside the win- 
dow, you have to handle the cases 
where the window is flush against one 
or two sides of the screen, such as a 
window whose upper left corner is at 
(0,0). You'll also have to be sure to 
save the areas covered by the 
borders, so your actual buffer size 
may be as great as (width + 2)* (height 
+ 2) bytes. For this article, I'll assume 
that the border is within the window; 
you may want to design your own 
routines otherwise. 

For graphics windows, the problems 
are similar. Drawing a border is quite 
simple: a line across the top and bot- 
tom lines and along the left and right 
sides. Given the previous decision to 
limit windows to byte boundaries, 
there is no real "inside/outside" 
choice, unless you want to pad the left 
and right sides by a full byte (which 
may represent several pixels of 
"empty" space on each side). Again, 
I'll assume that the border is within 
the graphics window; again, you may 
decide otherwise for your own imple- 
mentation. 

The final thing you must do is set 
the viewport (or active screen) to the 
"screen" within the border, if possi- 
ble. The graphics or text routines 
you're using may allow you to define 
those limits; if so, you want to set 
them at [x+\.y+\x2-\.y2-\). On a 
graphics display, you may want to 
leave a little gap between the border 
and the drawings within the window. 
You may also want to set the x values 
on a bit boundary rather than a byte 
boundary, if you can, to avoid too 
large a gap on either side. 

Intermission 

You should now have a good idea of 
what you must consider in opening a 
window; how to specify it, where to 
save the screen data, what to do when 
errors occur. Next month, you'll learn 
how to close the window again. You'll 
also see a pseudocode implementa- 
tion of the system I've developed 
here, as well as a partial translation for 
an Apple II. ■ 




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by Steve A. Hersee and Dan Knopoff 

An ANSI 

Standard for 
the C Language 




A description of the 
standard proposed in 
the X3J11 committee's 
Information Bulletin 



In The C Programming Language 
(Prentice-Hall Inc., 1978) Brian 
W. Kernighan and Dennis M. 
Ritchie defined C as "a 
general-purpose programming lan- 
guage which features economy of ex- 



pression, modern control flow and 
data structures, and a rich set of 
operators." The C language was first 
developed for use on the UNIX oper- 
ating system; however, C is now wide- 
ly accepted in the personal computer 
arena, and it is no longer just the god- 
child of UNIX developers. There is 
now enough interest and investment 
in C to develop an American National 
Standards Institute (ANSI) standard 
for C. The process is currently under- 
way and entrusted to the X3J1 1 Stan- 
dardization Committee. 

Why Develop a Standard? 

As more developers and users 
become dependent on C, a universal 
set of rules is necessary to keep C 
programmers working with the same 
language. The challenge then is to 
establish a nonpartisan keeper of the 
"standard." 

At first, the choice appears to be 
easy. Why not let the compiler imple- 
mentors and developers (such as 
AT&T, Whitesmiths, or Lattice) ham- 
mer out their own language defini- 
tion? But could any of these organiza- 
tions actually claim that changes and 
additions would be implemented to 
serve the public good? 

The C language already has a de 
facto standard taken from Kernighan 

(continued) 
Steve A. Hersee is one of three founders of 
Lattice Inc. He has a B.S. in electrical engi- 
neering and computer science from the Univer- 
sity of Illinois and is the International Repre- 
sentative of the X3J1 1 Standardization Com- 
mittee. Dan Knopoff is the production 
manager at Lattice Inc. He has a B.A. in 
English from Northeastern Illinois University. 
They can be reached do Lattice Inc., POB 
3072, Glen Ellun, IL 60138. 



ILLUSTRATED BY BARBARA ENSOR 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 135 



ANSI STANDARD 



and Ritchie's book (known as K&R). 
K&R was published in 1978 as both 
a tutorial and an "official" statement 
of the syntax and semantics of C. 
However, due to ambiguities in the 
text, UNIX references, and recent ex- 
tensions to C (such as the portable C 
compiler), K&R is not always the most 
viable alternative for a compiler writer 
to follow. In fact, a C compiler author 
has almost too many choices. Should 
an author of a C compiler provide the 
C described by the K&R standard or 
should the UNIX version 7 be used? 
Or how about UNIX System III? Or 
Whitesmiths (the oldest commercial 
compiler)? 

The standardization of C will allow 
C to move into more environments. 
Since the standard addresses just the 
C language, the variations between 
operating systems can be filtered out 
(they are never really eliminated), and 
C can move away from its original 
UNIX roots. In fact, two-thirds of the 



Standardization Committee's mem- 
bers represent companies offering C 
for non-UNIX environments. 

An ANSI standard for the C lan- 
guage will allow C to grow in an order- 
ly way, without the problems that 
many other languages have had. The 
standard will also allow C to "grow 
up" without being controlled by a 
single compiler implementor or oper- 
ating system. 

|im Brodie of Motorola made the 
first move to wrest C away from the 
developers and implementors. He 
found out that ANSI had not begun 
any effort to standardize the language 
but ANSI thought it sounded like an 
idea whose time had come. ANSI 
then asked Brodie to chair the Stan- 
dardization Committee— an offer he 
couldn't refuse. 

The Information Bulletin 

At the March 1984 meeting of the 
X3J11 Standardization Committee in 



ANSI C Standard 
Meeting Schedule 



If you are interested in participating 
in the C standardization, call or 
write 

Jim Brodie 

Chairman 

X3J11 Standardization Committee 

Motorola Microsystems 

2900 South Diablo Way 

Tempe, AZ 85282 

(602) 438-3456 

or 

Tom Plum 

Vice Chairman 

X3I11 Standardization Committee 

Plum Hall 

1 Spruce Ave. 

Cardiff, NJ 08232 

(609) 927-3770 

The 1986 schedule for meetings is 

March 3-7, Palo Alto, CA 
June 2-6, Philadelphia, PA 
September 8-12, Chicago, IL 
December 8-12, Cary, NC 



The committee meetings have been 
open to interested parties to observe 
and participate in the technical discus- 
sions. If you would like to just sit in for 
a day or more, please contact one of 
the committee members for the exact 
time and place of the meeting. 

If you would like to join the commit- 
tee, there is a $150 per year fee 
payable to 

ANSI 

Computer & Business Equipment 

Manufacturers Assocation 
X3 Secretariat CBEMA 
311 1st Street NW, Suite 500 
Washington, DC 20001 

The committee meets for one week 
every three months. All participants are 
volunteers and are responsible for their 
own expenses. Besides the meeting, 
committee members are required to 
prepare papers for presentation to the 
committee and to contact other 
members about the issues before the 
next meeting. 



Chapel Hill, North Carolina, the Com- 
mittee voted to publish the current 
draft of the ANSI C Language Stan- 
dard as an ANSI Information Bulletin. 
(This draft is published by the Com- 
puter & Business Equipment Manu- 
facturers Association [CBEMA].) See 
the text box "ANSI C Standard 
Meeting Schedule" for the address 
and information about the Standard- 
ization Committee. 

The Information Bulletin is only one 
step in a multistep process toward the 
standardization of the C language. It 
is an early step in the process, but it 
is important because C compiler ven- 
dors will have a chance to check out 
the work of the committee by imple- 
menting all or part of the Information 
Bulletin within their respective en- 
vironments. The test implementation 
of the new features described within 
the Information Bulletin will give the 
compiler developers actual experi- 
ence with the proposed changes and 
allow them to find any flaws in the 
present features. 

This article covers some of the pro- 
posed additions and changes to the 
C language that have been put into 
the Information Bulletin by the Stan- 
dardization Committee. Table 1 lists 
the standard function library pro- 
posed in the Information Bulletin. 

Extensions to unsigned 

In K&R, the keyword unsigned is a 
type of integer or int. In many later 
compilers the keyword unsigned was 
extended to be a modifier as well as 
an integer. As an extension to K&R, 
the committee added unsigned char, 
unsigned short, unsigned int, and un- 
signed long to the normal use of un- 
signed. This modification is con- 
sidered to be an easy extension to 
K&R, as it will not break any existing 
programs. 

Unique Member Names 

The standard proposed allows unique 
member names within structures and 
unions. C programmers will then be 
able to use the member name 
"Name," for example, in many dif- 
ferent structures without having to 

(continued) 



136 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



Table 1: The ANSI C standard library. 




assert(int expression) 


fgetc(FILE 'stream) 


isalnum(int c) 


fgets(char *s, int n, FILE 'stream) 


isalpha(int c) 


fputc(int c, FILE 'stream) 


iscntrl(int c) 


fputs(const char *s, FILE 'stream) 


isdigit(int c) 


getc(FILE 'stream) 


isgraph(int c) 


getchar(void) 


islower(int c) 


gets(char *s) 


isprint(int c) 


putc(int c FILE 'stream) 


ispunct(int c) 


putchar(int c) 


isspace(int c) 


puts(const char *s) 


isupper(int c) 


ungetc(int c, FILE 'stream) 


isxdigit(inl c) 


fread(void *ptr, size t size, int num, FILE 'stream) 


tolower(int c) 


fwrite(const void *ptr, size t size, int num, FILE 'stream) 


toupper(int c) 


fseek( FILE 'stream, long offset, int ptrname) 




ftell(FILE 'stream) 


acos(double x) 


rewind(FILE 'stream) 


asin(double x) 


clearerr(FILE 'stream) 


atan(double x) 


feof(FILE 'stream) 


atan2(double x) 


ferror(FILE 'stream) 


cos(double x) 


perror(const char *s) 


sin(double x) 




tan(double x) 


atof(const char 'buffer) 


cosh(double x) 


atoi(const char 'buffer) 


sinh(double x) 


atol(const char 'buffer) 


tanh(double x) 

/ r L~ l * **\ 


strtod(const char 'buffer, char " endbuffer) 


exp(double x) 


strtol(const char 'buffer, char " endbuffer, int base) 


frexp(double value, int *exp) 


rand(void) 


ldexp(double value, int exp) 


srand(unsigned int seed) 


log(double x) 


calloc(unsigned int num, size t elsize) 


Iog10(double x) 


free(void *ptr) 


modf(double value, double *iptr) 


malloc(size t size) 


pow(double x, double y) 


realloc(void * ptr, size t size) 


sqrt(double x) 




abs(int i) 
ceil(double x) 


abort(void) 


fabs(double x) 
floor(double x) 


exit(int status) 
getenv(const char 'name) 


fmod(double x, double y) 


onexit(onexit t tunc) 

system(const char 'string) 


setjmp(jmp but env) 


memcpy(void 'toadd , const void 'fromadd, size t length) 


longjmp(jmp but env, int val) 


memset(void *s, int initchar, size t n) 


signal(int sig, void (*func)() ) 


strcpy(char 'to, const char 'from) 


kill(int pid, int sig) 


strncpy(char 'to, const char 'from, size t n) 


va start(va list ap, parmN) 


strcat(char 'to, const char 'from) 


va arg(va list ap, type) 


strncat(char 'to, const char 'from, size t n) 


va end(va list ap) 


memcmp(const void *s1, const void *s2, size t n) 


remove(const char 'pathname) 


strcmp(const char *s1, const char *s2) 


rename(const char "old, const char *new) 


strlen(const char *s1) 


tmpfile(void) 


strncmpfconst char *s1, const char *s2, size t n) 


tmpnam(char *s) 


memchr(const void *s, int c, size t n) 


fclose(FILE 'stream) 


strchr(const char *s1, int c) 


fflush(FILE 'stream) 


strcspn(const char *s1, const char *s2) 


fopen(const char 'filename, const char 'type) 


strpbrk(const char *s1, const char *s2) 


freopen(const char 'filename, const char 'type, FILE 'stream) 


strrchr(const char *s int c) 


setbuf(FILE 'stream, char *buf) 


strspn(const char *s1, const char *s2) 


fprintf(FILE 'stream, const char 'format, . . .) 


strtok(char *s1, const char *s2) 


printf(const char 'format, . . . ) 




scanf(const char 'format, . . .) 


clock(void) 


fscanf(FILE 'stream, const char 'format, . . .) 


time(time t 'timer) 


sprintf(char *s, const char 'format, . . .) 


asctime(const struct tm 'timeptr) 


sscanf(char *s, const char 'format, . . .) 


ctime(const struct tm 'timer) 


vfprintf(FILE 'stream, const char 'format, va list arg) 


difftime(time t time2, time t timel) 


vprintf(const char 'format, va list arg) 


gmtime(const time t 'timer) 


vsprintf(char *s, const char 'format, va list arg) 


localtime(const time t 'timer) 



MARCH 1 986 



IYTE 137 



ANSI STANDARD 



worry that it must be the same dis- 
placement in each structure. All struc- 
tures and unions have their own name 
space, and the compiler will keep 
track of the valid member names for 
each. This may cause trouble for pro- 
grammers with old code that defined 
structures or unions and then used 
the member names as a general value 
to be added to wherever they wanted. 

Passing and Assigning 
Structures 

The committee has incorporated the 
use of passing and assigning struc- 
tures (as currently available within 
UNIX System V) into the Information 
Bulletin. This means that program- 
mers will be able to assign one struc- 
ture to another, to pass an entire 
structure as an argument on the stack, 
and to have a function return a value 
to its caller that is an entire structure. 
These features allow functions to work 
on structures that are copies of the 
original structure and then allow an 
assignment to update the original 
structure when all of the changes are 
complete. 

The Bell Character 

Programmers will now be able to send 
the ASCII Bell character as an alert to 
the end user by including a \a as an 
output string literal. Additional ter- 
minal support was considered, but 
the number of hardware choices and 
the constraints necessary to keep the 
committee focused on the language 
left the \a option the only hardware- 
related feature included within the In- 
formation Bulletin. 

international trigraph 
Character Operators 

The C language has "used up" the 
ASCII character set. This is not a prob- 
lem for programmers in the U.S., but 
it is a problem for programmers in 
other countries. It seems that some 



of the characters used as C operators 
are known as alphabetic extenders 
and are required in German, Spanish, 
French, and other foreign languages. 

To make C easier to use interna- 
tionally and to promote a wider use 
of C as an international language, the 
committee chose to address the prob- 
lem of the "overused" ASCII character 
set within the Information Bulletin by 
defining a group of trigraph character 
sequences to act as operator equiva- 
lents. The trigraphs allow characters 
to be defined that are not in the ISO 
(International Organization for Stan- 
dardization) 646 Invariant Code Set 
(see table 2), a subset of the 7-bit 
ASCII code set. 

As part of the trigraph feature, the 
character sequence of V has been 
defined as a ? to provide an escape 
for the sequence when a program is 
printing out a trigraph. 

Keyword Changes 

The committee has brought five key- 
words into the proposed ANSI C lan- 
guage described in the Information 
Bulletin. Keywords were added with 
caution because programs being up- 
dated to the ANSI C language may 
have to be changed if a keyword were 
used for some other function. The five 
new keywords are qvoid, enum, 
const, signed, and volatile. 

The keyword void has been added 
to the Information Bulletin from UNIX 
System V to allow the programmer to 
define a function that returns no 
value. For example, the program seg- 
ment 

extern void exit(); 

tells the compiler that no meaningful 
value is expected from the return of 
the function exit. This allows the com- 
piler to flag the following expression 
as an error: 

a = b + exit(); 



Table 2: The trigraphs and the operators they define. 
Trigraph ?? = ?? ( ?? / ?? ) ?? ' - 



Character Defined 



\ 



{ 



T? 



??> ?? 



The type enum has been added to 
the Information Bulletin exactly as it 
is used in UNIX System V. The type 
enum is similar to an enumeration 
type in Pascal but implemented in the 
spirit of the C language. 

The keyword const is already in use 
by internal AT&T C compilers. The key- 
word const is a type specifier that 
defines an object that is either not to 
be modified or is resident in ROM 
(read-only memory). A const type ob- 
ject cannot be assigned to, incre- 
mented, or decremented. There are 
two major benefits of the const type: 
Data can now be identified that is not 
to be altered either in a module or in 
the- entire program, and data to be 
placed into ROM can be identified as 
a specific group. After identifying data 
as const, the data can be checked by 
the compiler to flag an error if the 
programmer tries to alter the data of 
type const. 

The C language as defined within- 
K&R allows compiler implementors to 
choose whether they wish the type 
char to be a signed value or an un- 
signed value. This allows the compiler 
implementor to obtain the maximum 
possible speed for code generation in 
working with items of type char. This 
means that when the programmer 
adds the type modifier unsigned to 
char, the value is unsigned. But what 
about signed values? The keyword 
signed has been included within the 
Information Bulletin to allow signed 
values to be generated. 

Adding the keyword signed to C 
also eliminates the problem where 
the natural char is unsigned and the 
programmer cannot receive a signed 
char value between -128 and + 127. 
With the addition of the keyword 
signed the programmer has full con- 
trol over whether the char is signed, 
unsigned, or chosen by the compiler. 

The type modifier signed can be 
used anywhere that the type modifier 
unsigned is allowed. This allows the 
programmer to be very specific in the 
declaration of a variable to help the 
program's readability and perfor- 
mance. 

The keyword volatile can be used by 

{continued) 



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ANSI STANDARD 



the programmer to describe the com- 
piler's environment. Currently, after a 
compiler loads a value into a register 
(if a programmer does nothing to that 
value through the program), the value 
in the register is the same as the loca- 
tion in memory that was used to load 
the register in the first place. There are 
some pitfalls with this, however. For 
instance, what if the memory location 
is a memory-mapped I/O location 
such as a communication port? Or 
what if the location is a shared mem- 
ory location that can be modified by 
another process? The value loaded 
into the register at one time will not 
be the same after time has passed or 
some event has occurred. 

There is a real conflict between the 
basic compiler assumption that once 
a value is loaded into a register, there 
is no reason to reload that particular 
value if there has been no action to 
modify the memory location. The 
basic model of memory and the com- 
piler in K&R did not allow the pro- 
grammer to describe the condition 
where a memory location can be 
altered by events outside of the 
knowledge of the compiler. This is 
most evident in a multiprocessing en- 
vironment like UNIX. If there is an 
area of shared memory, the location 
that the compiler is operating on may 
have changed since the last time the 
compiler looked at it. 

The real plus with the keyword 
volatile is that the quality of compiler 
optimization can be improved, as the 
programmer will be better able to 
describe the underlying compiler en- 
vironment. This allows greater op- 
timization on normal variables and 
the proper handling of special data 
areas in various machines. 

The keyword entry was dropped 
because it does not have a use in K&R. 

long and Unsigned ints 

in the C language, a constant (123, for 
example) is considered to be an int. 
As an int, it is a signed value of a 
known size that can be used in ex- 
pressions with other ints. When a con- 
stant appears in an expression that 
also includes long types, the constant 
can be followed with the letter I to 



mean long (1231 and 123L are ex- 
amples of long ints). 

This works fine until constants are 
used as addresses. Addresses do not 
make sense as signed values. Ad- 
dresses make sense only as unsigned 
values. The Information Bulletin allows 
constants to be specified that have a 
trailing u to define the value as an un- 
signed value (123u and 123U are ex- 
amples of unsigned values). The trail- 
ing u for unsigned values will allow 
programmers to force address and 
other expressions to be performed 
with unsigned arithmetic. 

SHORT, INT, AND LONG LENGTHS 

Compilers based on K&R use the key- 
words short or long as synonyms for 
an int. Normally on 16- and 32-bit 
machines a short and an int are both 
16 bits, while a long is 32 bits. In the 
ANSI C language proposed by the In- 
formation Bulletin, all three types may 
be different lengths. For example, a 
large machine could have a short that 
is 16 bits, an int that is 32 bits, and 
a long that is 64 bits. Allowing short, 
int, and long to be different lengths 
may prove most useful on some of 
the larger machines. However, it is not 
a requirement to have three different 
sizes, so that the actual sizes can be 
specified by the compiler imple- 
mentor. 

Additions to C for the 
FORTRAN Community 

Since the C language has become 
popular, many FORTRAN program- 
mers have been considering changing 
to C To encourage the changeover, 
the committee implemented three ad- 
ditions to the proposed ANSI C lan- 
guage to make C more adaptable to 
the needs of the FORTRAN user. The 
additions include 

• evaluating expressions with float 
(floating-point) arithmetic; 

• being able to force the order in 
which expressions are evaluated; and 

• creating a new type of float larger 
than double. 

The Standardization Committee was 
careful to address these issues to 
allow implementation without forcing 



current C programs to be changed. 

Elements in an expression can now 
be defined at the float type level. This 
allows the expression to be evaluated 
with float arithmetic rather than in 
double precision, which in turn allows 
a programmer to choose between 
speed and accuracy when performing 
arithmetic. 

The unary + operator was added to 
allow a programmer to force an ele- 
ment in an expression to be evaluated 
before other parts of the expression. 
For example, if a programmer writes 
A + (B + C) the C compiler is free 
to add A and B first and then C. The 
only way to force B + C to be com- 
puted first is as follows: 

temp = B + C; 
Answer = temp + A; 

Unfortunately, the use of a temporary 
variable requires the programmer to 
declare an additional variable and 
may change the style of coding. The 
Information Bulletin allows the ex- 
pression to be written as A + + (B 
+ C). The extra, or unary, plus sign 
tells the compiler to evaluate the ex- 
pression inside of the parentheses 
first and then to go on with the re- 
mainder of the expression. 

The third feature to help the FOR- 
TRAN community is the creation of 
a new type of float that is larger than 
double. This type is called long dou- 
ble. The long double type can be the 
same as double, but it can also be of 
greater precision than double. The 
long double type allows the writer of 
the math library functions to use a 
precision that is greater than normal. 
Intel uses this same idea with its 8087 
math chip, where the data in and out 
of the chip is 64 bits while the 8087 
chip does its internal calculations in 
80 bits. 

The Preprocessor 

The C language preprocessor is a 
strange and wondrous beast open to 
interpretation by the compiler writer 
to determine just exactly what to do 
with the preprocessor phase of the 
compiler. 
The preprocessor, as described by 

{continued) 



140 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 297 — ► 



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ANSI STANDARD 



the Information Bulletin, adds two 
new operators to the preprocessor. 
The first is the # (sharp sign), and sec- 
ond is the ## (double sharp sign). 
These two extensions allow the pre- 
processor to do two things that have 
been available in some (but not all) C 
compilers. Both of the tokens have to 
do with strings and macros. Many pro- 
grammers like to have a macro to con- 
struct a value that is later used as a 
string or as a new token such as a 
variable name. These may sound like 
simple needs at first, but there are a 
number of problems that current pro- 
gramming solutions do not address. 
Maybe the best way to describe this 
is through the example included 
within the Information Bulletin: 

#define debug(s.t) printffx" # s 

" = %d, x" # t " = %s",x##s,x##t) 
debug(1,2) 

results in 

printf("x" "1" "= %d, x" "2" 
"= °/os",x1,x2) 

which, after concatenation of the ad- 
jacent strings, results in 

printf("x1= %d, x2= /os",x1,x2) 

The #, when followed by a formal pa- 
rameter of a macro, is replaced by the 
corresponding macro argument and 
is enclosed in quotes. This is shown 
above when, #s become "1." This 
allows the easy creation of string 
literals from macros. The ## is the 
token concatenation operator. In a 
macro expansion after all replace- 
ments have taken place, each ## is 
removed and the tokens preceding 
and following each ## operator are 
concatenated. 

Expanded String Length 

The above examples contain another 
proposed change to current C usage. 
The proposed ANSI C language 
allows strings to be longer than those 
in current use. The programmer can 
construct a string from more than one 
line when the lines appear as adjacent 
strings within a C program. The lines 
are logically concatenated into one 
string. This means that the following 
two examples are equivalent: 



Example 1: 

printffthis is a single string with the 
numbers one, two, and three \ "); 



Example 2: 
printffthis is a" 



1 single string" 

' with the " 

'numbers " 

'one," 

' two and three"); 

Change to Predefined 
Macro Values 

A change has been made to the pre- 
defined macro values LINE 

and FILE LINE is 

defined as the current line number 

and FILE is defined as the 

current source and/or #inc!ude file- 
name. These macros may be used as 
references to print out information 
concerning the current file and line 
number. 

Addition of #pragma 

The #pragma preprocessor directive 
has been added to the proposed C 
language to allow compiler writers to 
get additional information to their 
compiler without having to invent a 
new set of implementation keywords. 
The #pragma macro acts as a general 
escape mechanism to make any en- 
vironment/feature/extension informa- 
tion truly portable between compilers. 
Any information appearing on the 
#pragma line that is not recognized 
by the compiler and/or is not specific 
to the environment is ignored and is 
not flagged as an error. 

Function Prototypes 

Function prototypes are a major ad- 
dition defined within the Information 
Bulletin. A function prototype is an 
expansion of the old extern function() 
syntax. The new syntax still enables 
the old syntax to work and also allows 
the programmer and library writer to 
give the reader and compiler addi- 
tional information on the compilation 
process. 

A common problem that involves 
function calls can be demonstrated by 
the function Iseek. The function Iseek 
has three arguments, and it returns a 
long value. In usage, the function 



is given as 

extern long lseek(); 

This form is still viable and will con- 
tinue to work in existing programs. 
The proposed ANSI C language de- 
fined within the Information Bulletin 
allows the addition of the function 
prototype: 

extern long lseek(int file, long 
position, int mode); 

The function^ prototype passes infor- 
mation to the compiler that can be 
used by the programmer. The first 
type of information describes the 
arguments included with the function. 
In this case, the function Iseek has 
three and only three arguments. If the 
compiler sees a call to Iseek with any- 
thing other than three arguments, that 
Iseek call is an error. The function pro- 
totype also converts the value to the 
type specified when the second argu- 
ment is not a long value. The conver- 
sion is performed as if it were being 
assigned across an equals sign. 

This type checking for function calls 
is a very large part of the UNIX utility 
lint. Function prototype checking is 
more powerful than lint, however, 
because it is performed at compila- 
tion time by trie compiler rather than 
as a separate utility after the program 
is compiled. Also, as all of the stan- 
dard library header files have the 
library function prototypes in them, 
the programmer is notified of both 
the argument count and improper 
type errors when the program is com- 
piled, not at some later time during 
a debugging session or a lint pass. 

The names in the function pro- 
totypes are optional for readability. 
They allow the person documenting 
the function to place the name in the 
function prototype to describe how it 
is used by the function. Many of the 
compilers that are providing the func- 
tion prototype feature also allow the 
compiler to output a prototype defini- 
tion file as part of the compilation 
process. This allows the automatic 
generation of function prototypes to 
be included in any other modules that 
use the functions. 

(continued) 



142 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



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ANSI STANDARD 



The committee has 
come up against 
some tough issues. 



When using function prototypes, 
the programmer is no longer forced 
to have all arguments automatically 
widened to doubles and ints. When 
a prototype is present in both the 
definition and in the file where the 
function is to be used, the arguments 
may be specified to be float, char, or 
even register. This allows greater op- 
timization by the compiler writer and 
greater control over how information 
is passed to the function, which is the 
basic unit in C 

The Tough Issues 

Over the last year and a half, the Stan- 
dardization Committee has come up 
against some tough issues. Various 
solutions were presented, reports 
were prepared to educate the mem- 
bers on the pitfalls and plaudits of the 
solutions, and decisions were made 
and added to the Information Bulletin. 
Legwork and elbow grease helped the 
committee resolve issues such as 

• whether the functionality of the 
enum should be extended; 

• what the length of external items 
should be; 

• whether external names can appear 
in a single case or in both upper- and 
lowercase; 

• how the C language should expand 
or widen values when evaluating an 
expression that involves many types; 

• how much checking should the 
compiler do to detect an attempt to 
change an item declared as type 
const; and 

• whether external items must have a 
single definition or if they can have 
many definitions when they are ini- 
tialized to the same values. 

The solutions were arrived at peace- 
fully in an attempt to make the ANSI 
C language described within the Infor- 
mation Bulletin as usable as possible 
by the largest set of users. ■ 



144 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 216 



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PROGRAMMING INSIGHT 



MACINTOSH 
EXPLORER 



BY Olav Andrade 



A disassembler written in BASIC 
that lets you investigate your Mac 



AN EXCELLENT WAY to learn how to 
use a processor's instruction set is to 
see how things have already been 
done. The function of a disassembler 
is to translate machine code to 
human-readable assembler mnemon- 
ics. I know that a disassembler can't 
aid you in writing good documenta- 
tion for your own assembler pro- 
grams, structured code, or any of the 
aesthetics that a good programmer 
would consider in writing a program. 
But if you need to know what is in- 
volved in rewriting a particular func- 
tion for your tastes, or even for a dif- 
ferent target machine, a disassembler 
can help. However, you'll have to keep 
your wits about you: The recon- 
stituted assembler source is never 
enough to immediately understand 
the code; without comments you may 
find the code's purpose completely 
obscure. 

The target for the disassembler I will 
describe is Motorola's 68000 micro- 
processor. I wrote the actual disas- 
sembler in Microsoft BASIC for 
Apple's Macintosh. When I decided 
that I needed a disassembler, there 
were no facilities for native compila- 
tion on the Mac, but I realized that the 
many Macintosh Toolbox and operat- 



ing-system routines (supplied by 
Apple in ROM) would be a major part 
of any application. Hence 1 had to 
understand how Toolbox calls were 
made: "How are parameters han- 
dled?" for instance. (When I wrote this 
disassembler, Apple's publication In- 
side Macintosh, which describes these 
calls, was not available in its final 
form.) Also, my disassembler didn't 
need to be fast, since I wouldn't be 
using it too often; an interpreted lan- 
guage would be fine. 

Implementation 

A disassembler, as it turns out, 
doesn't behave too differently from a 
microcoded processor (such as the 
68000). Microcode is a program in- 
side the processor itself that tells the 
processor what each instruction code 
should do. In the 68000, the fetched 
instruction is decoded by a pro- 
grammed logic array (PLA) to yield a 
start address in the microcode. You 
can think of this PLA as a multiway 
branch in any programming language. 
In my disassembler, the PLA function 
is split into two distinct operations: 
isolating those bits that are important 
to the decoding (done by performing 
a bitwise AND to the instruction word 



using a mask value); and then ex- 
ecuting a GOSUB to the appropriate 
routine. As it turns out, only 30 or so 
distinct routines are needed to disas- 
semble the entire instruction set of 
the 68000 processor. 

The four data structures needed to 
implement this scheme are an op- 
code table and, for each op code in 
the table, a mask, a match word, and 
a subroutine identification number. 
The data for the table itself is pre- 
sorted according to the number of 
bits required to uniquely identify the 
op code. Since those instructions that 
have no operands (such as nop) have 
a mask with all bits on (i.e., SFFFF 
since the 68000 uses a 16-bit op 
code), they occur first in the table; 
more flexible instructions occur later 
in the table (e.g., movaw uses only the 
first nybble to specify the op code, so 
the mask is $F000). | Editor's note: Dollar 
signs preceding numbers denote hexadecimal 
notation.] The scheme employed by the 
disassembler is to sequentially com- 
pare entries in the table with the op 

(continued) 
Olav Andrade (13 Bromley Crescent, 
Bramalea, Ontario L6T 1Z2, Canada) holds 
a B.S. from the University of Toronto. He is 
currently developing Macintosh software. 



MARCH 1986 "BYTE 145 



MACINTOSH EXPLORER 



code until a match is found. (This se- 
quential comparision is the reason for 
presorting the table by the number of 
bits in the mask.) A match is indicated 
when the masked op code is the same 
as the match word of a particular 
table entry. 
Figure 1 shows the bit encoding, 



mask word, and match word for the 
instruction LEA EffectiveAddress.An. 
If you wanted to decode the word 
S4BD3, you would perform a bitwise 
logical AND between the masks in the 
op-code table and $4BD3 until the 
result equaled the match word for 
that op code. In this case, $4BD3 AND 



(a) 



(b) 



(c) 



1 : : X X X s 1 1 1 ■ X X X X X X 





F 




1 


1 




c 









f 




\ 


\f 




\ r 




"l 


1 


1 1 


1 


SO 


Os 


] 1 


1 s;0 








° Si 



10 1:0 i 1 1 1 §0 



Figure 1: (a) Bit encoding of LEA effectiveAddress.An instruction. The Xs 
represent "don't care" bits. For an LEA instruction they are used to encode the 
operands: they may be ignored in determining which instruction is represented, (b) The 
mask word for the above instruction is formed by filling the word with Is, except for 
"don't care" bits in the op code, which are set to Os. (c) The match word for this 
instruction is formed by a bitwise AND between the op code encoding (with Xs treated 
as Os) and the mask word. 



iii« 



Edit 3«(iKh Run UMndou>s 



Macintosh Enplorer 



input 



d isas<£mbl e 



dump 



qu i t 




16 
32 
48 
4198424 
4 198426 
1198430 
4 198434 
4 198436 
4 198440 
4 198442 
4 198446 
4 198448 
4 198450 
4 198454 
4 198458 
4 198462 
4 198464 
4 198466 
4 198468 



454F424SFFFFFFFF00400 1FW00400 1BC 
00400 1HE00400 1B00O40O 1B200400 1B4 
00400 1B600400 1B80040 101800400 1BC 
00400 1BE00400 1BE004OO 1BE00400 1BE 



subq. 



"2, a? 



movem I d1-d2/«2, -<a?> 

move I 16 <a7>, a2 

move w < a2 )+ . d2 

move 1 a2, 16 (a7) 

move, ui d2, dl 

cmp.ui »$R800. d2 

bcs.S $ + 52, 4 198500 

bsr.s $ + 18, 4 198468 

move i d2, 12 <a7) 

cmp.m »$RC00. dl 

moveifi. 1 (a7)+, d1-d2/a2 

bcs s $ + 2; 4 1Q8466 

move I <a7 ?+, <a7 5 

rls 

and .a "$1FF, d2 



a 



Figure 2: Shown is the screen of the Macintosh Explorer. Note that the memory path 
is in reverse video, indicating that it is active. You can see a dump of the beginning of 
memory and a disassembly starting at address 4198424. 



SF1C0 = S41C0, where the $F1C0 is 
the mask for the LEA instruction; 
$4 ICO equals the match word for the 
LEA instruction. You would therefore 
deduce that the op code is an LEA 
instruction and pass it to the subrou- 
tine that breaks out its operands. 
From there it's just a matter of vector- 
ing to the appropriate subroutine by 
using the subroutine identification 
number for that table entry. 

Another subroutine is used to 
return a string version of the address 
mode for those instructions that have 
flexible addressing modes. Since not 
all instructions encode the address 
mode in the same bit positions, this 
subroutine's caller must break out the 
addressing mode information and 
pass it along. This routine also 
handles the offsets that may follow 
the op-code word. In double address 
instructions, as many as four exten- 
sion words may be required to resolve 
the address; in any given invocation 
of this subroutine, only two extension 
words may be used— and these are 
passed in as parameters. Boolean 
variables (actually, BASIC doesn't have 
any, but they're used that way) in- 
dicate whether the extension was 
used or not. The caller needs to know 
this so that the next instruction can 
begin on the correct word, or, for a 
double address, so that the correct 
extension words are passed in on the 
second invocation of this subroutine. 

User Interface 

The Macintosh is renowned for its 
user interface, and this program tries 
to take as much advantage of that in- 
terface as possible. Consequently, a 
great deal of code is concerned with 
the state of the mouse. There are 
three paths of information available 
to the disassembler, indicated in the 
top row of boxes: Input, Memory, and 
Disk (see figure 2). This grouping is in- 
tentional and useful because it visual- 
ly indicates the connection between 
them. The active path is shown by 
highlighting its associated box. You 
change the active path by clicking the 
mouse button on the desired box. 
Since it's uncomfortable to change 

(continued) 



146 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



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IBM PC, AT, & PC-DOS are trademarks ol 
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MACINTOSH EXPLORER 



A disassembler 



behaves much like the 
microprocessor itself. 



from the keyboard to the mouse, I've 
tried to minimize the keyboard input. 
The address and value box are the 
only places where keyboard input is 
required. The address field is for 
specifying the address where you 
want to begin the dump or disassem- 
bly; the value field is only for use with 
the Input path active (I'll discuss the 
value field later). 

Both the address and value fields 
allow either decimal or hexadecimal 
numbers. The value field is restricted 
to 16-bit numbers, although you don't 
get an error message if the field over- 
flows. 

The bottom row of boxes is 
grouped to show commands: Disas- 
semble, Dump, and Quit. Clicking the 
mouse on one of these will execute 
the command. Disassemble and 
Dump each generate one line of out- 
put. (Holding the mouse button down 
generates multiple lines.) The Quit 
command returns to the system that 
Macintosh users know as "the Finder." 
Perhaps this action is a bit drastic, 
since it may involve an unintentional 
exit, but I haven't found it to be a 
problem. 

To the user the three paths appear 
to operate on linear arrays (indexed 
by the address field). This is done to 
present a consistent model of the ma- 
chine—although it means more work 
for the programmer since the pro- 
gram must take care of details like 
mapping the disk address to a block 
address. Also, each path's address 
"sticks to it." By this I mean that 
changing the path from memory to 
disk will change the address (and dis- 
play that change) to the address last 
used to read the disk. This allows 
users to flip between the paths and 
resume disassembling or dumping 
from where they left off. This strategy 
is meant to further reduce the use of 
the keyboard. 



To many readers the Input path will 
be the mysterious part of this pro- 
gram. It is meant to be used for pre- 
assembled code such as that which 
is made available to BASIC through an 
array (like that used to perform the 
disk-sector Read function in this pro- 
gram). By clicking on the Input path 
and then specifying the address, you 
will be able to enter the preassem- 
bled code through the value box. You 
can then disassemble or dump it, as 
you would with the Memory or Disk 
paths. 

The presence of the Input path is 
the only reason that the value field ex- 
ists or accepts input. Both the Disk 
and Memory paths ignore values 
entered in the value field. Although 
it would be easy to extend its func- 
tion to allow editing of memory and 
disk locations, it is not necessarily 
useful. The program's central purpose 
is to present information, not to 
potentially corrupt the system's 
integrity. 

Conclusion 

Because a disassembler behaves 
much like the processor itself (i.e., 
fetching data that is treated as code), 
the structure of the disassembler can 
be used to emulate the processor in 
a different environment. This means 
that with some work, the Macintosh 
Explorer can be used as a debugger 
for the Motorola 68000 processor— 
and because the program is in BASIC, 
you don't need that processor itself. 
So if your plans stray into the area of 
building a 68000 system, you could 
use this program on an existing com- 
puter to debug the bootstrap rou- 
tines. Though much of the program is 
dedicated to making the disassembler 
almost entirely mouse-driven, it 
shouldn't be too difficult to use it on 
any system by replacing the user in- 
terface and disk-sector Read subrou- 
tines. ■ 

| Editor's note: The source code for the Macin- 
tosh Explorer is written in Microsoft BASIC 
2.0 for the Macintosh and is available for 
downloading from BYTEnet Listings at (617) 
861-9764 and is also available on disk. See 
page 3 58 for details.] 



148 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Directions 

for . 
converting 

aPC & 

toanXT 



Insert 

tabA 
into 

slotR 



Plus«|«« Hardcard. 



X 





DH 




1IIIMII 




/ 




J-1 



First you have to remove Hardcard™ 
from its box. 

An operation that's about as simple 
as installing it in your PC 

Using thumb and forefinger, lift the 
flap of the box. Now reach inside and 
grasp Hardcard. Slowly pull it out, making 
sure that your warranty information 
doesn't fall unnoticed to the floor. 

And that's it.You're over the hump. 

You've got 10 megabytes of hard 
disk storage in your hand. Everything— 
the drive, the controller, the electronics- 
is compressed onto a single card. 

Allow yourself a moment to marvel 
at its size and weight. Just over 2 lbs. 
Measuring only 13 x 4 x 1 inches. With no 
connector cables. No additional power 
supply required. No adapter card to buy. 

Now slip it into a single expansion 
slot inside your PC and forget it. Odds 
are you'll never have to fuss with it again. 

Because it's so remarkably reliable. 
More than twice as reliable as the XT's 
built-in drive. Since Hardcard has fewer 
parts, there are fewer things that can 
go wrong. 

On top of that, Hardcard is even 
faster than the XT's drive. 

And it maintains PC compatibility 
with the most popular software programs. 
In fact, our special compatibility task 
force has spent many man-years making 
sure that Hardcard runs popular software 
trouble-free. 

Hardcard also lets you keep both 
your floppies up and running. Which is ' 
something no other add-in drive can do. 

All of which means that your PC 
can now be saved. 

And that friendly intelligent little 
machine can have its useful life extended. 

You won't have to go to the expense 
of replacing it with an XT 



Or suffer the shortcomings of bulky, 
conventional hard disks. Which take 
hours or even days to install. 

And when it comes to installing 
DOS, Hardcard is just as easy. Its special 
installation program loads your oper- 
ating system and gets you ready to install 
your software in minutes. 

And Hardcard's Directory Program 
lets you access those programs at the 
touch of a key. 

Finally, since Hardcard is so much 
more reliable, we can give you a warranty 
that goes well beyond the usual 90 days. 

We give you a full year. 

Still, it's nice to know that if anything 
ever should go wrong, you can pick up 
a replacement Hardcard at your nearby 
authorized service center. 

Hardcard is available now at major 
retailers nationwide. For the name 
of the one nearest you, call Plus at (408) 
946-3700. Or write Plus Development 
Corporation, 1778 McCarthy Blvd., 
Milpitas,CA 95035. 

And we'll give you all the directions 
you need to save your PC. 

"Hardcard is compatible with IBM PC, IBM PC XT, Compaq Portable, Compaq Plus, 
AT&T PC 6300. 

Plus and Hardcard are trademarks of Plus Development Corporation. IBM, IBM PC 
and IBM PC XT are trademarks or International Business Machines Corporation. 
Compaq Portable and Compaq Plus are trademarks of Compaq Computer Corp. 
AT&T PC 6300 is a registered trademark of AT&T Information Systems, Inc. 
t l Plus Development Corporation. All rights reserved. 

Hardcard 

from Plus 

Inquiry 273 




BYTE 



Homebound 
Computing 



Working at Home with Computers 

by lane Morrill Tazelaar 155 

Using Images to Generate Speech 

by Bruce R. Baker 160 

The Electronic University Network 

by Donna Osgood 171 

The Technology of the Kurzweil 
Voice Writer 

by Raymond Kurzweil 177 

Increasing Independence 
for the Aging 

by K. G. Engelhardt and Roger Edwards . . . 191 

Computing for the Blind User 

by Aries Arditi and Arthur E. Cillman ... 199 



THE WORD HOMEBOUND means exactly that-bound to the home. We have 
used this word intentionally. This issue is not restricted to computing for the 
disabled. There are various ways in which a person can be homebound. If 
you are severely disabled or require special care or equipment, you are con- 
sidered homebound. If you are elderly, you may also be essentially home- 
bound, although you would not necessarily be considered disabled. If you 
are the care-giving parent of a small or disabled child, you are homebound 
a great deal of the time. If you live in a geographically remote or economical- 
ly depressed area, you also qualify as homebound in your current environ- 
ment. Finally, if you are bound to your home by choice rather than necessity, 
that is, if you choose to work at home instead of in an office, you are also 
considered homebound by our definition. 

In this issue of BYTE we have tried to present articles of interest to each 
of these groups— hopefully, something for everyone. "Working at Home with 
Computers" discusses various things to consider before you make the choice— 
if indeed it is a choice and not a necessity— to work at home. Bruce Baker's 
"Using Images to Generate Speech" presents a fascinating concept borrowed 
from ancient Egypt; in practical application the article is about a concept key- 
board for the speech-impaired that uses images with different meanings in 
different contexts to generate environment-specific sentences. "The Electronic 
University Network" by Donna Osgood deals with earning a college degree 
at home with the help of a microcomputer, not from a correspondence course, 
but from a fully accredited university. Raymond Kurzweil discusses "The Tech- 
nology of the Kurzweil Voice Writer," a machine with significant implications 
for future applications for the hearing-impaired. "Increasing Independence 
for the Aging" by K. G. Engelhardt and Roger Edwards focuses on the future 
of robotic aids for the aged and for other persons who are motion-impaired, 
whether by birth, accident, or disease. While our readership does not include 
a large number of aged persons, who among us does not one day hope to 
reach that stage? Finally, Aries Arditi and Arthur Gillman talk about the human 
factors that must be considered in creating "Computing for the Blind User." 

For some of us, being homebound is a fact of life; for others it is a dream. 
Either way, computer technology provides opportunities and aids that were 
unavailable a few short years ago. The future can only expand the horizons 
of those of us who are homebound. 

—jane Morrill Tazelaar, Technical Editor 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 153 





Why the Hercules Color Card is 
better for your XT than IBM's. 



Did you know that there's a color 
graphics card specially designed for the 
XT™? It's called the Hercules™ Color Card. We 
think that it's better for your XT than the 
IBM® Color Graphics Adapter. Here's why. 

The XT comes with an empty short slot. 
IBM's card is too long to fit in it, so you're 
forced to sacrifice a valuable long slot, while 
your XT's short slot goes unused. 

The Hercules Color Card is designed to 
fit in this short slot. It's the smartest way 
to maximize the usable slots in an XT and 
provide for your future expansion needs. 




Notice how much more efficiently 
Hercules makes use of the XT's slots. 

Our efficient use of an XT's slots is not 
the only reason to buy a Hercules Color 
Card instead of IBM's. We give you a 
parallel printer port at no extra cost. (IBM 
charges extra and takes up another slot.) 

A lot of people wonder how Hercules 
can do everything that IBM can in a card 
less than half the size. We do it by designing 
our own graphics microchips. Just one of our 
chips packs the punch of dozens of IBM's, 
reducing by more than 50% the number of 
components that can fail. 



And we'll do just about anything to 
make our products the most reliable you 
can buy. 





Hercules 



IBM 



Of course, you will have to give up 
something when you buy a Hercules Color 
Card. You'll have to give up software incom- 
patibility. With Hercules, there is none. 
Every program that runs on the IBM color 
card will run on the Hercules Color Card. 

You'll have to give up IBM's ninety day 
warranty. Ours is two years. 



IBM 
Hercules 



Compare warranties 



8 months 



2 years 



And you'll have to give up a dollar. The 
Hercules Color Card is $245-IBM's is $244. 

Look into the Hercules Color Card 
for the XT, PC or AT.™ Find out why the 
readers of PC World voted the Hercules 
Color Card 1985's best color graphics 
card-ahead of IBM's. Call 1 800 532-0600 
Ext.432 for the name of the dealer nearest 
you and we'll rush you our free info kit. 

Hercules. 

inquiry i52 We're strong on graphics. 



Address: 2550 Ninth St., Berkeley, CA 94710 Ph: 415 540-6000 Telex: 754063 Trademarks/Owners: Hercules/Hercules Computer Technology; IBM, XT, AT/IBM. Printer Cable Offer 
expires May 31, 1986. Good only in U.S. A., offer subject to change without notice. 



HOMEBOUND COMPUTING 



WORKING 

AT HOME 

WITH COMPUTERS 



by Jane Morrill Tazelaar 



For some, telecommuting is a choice: 
for others, it is the only option 



THERE ARE MANY REASONS for 
wanting to work at home. Some of 
them involve disabilities that make it 
impossible or impractical to work in 
an office. For many disabled persons, 
the alternative to working at home is 
no alternative at all; it is the only work 
they can do, the only way they can 
become productive members of the 
work force. Some people work at 
home because of priorities such as 
being available to young children, 
especially during the preschool years. 
Many parents of small children must 
choose between sending them to day- 
care centers or babysitters and earn- 
ing a reasonable living. Other reasons 
involve the lack of local work oppor- 
tunities in economically depressed or 
geographically remote areas. And for 
some people, working at home is a 
simple matter of choice. The elec- 
tronic cottage, the flexiplace, telecom- 
muting, worksteading, or whatever 
you wish to call it could be the answer 
to all these problems. 

Starting Your Own Business 

Starting your own business seems to 
be the answer for many people. There 



is a certain romance in the very word 
entrepreneur, and there is a great deal 
of information available to help you 
get started if the idea of being one ap- 
peals to you. The various organiza- 
tions associated with the cottage in- 
dustry movement— the Association of 
Electronic Cottagers, the National 
Association for the Cottage Industry, 
and the National Alliance of Home- 
based Businesswomen— offer good 
and helpful information for the aspir- 
ing entrepreneur. (See the text box 
"Sources Mentioned" on page 1 56 for 
addresses and phone numbers.) They 
also offer countless references, con- 
tacts, and, possibly most important, 
support groups. 

Two subjects seemed to jump out at 
me from all the literature I have seen 
on starting your own business: selling 
and networking. First, if you don't 
want to sell, you probably don't want 
your own business. Most business 
ventures involve direct selling. 
Whether you provide a product or a 
service, you need to sell it. Even if you 
have salespeople working for you, 
you have to sell the idea to some 
financial institution to get funds to get 



started and to the people you hire to 
get them to work for you. Then, long 
after the basics are in place and you 
are operational, you'd better be pre- 
pared to talk about your product or 
service, explain its value, and con- 
vince a prospective buyer that he or 
she ought to do business with your 
company instead of someone else's— 
in other words, sell. 

Networking is a way to increase 
your contacts. Whether people are 
business contacts or social contacts 
or both, they can add significantly to 
the success of your business. The 
people you know either personally or 
electronically are sources that can 
provide you with future customers, 
business partners, financiers, good 
tax accountants, awareness of your 
competition, discounts on computing 
equipment, the inside story on future 
technology, and so on. 

Starting your own business is a very 
rewarding venture for some and a 
complete disaster for others. At the 

(continued) 
)ane Morrill Tazelaar is a technical editor for 
BYTE. She can be reached at BYTE, POB 
372, Hancock, NH 03449. 



MARCH 1986 



155 



WORKING AT HOME 



very least, you should make sure you 
enjoy what you are going to be do- 
ing before you enter the world of the 
entrepreneur, because you will prob- 
ably be doing a great deal more of it 
than you think. 

Then consider the advice of some 
successful trailblazers who have done 
the dirty work and found out what is 
necessary the hard way. It is nearly im- 
possible to foresee at the outset all 
the complications involved in having 
your own business. Working from Home 
by Paul and Sarah Edwards (Jeremy P. 
Tarcher Inc., 1985) is a good book that 
covers the many steps involved in set- 
ting up a business and arranging your 
life to handle it. Women Working Home 
by Marion Behr and Wendy Lazar 
(WWH Press, 1983) contains a 
number of examples of home-based 
businesses (not all computer-related) 
and provides a sizable directory of 
contacts organized on a state-by-state 
basis. There are many more sources 
available. The various cottage industry 
groups can lead you in the right 
direction. 

Working at Home 
for Someone Else 

As exciting as starting your own 
business sounds to some, it is not for 
everyone. The difference between 
starting your own business and work- 
ing for someone else is not a ques- 
tion of talent, intelligence, or per- 
sonality. It is rather one of desire, 
time, and priorities. Working at home 
for someone else doesn't inspire the 
volumes of written material that en- 
trepreneurship does. The romance 
doesn't extend to the worker; how- 
ever, finding such home employment 
is easily as creative a project. 

Where do you look? Whom do you 
contact? Will personnel officers think 
you're crazy even asking? What kinds 
of positions exist? Can you convince 
your current employer to try it? It's not 
an easy task, and if you are disabled 
or caring for small children, it can be 
even more difficult. There is help, 
however. The various cottage industry 
associations, while they do not stress 
this area, do offer some resources. In 
particular, the National Association 



Sources 
Mentioned 



The Association 
of Electronic Cottagers 
677 Canyon Crest Dr. 
Sierra Madre, CA 91024 
(818) 355-0800 

BIX 

BYTE Magazine 
70 Main St. 

Peterborough, NH 03458 
(603) 924-9281, ext. 131 

CompuServe Information Services 
5000 Arlington Centre Boulevard 
Columbus, OH 45220 
(800) 848-8990 

Gil Gordon Associates 

10 Donner Court 

Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852 

(201) 329-2266 

The National Alliance 
Of Home-based 
Businesswomen 
POB 237 
Norwood, NJ 07648 

The National Association 
for the Cottage Industry 
POB 14460 
Chicago, IL 60614 
(312) 472-8116 

The Source 
1616 Anderson Rd. 
McLean, VA 22102 
(800) 336-3366 



for the Cottage Industry provides a list 
of 49 companies currently using tele- 
commuters. Many of these are na- 
tional companies, and while only 
those locations mentioned on this list 
are currently involved, I would as- 
sume other local offices of those com- 
panies would be good possibilities. 
Another contact is Gil Gordon of Gil 
Gordon Associates. His consulting 
firm specializes in working with com- 
panies to set up telecommuting pro- 
grams. He has general information on 
telecommuting and publishes a news- 



letter on the subject. He does not, 
however, maintain lists of companies. 
Gil sells an audiocassette entitled 
"How to Get a Job Working from 
Home: Telecommuting and Other Op- 
tions." The Association of Electronic 
Cottagers describes it as outlining 
"how to keep your paycheck while 
working from home, including the 
best industries to approach, what 
companies are hiring at-home workers 
and how to convince your boss to let 
you work at home." 

Electronic networking can be as im- 
portant to the home-based employee 
as to the entrepreneur. You need to 
keep yourself up to date on new 
developments in the industry, and 
what better way than to tap in elec- 
tronically to a whole community of 
people involved in your field? Bulletin- 
board systems provide this opportuni- 
ty. For the at-home worker more than 
others, this contact can provide the 
kind of interaction, both business and 
social, that occurs on coffee breaks 
and casual lunches for the office 
worker. It can also provide a support 
group of other people who share the 
problems and pleasures of working at 
home. One such electronic support 
group is the Work-at-Home Special In- 
terest Group on CompuServe. (You 
locate it by entering GO HOM 146.) 
The Source and BIX also provide 
good electronic contacts. 

The Current Debate 

There are two sides to the telecom- 
muting issue. The AFL/CIO is defi- 
nitely opposed to the current trend 
toward working at home with com- 
puters. This is not a matter to be taken 
lightly. The AFL/CIO, a powerful orga- 
nization, has asked the U.S. l^abor 
Department for a ruling against doing 
computer work at home (see refer- 
ence 1). The organization raises some 
important issues: assuring the pay- 
ment of at least minimum wage, pro- 
tecting employee fringe benefits, and 
guaranteeing the right to organize in 
order to deal with unreasonable em- 
ployer demands. 

Undoubtedly, we all have our own 
biases: for or against working at 

(continued) 



156 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



INTRODUCING THE FUJITSU DL2400 

THE ONE PRINTER 
THAT DOES IT ALL 



Thanks to advanced 24-wire technology, the DL2400 
is much more than a dot matrix printer. It can also do the 
work of daisywheel printers, laser printers and plotters. It 
prints fast drafts and spreadsheets at 216 cps. Letter quality 
at 72 cps. And plots presentation-quality graphics on 
overhead transparencies in black and white, or seven 
brilliant colors. 

You'll find the built-in, bi-directional tractor greatly 
simplifies paper handling. Just flick a switch to go from 
continuous forms to single-sheet feeding without having to 
remove the tractor paper. Push a button and it automati- 
cally reloads. 

The DL2400 comes with an industry-leading reliability 
rating of 6000 hours MTBF and a full one-year warranty. 




The front panel 
LCD display makes 
this highly sophisti- 
cated machine 
incredibly simple to operate. Just touch a button to set every 
function from print mode to font style. No more hard-to-use 
dip switches. And it operates quietly too — at under 55 dBA. 

To top it off, the DL2400 sets a new productivity point for 
measuring printers. You no longer have to buy different 
printers to do different jobs, when the new Fujitsu DL2400 
does it all. 

Call Fujitsu America, Peripheral Products Division, at 
800-626-4686. 
WE'RE DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGY FOR YOU. 





Inquiry 138 



* 



FUJITSU AMERICA 



■ 



* 




„* Of The Monti. 



% 



Mil" it ■•* •"*• * 



V 



/ 



4 



©]986,Fujtlsu America, Inc. 



WORKING AT HOME 



H . . 




3U sss *f* 

lt ai ess A7«^ 



The next time you travel, bring along a cheap 

friend, the AT&T Card. It's the most inexpensive 

way around to make AT&T Long Distance Service 

calls from a public phone. Cheaper than coins 

for out-of-state calls. Cheaper than calling collect. 

The AT&T Card — a tight wad you could learn to love. 

Apply today. Dial 1 800 CALL ATT Ext. 4585 



■ 



AT&T 

The right choice. 



home, for or against the union argu- 
ment, for or against federal interven- 
tion in that portion of our lives. But 
the fact remains that there are valid 
points on both sides. If the legal out- 
come of this issue favors working at 
home, some protective provisions will 
have to be made so that telecom- 
muters will not be exploited. If the 
outcome favors the union argument, 
some exceptions will have to be made 
to allow severely disabled persons 
(and perhaps other individuals) to 
support themselves by working at 
home. 

State and Local Regulations 

Many states have laws on their books 
that relate in one way or another to 
working at home. Most of these regu- 
lations are left over from a pre-elec- 
tronic era. In fact, a January 1985 
report on these state regulations by 
Electronic Services Unlimited notes, 
"ESU found no current state regulations 
directly prohibiting company employees from 
working at home as teleworkers .... In fact, 
five states [Iowa, Virginia, Delaware, 
Kansas, and Minnesota! have passed 
resolutions endorsing work-at-home, 
and a sixth. New Jersey, has intro- 
duced such a resolution." (See refer- 
ence 2 .) However, there is at least one 
reported instance of a zoning depart- 
ment using zoning restrictions on 
operating a business in a residential 
area to prohibit working at home on 
a home computer (see reference 3). 
Farfetched? Maybe, but true. 

ESU goes on to say, "If there is any 
reason to be concerned with |current] 
state regulations ... it stems from the 
possibility that unions, lobbying 
against telework as a potential mod- 
ern equivalent of the sweatshop, may 
attempt on a state-by-state basis to ex- 
tend the traditional laws to include 
prohibitions against telecommuting. It 
is certainly easier to attempt to ex- 
tend current laws than to try to estab- 
lish an entirely new set of anti-com- 
puter laws." (See reference 2.) 

The legal argument is still in its in- 
fancy. Some states have dealt with 
telecommuting on a legislative level, 
but the question is far from answered. 
Many of us aren't even sure what the 



WORKING AT HOME 



Many states have 
laws that relate 
to working at home. 



question is. For instance, if you earn 
your living at home on your computer 
or on a workstation electronically con- 
nected to your employer's computer, 
we could probably agree that you 
would be affected by laws related to 
working at home. However, if you 
work with computers in an office and 
use your home computer to connect 
to a bulletin-board or conferencing 
system on which you discuss various 
computer-related subjects, would 
work-at-home laws apply to you? Most 
of us would probably say no. How- 
ever, this question may not be left to 
us to decide. 

Conclusion 

The availability of considerable com- 
puting power in home computers has 
opened the door for new groups of 
people to enter the work force. Many 
of these people would have been un- 
able to support themselves in another 
time. Many of these minds would 
have gone untapped in an earlier age. 
Freedoms once embraced are hard to 
give up, and telecommuters and those 
who dream of being telecommuters 
will not relinquish the freedom to 
work at home easily. Perhaps a com- 
promise will be reached that will allow 
those who need or wish to work at 
home to do so while maintaining the 
worker protections so hard won by 
the labor movement. ■ 





When you use your AT&T Card at a public 
phone, you don't have to hang up after each 

call. Just hit this button after your 

first conversation, and dial the number of your 

next long distance call. The phone automatically 

remembers your AT&T Card number. So you 

have more time to take care of business. 



REFERENCES 

1. "AFL/CIO Seeks to Blow Down Elec- 
tronic Cottage." The Electronic Cottage News. 
South Pasadena, CA: The Association of 
Electronic Cottagers, September 1985, vol. 

1. no. 1, page 4. 

2. "State Regulations on Work at Home." 
Telecommuting Research Program Memorandum 
#2. New York: Electronic Services Un- 
limited, January 1985, pages i-ii. 

3. "Computer Shock! City Calls Home- 
work Illegal." The Chicago Sun-Times. August 
28, 1983, page 2. 



AT&T 

The right choice. 







HOMEBOUND COMPUTING 



USING IMAGES 

TO GENERATE 

SPEECH 



by Bruce R. Baker 



Semantic compaction lets speech-impaired people 

quickly and effectively communicate 

in a variety of environments 



sing graphic images to ex- 
press meaning is a very old 
idea; the first writing sys- 
^SSmm terns of which we have any 
extensive knowledge were pictorial in 
origin. Recently, graphic images have 
been used to represent certain con- 
cepts on computer systems. However, 
these images are not used as hiero- 
glyphics were— that is, linked together 
to make sense in sequence. For in- 
stance, the Egyptian hieroglyph in 
figure I means "scribe" and contains 
a combined palette, water bowl, and 
brush holder beside a seated man. 
The Egyptians selected these images 
from a "lexicon" of standard symbols 
and combined them to form a single 
idea. 

Another difference between ancient 
and modern iconic graphics is that 

Bruce R. Baker is the president of Minspeak 
Corporation (840 Rolling Rock Rd., Pitts- 
burgh, PA 15234). He invented the concept 
keyboard. Bruce did his undergraduate and 
graduate work in classical languages and 
linguistics and is currently a consulting linguist 
for Prentke Romich Company and the Wesr- 
inghouse Electric Corporation. 



modern computer icons have used a 
unique image to represent each 
unique meaning while ancient writing 
systems used one image to represent 
different ideas in different contexts. 
For instance, the Maya hieroglyph for 
"shark" in figure 2 also represented 
"sea." That same glyph in another 
place meant "green" (because the 
Maya thought of the sea as green). 
Since the image indicated "green," it 
could also mean "jade" when the con- 
text was appropriate. 

Multiple Meanings 

The multiplicity of meanings em- 
ployed in ancient writing systems 
should not surprise us. Spoken lan- 
guage has always behaved in this way. 
No one ever confuses "blue" and 
"blew" in speech. They sound the 
same, but their meanings are obvious 
in context. Using this concept of 
multiple meanings, early writing 
systems could express a large number 
of specific ideas without resorting to 
thousands of ideographs. 

I explored this natural tendency 
toward polysemy (multiple meanings) 
while working on improving the com- 



munication rate of people with severe 
neurological damage. More than a 
million people in the United States 
alone cannot speak or use handsigns. 
Strokes, cerebral palsy, and Lou 
Gehrig's disease are common causes. 
Many of these people have full minds; 
they are just physically unable to ex- 
press themselves. Spelling and ab- 
breviation systems had been set up to 
help them communicate, but most of 
the systems were ineffective because 
the disabled user had to make a 
dozen or more inputs to output a 
single sentence. Complicated number 
and letter codes also existed, but it 
was often difficult to remember what 
had been encoded and how it should 
be retrieved. 

Speech-impaired people need a 
more powerful information-transfer 
technique. In an effort to meet that 
need, I developed a concept key- 
board that, while it uses a limited 
number of images, has the capacity 
to define whole sentences in five or 
fewer keystrokes through a technique 
called semantic compaction. The system 
is commercially implemented with a 
speech-synthesis device to provide 



160 BYTE • MARCH 1986 




Figure 1: 

An Egyptian hieroglyph 
meaning "scribe'.' 



Figure 2: 

A Maya hieroglyph of multiple meanings 

including "shark',' "sea'.' "green" and "jade'. 



voice output. (For examples of the 
technique in use, see the text box "In 
Practical Application" on page 166.) 

The system does not use any par- 
ticular set of graphics; rather, it pro- 
vides a method for using graphics in 
a multiple-meanings setting. Natural- 
ly, some types of icons are more ap- 
propriate to the technique than 
others. 

While the original work has been 
applied to the development of a dis- 
ability aid to facilitate communication 
for the speech-impaired, the system 
lends itself to other applications as 
well. One is a hand-held language 
translator; another is a smart front 
end for expert systems and databases. 

Using Semantic Compaction 

If you want to set up a semantic- 
compaction system for a specific use, 
you should first make a list of those 
topics or semantic features that you 
want to be able to express. A seman- 
tic feature is a concept underlying the 
meaning of a word. Sometimes a 
single word can represent different 
semantic features. For example, the 
word "new", can express at least two 



semantic features depending upon 
your intent. If you said, "He has a new 
car," you could mean either that the 
car was factory-fresh or that it was 
recently purchased. 

In order to represent natural lan- 
guage for the disability aid, I drew up 
a list of some 2 50 semantic features 
and general topics. With the help of 
some people who were actually go- 
ing to use the disability aid, 50 cen- 
tral semantic features and topics were 
selected to be represented by an il- 
lustration of an everyday object or ac- 
tion. For example, we chose to repre- 
sent the semantic feature "insufficien- 
cy" with an umbrella to illustrate 
"under," a concept linked to that 
feature for English speakers. The list 
was examined for at least five other 
meanings that could easily be associ- 
ated with that image without further 
illustration. Weather was one; need 
was another; protection, a third; and 
so on. 

When we had represented 50 con- 
cepts by various common images 
taken from daily life, we found that 
200 other features and topics were 
also well represented. It is not difficult 



to encode sentences with only 50 im- 
ages, but it does take a certain frame 
of mind. You cannot be afraid of puns, 
and you have to approach the task 
with a certain eclectic abandon. You 
write a wide range of sentences that 
express the routine needs and 
thoughts of your day-to-day living. 
This kind of list has hundreds of items 
but is not as extensive as you might 
think. You need to be careful to in- 
clude only those sentences that you 
would actually need or use in real life 
and not add those you might use in 
a purely hypothetical circumstance. 
If you are designing a list for (and 
with) someone who hasn't been 
taught how to spell, that skill should 
not be required for them to use the 
disability aid to communicate. First, 
you generate a sentence in your mind 
and then type it, letter by letter, into 
the communication aid's keyboard, 
where one of your images has been 
superimposed on each number and 
letter. Then you select from one to 
several images from the keyboard to 
summarize the sentence (as concise- 
ly as possible). After you have en- 

(tonlinued) 



ILLUSTRATED BY CHRIS SPOLLEN 



MARCH 1986 



IYTE 161 



USING IMAGES 



coded the sentence, you need to 
strike only the designated code (or 
sequence) to output the whole 
sentence. 

There is always a trade-off between 
specificity and fluency. Your group of 
encoded sentences would probably 
not contain the sentence "I don't like 
broccoli and mushroom casseroles," 
but you would want "I'm sorry, I don't 
like that." The art of choosing what to 
encode often lies in minimizing 
specificity to maximize fluency. Often, 
you can do this by making sentences 
applicable to a variety of verbal and 
physical contexts. "That is not what 1 
meant" is a more widely usable 
sentence than "That is not what I 
meant to order." You can use the first 
sentence to deal with any misunder- 
standing, while the second sentence 
applies only to one in a place of busi- 
ness. 

A sentence vocabulary of 700 to 
1 000 entries can go a long way toward 
enabling a speech-impaired person to 



communicate, provided those sen- 
tences are quickly and appropriately 
accessible. Semantic compaction 
allows this because its sentence codes 
are very short— no more than four or 
five images (and therefore keys) per 
sentence— and its individual code se- 
quences are easy to remember and 
generate because they are pictorial 
reminders that are logical to a par- 
ticular user. 

Environmental Impact 

To compose your list of sentences, 
you need to divide your communica- 
tion needs into a series of environ- 
ments. These communication environ- 
ments provide a practical way of look- 
ing at your communication profile. 
The code or codes you establish to 
define a communication environment 
are the initial element or elements in 
a sentence sequence, and you can use 
a special power key to lock in the ini- 
tializing environmental code. Each 
sentence you initiate while an environ- 



ment is locked in is interpreted in that 
context. 

If you want to encode things to be 
said in a fast-food restaurant, you can 
combine the image you choose to 
represent the concept "fast" with an 
image that represents "food" to you. 
The images we used to represent 
these two concepts are shown in 
figure 3a. Once you input these im- 
ages, you view all the other images as 
related to things you might say in a 
fast-food restaurant. 

For example, how would you ex- 
press the idea "large" in this context? 
The keyboard contains an illustration 
showing elephants (figure 3b), which 
we chose as the code for "Make it 
large, please." If you were to look 
across the entire keyboard with all the 
available images, dozens of sentences 
would now suggest themselves; in 
fact, you could incorporate the menu 
of any restaurant into the semantic 
map. You can encode "I would like a 
Coke, please" by adding the icon in 




Figure 3: Possible concept codes for a fast-food restaurant: (a) represents one possible environment-code sequence appropriate 
for that environment, (b) could mean "large," and (c) could be used to order a Coke. The computer sequence shown in [d] could 
be used to order french fries in a fast-food restaurant; it consists of the environment code followed by a code you might 
choose for french fries. 




Figure 4: Possible concept codes for a service station: (a) could represent the environment code, while (b) might mean "Fill if up" 
within that environment, (c) might mean "Please check the battery'.' and [d] could be used to ask the question, "Is your bathroom 
wheelchair-accessible?" 



162 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 159 for End-Users. Inquiry 160 for DEALERS ONLY. 



USING IMAGES 



figure 3c to the initializing environ- 
ment code (figure 3a). 

What would you choose to repre- 
sent a desire for french fries? To many 
people, the yellow lightning bolt 
already used as part of the fast-food 
environment code also resembles a 
french fry. Thus, figure 3d forms a se- 
quence that could represent "I would 
like some french fries." 

A service station is another com- 
mon communication environment. 
For the environment code, you might 
choose the apple for food or fuel and 
the truck for transportation (see figure 
4a). Now each symbol on the key- 
board relates to something you might 
say in a service station. What could 
the cup running over in figure 4b sym- 
bolize? "Fill it up" is the choice of 
many people. The lightning bolt in 
figure 4c could be used for "Check 
the battery, please." Just as for the fast- 
food environment, all the images on 
the keyboard now relate to the cen- 
tral theme or environment: things to 
be said in a service station. What 
might figure 4d mean in this environ- 
ment? For many users, this sequence 
means "Is your bathroom wheelchair- 
accessible?" 

You can select as many different 
communication environments as you 
wish or need. A college student might 
want to have a set of sentences de- 
scribing religious or political views. 
Figure 5 could be the environmental 
lock-in code for discussions about 
scholarship money. The topics, or en- 
vironments, are limited only by your 
imagination and, practically speaking, 
your communication needs. 

An Association of One 

The technique is an associational one, 
and no one but you need understand 
the meaning of the sequence. Dif- 
ferent sets of images meet the needs 
of people of different ages and in 
various states of cognitive develop- 
ment. You, as the system user, select 
those codes that are appropriate to 
you for the sentences that are also ap- 
propriate to you. If necessary, a 
therapist or family member can enter 
the sentences and codes you choose 

{continued) 



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USING IMAGES 



into the system. Anything that you 
associate with the pictorial or ideo- 
graphic aspects of an image is fair 
game. The code is established as a 
communication between you and the 
machine, not between you and some- 
one to whom you wish to speak. 

This technique would be purely 
mnemonic if memory were the only 
mental facility involved. However, this 
technique relies on association as 
well. What you associate with a given 
image today, you are likely to 
associate with that image tomorrow. 
This principle is frequently the basis 




Figure 5: A possible environment 
sequence for discussions of scholarship 
money. 




Figure 6: An environment sequence that 
might represent a bank. 




Figure 7: 1/ you use semantic compac- 
tion to produce individual words instead of 
sentences, this image of a telescope might 
be used to generate the word "look'.' 



of psychological tests. You do not so 
much remember the sequences of im- 
ages as you reassociate them. 

It is not enough to be able to 
remember how you encoded a 
sentence; you have to know that you 
have such and such a sentence at 
hand. As your eyes scan the various 
images on the keyboard, you perceive 
a gestalt. If you are thinking in terms 
of fast food, each image serves as a 
prompt to remind you of what you 
have stored in that environment. 
Another gestalt occurs as you scan for 
the environments you programmed. 
If you set up "money" and "house" 
(see figure 6) to mean a bank, your 
mind is alerted that this environmen- 
tal code sets up certain sentences. 

In the examples shown, the codes 
themselves have been brief. Owing to 
the special power key used to lock in 
the environment code, you can ex- 
press fairly long and often quite 
specific sentences with a single key. 
Polysemy is the generating linchpin of 
a usable concept keyboard. In this ar- 
ticle alone, the lightning bolt has been 
used to mean fast, french fries, and 
a car battery. Without polysemy the 
number of symbols you would need 
to represent all the ideas and topics 
about which you would want to com- 
municate becomes too large. 

The two salient characteristics of 
semantic compaction are, first, a 
limited number of graphic images 
and, second, very short codes to rep- 
resent the unique items held in the 
database. Semantic compaction 
achieves these economies by using 
the human mind's ability to under- 
stand context, a feat as yet fairly dif- 
ficult for machine intelligence. 

Individual Words 

The most efficient way to use seman- 
tic compaction is to have it output 
whole sentences, but you can use the 
technique to output words as well. 
Even in this, semantic compaction is 
more efficient than abbreviation sys- 
tems that rely on spelling, and it 
develops better syntax for the devel- 
opmentally disadvantaged while giv- 
ing you a real opportunity to com- 

(continued) 



164 BYTE • MARCH 



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Inquiry 369 



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MARCH 1986 • BYTE 165 



USING IMAGES 



pose your own sentences with word 
elements that you can readily learn to 
manipulate. 
The system works by assigning a 



single word meaning to each symbol 
on the keyboard. For instance, you 
might choose to assign the symbol of 
a telescope shown in figure 7 to the 



word "look." To do this, you assign to 
a key at the top of the keyboard the 
meaning "Verb" or "Action." The ad- 
joining key bears "Verb + s" or 



In Practical Application 



Jenny Lowe is pictured using 
Minspeak (a commercial product 
using the semantic-compaction tech- 
nique) in a device called Light Talker 
by Prentke Romich (see photo A), 
which was prescribed by her speech 
pathologists at the Pioneer School in 
Pittsburgh. (Prentke Romich has leased 
the exclusive use of the Minspeak pat- 
ent protections for the disability in- 
dustry until 1989.) This device became 
available in the summer of 1985. It is 
called Light Talker because its front 
panel exhibits 128 LEDs (light-emitting 
diodes), each of which emits a beam 
of infrared light that is read by the op- 
tical wand worn by Ms. Lowe. When the 
wand is in optical rapport with a 
specific diode for a user-specific 
amount of time, the device reads it as 
a keystroke. The panel can have as 
many as 1 28 such keys or as few as 8. 
You make your key selections either 
directly or indirectly by scanning if your 
disability makes it difficult for you to 
point with your head, hand, or foot. 
Many people with Lou Gehrig's 
disease, cerebral palsy, or head injuries 
can operate only single switches or joy- 
sticks with ease and accuracy. 

Consequently, you can access the 
Light Talker with a variety of switch in- 
terfaces including the optical head- 
pointer brow-wrinkle switch, rocking- 
lever switch, pneumatic switch (sip-puff 
breath switch), air cushion, joystick, and 
arm-slot control. The selection of the 
desired operating mode is simple: You 
depress the Light Talker's On button for 
10 seconds, then a menu of possible 
operating modes appears, one mode 
at a time, on the two-line LCD (liquid- 
crystal display) each time you depress 
the On button. There are 2 5 different 
entry modes possible. Among them 
are 128- and 32-key row-column scan- 
ning. 8-key count scanning, two- and 
three-switch-entry Morse code, and 
five-switch directional scanning. 
Speech pathologists, occupational and 



physical therapists, and physiatric 
medical doctors can all have input in- 
to the appropriate mode and switch 
selection for an individual. When the 
optimal mode and switch have been 
determined— often through trial and 
error— you can connect the desired 
specialized switch to the Light Talker 
through a standard RS-232C interface. 
Prentke Romich's Touch Talker (see 
photo B) is another realization of the 
Minspeak technique. It is somewhat 
smaller than the Light Talker, weighs 
about five pounds, and uses touch to 
activate 128 membrane switches 
embedded on the front panel. Special- 
ly attached front panels can configure 
the system with only 32 or as few as 
8 touch-sensitive areas. Photo C shows 
a Touch Talker being used by Tony 
Miralles. M.S.W.. one of United Cerebral 



Palsy's professional staff members in 
Pittsburgh, who has cerebral palsy. In 
this photograph the Touch Talker inter- 
faces to a printer for use not as a voice 
communicator but as a means of 
lowering the number of keystrokes re- 
quired to write a social history of a 
client. You can mix grammatically 
oriented labels with the multimeaning 
icons to generate texts that require 
radically fewer key selections per word. 
Both devices use Street Electronics' 
Echo II speech synthesizers and store 
up to 1526 sentences averaging 2 5 
characters each. They come supplied 
with a set of 100 symbols that have 
proved helpful to users in developing 
their communicative systems in the 
past. Blank overlays are also furnished, 
as are instructions and materials for 
designing your own symbol set. 




Photo A: \enny Lowe using the Light Talker keyboard. Note the optical wand 
Ms. Lowe is wearing and the lighted diode on the keyboard. When light contact 
has been sustained for a user-definable length of time, the keyboard interprets the 
contact as a keystroke. (Photo by Robin Schwartzmiller.) 



166 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 250 



USING IMAGES 



"Action + s." The next key is inscribed 
with "-ing." The sequence of "Verb" 
followed by the telescope image out- 
puts "look," while that of "Verb+s" 



and the telescope outputs "looks," 
and the sequence of "-ing" plus the 
telescope outputs "looking." An ac- 

(conlinued) 













Photo B: Trie Tower! Ta/fer keyboard. Note trie keyguard to prevent those with 
motor-coordination difficulties from activating the wrong key. This device also 
requires a pressure of 4'/2 ounces to initiate a keystroke, enabling those who have 
problems controlling fine movements to select only the key they really want. 
(Photo by Robin Schwartzmiller.) 




Photo C: Tony Miraltes using Touch Talker. \n this case the keyboard is not 
being used to generate speech: it interfaces with the computer to lower the number 
of keystrokes required to enter information. (Photo by Robin Schwartzmiller.) 




IEEE 488 





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USING IMAGES 



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(b) 




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(c) 



^ 



(d) 




Figure 8: The following are various 
Egyptian symbols: 

(a) is the glyph or ideogram for "sun',' 

(b) is the phonogram for the sound "hrw'.' 

(c) depicts the phonogram for the sound 
"wbn'.' 

[A] shows the Egyptian hieroglyph for "day" 
(a combination of figures a and b), and 

[e] is the hieroglyph for "rise" {combining 
figures a and c). 



tion word that can readily be 
associated with each image on a con- 
cept keyboard is coordinated with 
simple grammar keys. This gives you 
50 or more action words— in their cor- 
rect form— at only two strokes per 
word. 

The next step is to assign a key at 
the top of the keyboard the value 
"Noun" or "Thing." Another key is 
labeled "Noun PI." or "Thing PI." Then 
you assign to each image the mean- 
ing most appropriate for it. This gives 
you 50 nouns you can use in sentence 
composition. 

You can repeat the foregoing steps 
for as many parts of speech as you 
desire. If you exploit the system to its 
fullest potential, you can represent 
many hundreds of words on the key- 
board. By this process, even nonread- 
ing users can assemble grammatical- 

168 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



ly correct phrases of their own choos- 
ing from a large repertoire of words 
and phrases. You can then store those 
phrases for later use as sentences, or 
you can just generate them when ap- 
propriate. 

Present-Day Hieroglyphs 

The hieroglyphics of Egypt were com- 
posed of units that were in turn com- 
posed of two halves. One half was the 
phonogram, or the phonetic part of 
the glyph. The other part was the 
ideogram, or the conceptual part of 
the glyph. The two were combined in 
order to achieve specificity and 
economy. For instance, the glyph for 
"sun" in figure 8a suggests various 
ideas to the mind. Figures 8b and 8c 
are phonograms that represent the 
Egyptian sounds "hrw" and "wbn," 
respectively. Thus, the hieroglyph in 



figure 8d combines the Egyptian 
"hrw" sound with the "sun" ideogram 
to mean "day." The hieroglyph in 
figure 8e is constructed by the same 
technique but with the phonogram for 
the "wbn" sound and means "rise." 
The Egyptians combined an ideogram 
with different sound or phonographic 
glyphs in order to indicate which idea 
suggested by the ideogram was in- 
tended by the writer. 

This is the method used in the con- 
cept keyboard except that the phono- 
graphic element of the hieroglyph has 
been replaced by the environmental 
code. The memory of semiconductor 
technology allows this. Since the com- 
puter remembers the details, we can 
discard the more exacting and ineffi- 
cient phonetic components and enter 
into a totally ideographic man-to- 
machine interface. ■ 





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An H&R Block Company Inquiry 76 



HOMEBOUND COMPUTING 



THE ELECTRONIC 

UNIVERSITY 

NETWORK 



by Donna Osgood 



Get a degree without ever leaving your computer 



UNTIL RECENTLY, education at home 
meant correspondence courses. Tak- 
ing courses through the mail is a slow, 
cumbersome way to learn, and for 
many people it means missing out on 
a vital part of the education experi- 
ence: contact with a human instruc- 
tor. Without that, you can easily lose 
interest in the course and drop out. 

Meanwhile, as the baby boom gen- 
eration passes, colleges faced with 
declining enrollments are looking for 
ways to reach a wider range of poten- 
tial students. They need to reach peo- 
ple who would not ordinarily be will- 
ing or able to matriculate in the tradi- 
tional way. 

TeleLearning's Electronic University 
Network addresses both problems. 
Through the Network, universities 
offer accredited courses to students 
who enroll, participate in "class," in- 
teract with instructors and other 
students, and take tests on the 
material they have studied, all without 
leaving their microcomputers. Since 
classes are small (usually 10 students 
per instructor) and feedback on each 
assignment comes within a day or so, 
students taking courses from colleges 



through the Electronic University Net- 
work get much more individual atten- 
tion than they would in a large class 
on campus. Some of the other bene- 
fits of telecommunication apply here 
as well: An instructor can judge a stu- 
dent only on the basis of his or her 
work, without interference from pre- 
conceived notions and biases based 
on how the student looks, speaks, or 
acts. 

Founded in 1983, TeleLeaming 
began offering accredited courses in 
March of 1984. In January 1985 it 
established full-fledged degree pro- 
grams, and it now offers two associate 
degrees, two bachelor's degrees, 
three MBAs, and specialized profes- 
sional certificates. The degrees are 
awarded by fully accredited colleges 
(Thomas A. Edison State College in 
Trenton, New lersey, City University in 
Bellevue, Washington, and lohn F. 
Kennedy University in Orinda, Califor- 
nia). The Electronic University itself 
offers no credit, acting solely as a 
coordinating medium and resource 
center for students. About 17,000 
students have enrolled. 

Courses available through the Elec- 



tronic University Network include 
noncredit courses for personal im- 
provement (writing, computer literacy, 
drawing, and wine appreciation, for 
example), business and professional 
skill classes (time management, ac- 
counting, and business math, among 
others), and tutoring programs for 
children (reading, math, and com- 
puter literacy). Courses for credit span 
the humanities, natural sciences, 
mathematics, social sciences, and 
business at undergraduate and 
graduate levels. 

How It Works 

You enter the Electronic University by 
buying an enrollment package for 
$1 50. This one-time fee covers oper- 
ating software, communications soft- 
ware, and lifetime enrollment in the 
Electronic University for your entire 
family. Tuition for individual classes is 
handled separately. The admissions 
questionnaire and class registration 

(continued) 
Donna Osgood is an associate technical editor 
for BYTE. She can be contacted at McGraw- 
Hill, 42 5 Battery St., San Francisco. CA 
94111. 

MARCH 1986 -BYTE 171 




the odyssey continu 



APRIL 3^6, 1986 

MOSCONE CENTER 

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ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 



can be completed on line. When you 
sign up for a class, the University 
mails you a textbook, study guide, 
and course disk. 

Currently, undergraduate tuition is 
$180 per course, while graduate 
courses are $200. Connect time is in- 
cluded in course fees. 

Hardware 

TeleLearning software is available for 
the IBM Personal Computer and PCjr, 
Apple II series, and Commodore 64. 
According to Ron Gordon, president 
of TeleLearning, 3 5 percent of the 
Electronic University's students did 
not own a microcomputer before but 
bought one in order to take classes. 
Any student who doesn't already have 
a modem can buy one from Tele- 
Learning. 

Counseling 

If you choose to pursue a degree pro- 
gram through the Electronic Univer- 
sity, you consult one of TeleLearning's 
counselors. The counseling services 
go beyond those of a traditional ad- 
missions counselor. Counselors help 
students pick a school suited to their 
needs and design appropriate cur- 
ricula, incorporating courses from 
participating colleges, classes taken 
on campus, and proficiency exams. 
The TeleLearning counselor who 
helps you choose courses or design 
a degree program also follows 
through with periodic progress checks 
and is always available to answer 
questions and offer guidance. In fact, 
the counselor will keep tabs on your 
progress in a particular course ("Have 
you finished lesson 4 yet?"), but only 
if you request that sort of hand- 
holding. 

Taking a Class 

A typical lesson in a credit course 
begins when you boot up the course 
disk and receive an assignment, 
perhaps chapters in a text to read and 
workbook sections to complete. After 
doing this work you go back to the 
disk to work through the exercises 
that accompany the lesson. This may 
include an overview of the sections 

(continued) 



172 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 396 





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Begin with a PC-SLAVE/16 
expansion card containing an 
8 MHz microprocessor which 
operates at over two times the 
speed of an IBM® PC's processor. 
PC-SLAVE/16 lets you read or 
write hard disk data up to 10 
times faster than most LANs at 
half the cost of LANs! 

How PC-PLUS expands 
your PC's capabilities 

Plug a PC-SLAVE/16 into your 
PC. Add a terminal and Alloy's 
Network Executive software. You 



have the power of TWO PCs! 
Sharing data, peripherals and 
printers. Add more PC-SLAVE/16 
cards and terminals as you need 
to grow. And by adding Alloy's 
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up to 31 users can communicate 
with the PC host and with each 
other. That's total utilization of 
your PC's capabilities and your 
investment in software, hardware 
and valuable time and data. 

Speaking of investments 

Because the workstations you add 
are inexpensive terminals, the cost 
of increasing your computing 
capability is much less with 
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Inquiry 13 for More Information. 

Inquiry 14 for Sales person or demonstration. 



IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 173 



ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 



you've just read, with a series of ex- 
ercises designed to make you think 
about the lesson in as many ways as 
possible. Some of the ideas presented 
in the reading may be covered in 
more depth at this point. 

The lessons are designed to make 
learning active, to avoid the electronic 
page turning that has blighted com- 



puter-aided instruction (CAI). Accord- 
ing to one student, "The lessons are 
never dull and are not predictable. 
Just when you think you've got the 
professor figured out, something 
changes. That keeps it interesting." 

A particular lesson may contain 
several sections that you complete 
locally, working through a problem 



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and finding the answer in the next sec- 
tion. Some sections are to be com- 
pleted and sent to the instructor. You 
leave the assignment in the instruc- 
tor's electronic mailbox. The instruc- 
tor reads the material and responds 
within a day or so. 

At this point the advantage to the 
TeleLearning system becomes ap- 
parent. The instructor can respond 
quickly and can customize that 
response based on knowledge of 
your ability, interests, and goals. The 
instructor spends 1 5 to 30 minutes on 
each student's lesson, using prepared 
responses where appropriate but 
adapting them to each student's 
needs. It is this human contact, the 
student's feeling that someone has a 
personal interest in his or her prog- 
ress, that distinguishes Electronic 
University Network courses from cor- 
respondence courses or computer- 
aided instruction. 

You can "meet" with the instructor 
during electronic "office hours" and 
exchange messages in real time. Tele- 
Learning is presently working to set 
up bulletin boards where students can 
exchange messages with other class 
members and where class "discussion 
groups" can meet. The goal is to 
simulate the feeling of community 
and the interaction that develops 
naturally when students meet on cam- 
pus. This can be an important part of 
the learning process. Perhaps a com- 
puter conference is the next best 
thing to being there. 

Tests 

If you are enrolled in a degree pro- 
gram, the college involved is respon- 
sible for administering the final exam. 
For students taking individual credit 
courses, the CLEP (College Level Ex- 
amination Program) test often serves 
as the exam. Tests are proctored, ad- 
ministered at a college or library close 
to the student. 

The Library 

The Electronic University has, of 
course, an electronic library. Students 
have access to extensive on-line data- 
base facilities, including abstract ser- 

(continued) 



174 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 28 







Now There's A Laser Printer 
That Blasts Through The Prioe Barrier. 

QMS introduces the KISS.™ The first laser printer at the never-before-heard-of price of $1,995*KISS 
keeps it smart and simple. It's the perfect mate to any PC. 

It's so sophisticated, you'll want to kiss your old daisywheel and dot matrix printers good- by. KISS is 
ten times faster. And it's very quiet. It produces crisp, near typeset-quality output at up to 400 charac- 
ters per second. And it has its own cut-sheet feeder. 

With nine resident fonts, you get quality, style and flair. Mix them all on a page— even on one line. 
Imagine all that power on your desk. 

Plus, KISS is smarter than your old printer. It works 
with WordStar® Lotus® and any other software that 
will print to a Diablo 630,® Epson FX 80® and QUME 
Sprint.® At up to 6ppm, KISS is unmatched in 
efficiency and versatility. 

Can you imagine your present printer 
performing like that? We can't. 

QMS is meeting today's needs with 
proven technology. Like the KISS. 
It's inexpensive. Dependable. 
Exciting. 

Let us give you a KISS. 

Call toll free, 1-800-523-2696 
for more information. 



QMS' 

Print Systems With Imagination. 



D Send me 
more informa- 
tion about the KISS. 
□ Please contact me to arrange 
a demonstration. 



Name 




Phone 



Type of system you are now using 



Number of print workstations you are considering . 
Prime application for printer 



WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro 
International. Lotus is a registered trademark of 
Lotus Development Corporation. Diablo is a 
registered trademark of Xerox Corp. Epson is a 
registered trademark of Epson America. Inc. 
QUME is a registered trademark of QUME Corp. 

• This price good in domestic United States only. 
Inquiry 287 




P.O. Box 81250. Mobile, AL 36689 
©1986 QMS® Inc. 



ELECTRONIC UNIVERSITY 



Participating colleges 
handle course design, 
consulting with 
TeleLearning to 
translate courses 
to the new medium. 



vices, an encyclopedia, and databases 
for business, education, science, 
medicine, social science, and human- 
ities. News services, stock market 
reports, and the Official Airline Guide 
are also available. Students who use 
the library pay a communication fee 
ranging from about $10 to $20 an 
hour (nonbusiness hours). 

Course Design 

In general, the participating colleges 
handle course design, consulting with 
TeleLearning staff and using tools pro- 
vided by TeleLearning to translate 
their courses to the new medium. The 
college can choose its top professor 
in a field to design a course, then 
recruit graduate students and associ- 
ate professors to serve as instructors. 
Instructors are interviewed and 
monitored by TeleLearning staff and 
must have graduate degrees and 
classroom teaching experience. 

Dr. Philip Zimbardo is one of the 
"master teachers" designing a course 
for the Electronic University. His 
Psychology 001, the best-attended 
class offered at Stanford, draws hun- 
dreds of students to the lecture hall. 
Zimbardo sees the TeleLearning 
course reaching a new audience, a 
more diverse group of people than he 
would find within the confines of a 
traditional university setting, including 
many of his favorite sort of student: 
adults who are not in class for a grade, 
who simply want to learn what he has 
to teach and who get excited about 
the ideas he presents. 

Zimbardo believes that students in 
large lecture sections "develop pas- 



sive learning habits." He is designing 
his lessons to stress the conceptual 
meaning of the material, not to en- 
courage rote memorization. For ex- 
ample, in a section on the biology of 
behavior and the physiological foun- 
dations of psychology, students will 
not be asked simply to list the parts 
of the human nervous system. Rather, 
the problem might be: "You have just 
been hired as a consultant to a high- 
tech firm that is designing a perfectly 
programmed humanoid. On the basis 
of what you now know, you are to 
design its nervous system. What 
aspects of the human nervous system 
would you include, what would you 
improve, and what kinds of modifica- 
tions would you make?" 

Early, noncredit TeleLearning 
courses were based on standard CA1 
and drill-and-practice models. Dr. 
lames Milojkovic, vice president of 
Educational Research and Develop- 
ment, explains that this sort of elec- 
tronic page turning is not appropriate 
for college-level courses, which 
should put an emphasis on critical 
thinking and higher-order cognitive 
processes. "We went back to square 
one, thinking from an educational 
rather than a technical point of view," 
Milojkovic says. "We asked, 'What 
does a master teacher do?' We looked 
at the best teachers and the best text- 
books to extract the educational prin- 
ciples involved, then we built the tech- 
nology around that." 

Since the people best qualified to 
develop courses often have no exper- 
tise with computers, TeleLearning pro- 
vides developers with "knowledge 
templates," predesigned generic struc- 
tures that they can adapt to each 
course. Dozens of knowledge tem- 
plates are available to course devel- 
opers, and using them can cut the 
time it takes to create a set of lessons. 

Some examples of template struc- 
tures are the tree-diagram template, 
which can illustrate any sort of hierar- 
chical structure: a matrix template 
with which the student can organize 
material, compare items using appro- 
priate criteria, or visualize relation- 
ships among a set of elements: the 
timeline template, to illustrate any se- 



quence of events: and the T-bar tem- 
plate, for making comparisons. 

The templates themselves use rudi- 
mentary graphics that the developer 
can change and adapt as needed. 
Properly used, they can become so- 
phisticated heuristic tools if the in- 
structor fleshes out the template 
skeleton with thought-provoking prob- 
lems. For example, the basic T-bar 
might be used in an economics 
course to compare and contrast 
capitalism and communism in light of 
issues brought up in the lesson. 

In TeleLearning courses, the com- 
puter is used only when it is most ef- 
fective, for interactive study and tele- 
communication. Milojkovic says, "We 
don't make the fatal mistake of trying 
to put everything onto the computer. 
"A textbook is a perfectly good, por- 
table, random-access information dis- 
play device, and there's no advantage 
to dumping the entire textbook and 
study guide on the computer." 

Electronic University's 
Future 

One of TeleLeaming's goals right now 
is to make the student's experience in 
the Electronic University as rich as 
possible in terms of human interac- 
tion. A real sense of community can 
develop around people who know 
each other only electronically. Tele- 
Learning hopes to give as much of an 
on-campus feeling as possible to the 
Electronic University. 

Other plans include an emphasis on 
work-related courses in the office. 
Some companies are already offering 
tuition and fee reimbursements to 
employees who take Electronic Uni- 
versity courses, and some even pro- 
vide a workstation in the office. 

The Electronic University offers new 
options to the student who prefers to 
study at home in a nonthreatening 
but highly personalized medium. 
"Many people talk about lifelong 
learning," says Milojkovic. "We're mak- 
ing it real." ■ 

Editor's note: To reach TeleLearning, write to 
505 Beach St.. San Francisco. CA 94133, 
or call (800) 2 2 LEARN: in California, call 
(800) 44LEARN or (415) 928-2800. 



176 BYTE • MARCH 



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SOURCE 

1 2303-G Technology Austin, TX. 78727 



Outside Texas 

800-626-4027 

InsideTexas 
512-331-6700 



HOME-BOUND COMPUTING 



THE TECHNOLOGY 

OF THE KURZWEIL 

VOICE WRITER 



by Raymond Kurzweil 



The present office system provides a clue 
to future applications for the deaf 



Editor's note: This article is not a review of 
the KVW; it is a look at a technology that 
may be available on personal computers in the 
future. 

THE KURZWEIL VOICE WRITER 
(KVW) is a voice-activated word pro- 
cessor with a relatively unrestricted 
user-specific vocabulary. The system 
starts with a vocabulary of at least 
5000 frequently used words in the 
English language. It subsequently 
adds the words you use that are not 
part of its initial vocabulary and even- 
tually deletes those words that you 
never use. Total vocabulary, depend- 
ing on the KVM model, will be in the 
7500- to 20,000-word range. 

Voice is our most effective and rapid 
means of communication, and the 
ability to interact with computerized 
information services and devices by 
voice, without the restrictions of arti- 
ficial vocabularies or syntax, is ex- 
pected to be of major benefit. The 
primary application of the KVW is to 
automate the creation of written text, 
which is a fundamental activity in the 
office. Combining large-vocabulary 
ASR (automatic speech recognition) 



with natural-language understanding 
would also enable professionals and 
executives to make inquiries of data- 
base-management systems or man- 
agement information systems verbal- 
ly in natural language instead of 
through a keyboard. 

One planned application of this 
technology is to create a speaker- 
independent version of the KVW to 
serve as a display telephone for the 
deaf. This would enable a deaf per- 
son to hold a phone conversation 
without being restricted to speaking 
to other deaf people who have com- 
patible TDDs (telecommunications 
device for the deaf). It is not yet 
available but the technology that will 
be used in its creation is described in 
essence in this article. 

The KVW as it currently exists re- 
quires only that you can speak and 
that you can see. Motion and hearing 
impairments are not obstacles in its 
operation. The current version of the 
KVW is for the business community, 
but it fills a need for many disabled 
persons as well. The initial KVM 
model, which can be shared by multi- 
ple users (one at a time) is expected 



to be introduced this year at a price 
under $20,000. Future models of both 
single-user and multiuser systems are 
expected to be in the $4000 to 
$10,000 range. While this is beyond 
the price range of most individuals, the 
technology is the clue to future, more 
individually affordable solutions. 

Large-Vocabulary ASR 

There are two difficulties involved in 
creating large-vocabulary ASR. First, 
you must create a set of linguistic and 
speech-recognition algorithms that 
provide the requisite recognition 
power and that are capable of resolv- 
ing the fine distinctions and am- 
biguities that are inevitable when you 
deal with a large natural vocabulary. 
The incidence of "perplex clusters" 
(words that differ by only one 
phonetic feature) is much higher for 

(continued) 
Raymond Kurzweil is the founder and chair- 
man of Kurzweil Computer Products, Kurz- 
weil Music Systems Inc., and Kurzweil Ap- 
plied Intelligence \nc. He received a B.S. degree 
from MIT and an honorary Ph.D. from 
Hofstra University. He can be reached at AW 
Waverly Oaks Rd., Waltham, MA 02154. 



MARCH 1986 



i YTE 



177 



Inquiry 410 

Switches to make 
your PCs powerful. 

Reliable and affordable port expansion without memorizing 
complicated, software commands. Switch your PC between per- 
ipherals with the push of a button. Is MFJ good? Joe Campbell 
In his book. The RS-232 Solution said. "Switch boxes are sold 
by many suppliers, but by Jar the two best values are from 
MFJ Enterprises." Below are just some of those values. 

When you 
need to 
switch be- 
tween two 
peripherals 
... or you 
need to have 
two computers share the 
same peripheral . . . 
MFJ- 1240/ $79. 95 

The 1240 has a built-in 
transmit/receive switch that 
allows 2-way information How. LEDs monitor data lines while 
built-in surge protectors guard Ihem. Can be used as a null 
modem. MFJ's No. 1 seller! 







When you need l-to-4 
computers to share one 
peripheral or l-to-4 
peripherals to share a 
common computer . . . 
MFJ-1243/$119.95 

The perfect office switch. 
Save money. Don't buy 
extra printers or modems. 
Connect l-to-4 computers to a single printer or let a PC share 
up lo four peripherals. LEDs monitor data lines; surge protectors 
guard them. Two way communication is allowed. 



When you need to Inter- 
connect four computers 
and four peripherals at 
one time! The MFJ- 1294 
gives you a computer 
system... 
MFJ-1294/S299.95 

With the MFJ-I294you 
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MFJ- 1 294 s 16 possible combinations. 

Seven additional models to choose from including MFJ's IBM 
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And Power Strips 
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Your fine computer and peripheral equipment can be 
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MFJ- 1107- 
y 8 sockets; 2 un- 
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MFJ-1108-7 sockets; 
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MFJ-1109-like 1 107 but intelligent 
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There are other Switches, Power Centers and Computer 
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For technical/ repair information, or in Mississippi, or outside 
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MFJ Enterprises, Inc. 
921 Louisville Road 
Starkville, MS 39759 



VOICE WRITER 



a natural vocabulary than for an ar- 
tificially created command vocabu- 
lary. Indeed, many words do not dif- 
fer in sound at all (homonyms), but 
can be differentiated only by context. 
For example, if you want to recognize 
"To be or not to be, that is the ques- 
tion," you must deal with the first six 
words, each of which represents a 
perplex homonym set: (to, too, two, 
2); (be, bee, b); (or, oar); (not, knot); 
(to, too, two, 2); (be, bee, b). Of the 
576 possible phrases, all are acousti- 
cally correct, but only one is linguist- 
ically correct. 

Second, you must provide the nec- 
essary computing power. Running the 
algorithms for the KVW on a sequen- 
tial computer of Motorola 68000 
power requires over an hour per 
word. One reason that the algorithms 
require this amount of computation 
is to provide the very high degree of 
precision needed to deal with the 
perplexity of a large natural vocabu- 
lary. Significant computation is also 
required to perform the transforma- 
tions and property-extraction algo- 
rithms required to deal with the 
numerous sources of speech variance 
that such a system is subject to. Paral- 
lel processing provides the speed im- 
provement of several thousandfold 
necessary to achieve a real-time 
response time of 2 50 milliseconds. 

The KVW architecture incorporates 
multiple microprocessors and uses 
dedicated implementations of specific 
algorithms in custom VLSI (very-large- 
scafe integration) and discrete circuits. 
This significantly increases the effec- 
tive computation throughput levels. A 
current industry trend finds parallel 
arrays of dedicated implementations 
of algorithms in custom VLSI replac- 
ing the conventional architecture of a 
single programmable processor with 
its one memory space, software, and 
appropriate peripherals. 

VOCABULARY 

One type of information that adapts 
as you use the KVW is the active vo- 
cabulary. The system starts out with 
a vocabulary of at least 5000 com- 
mon words in the English language. 
The first time you use a particular 



word that is not in this starting vocab- 
ulary, the system won't be able to 
recognize it, and you will have to 
either type it in or verbally spell it in. 
This process is required only the first 
time you use a new word; the system 
will add the word to the active vocab- 
ulary and should subsequently be 
able to recognize it when you use it 
again. 

Words continue to be added until 
the vocabulary reaches its maximum 
size, which will vary depending on the 
model. (The vocabulary size required 
will vary from user to user. It is ex- 
pected that user-specific vocabularies 
in the 7500- to 20,000-word range will 
ultimately be provided.) After this, 
new words continue to be added, but 
the system must drop words from the 
original set that you have never used. 
The final result is a vocabulary that 
should cover the vast majority of 
words that you use. 

Multiple Experts 

Rather than select a single technique 
such as Markov modeling, dynamic 
time warping, robust feature analysis, 
or high-level feature extraction, the 
KVW technology incorporates multi- 
ple experts, each of which uses a 
somewhat different approach to the 
problem of large-vocabulary speech 
recognition. Different approaches to 
a complex pattern-recognition task 
such as ASR have different strengths 
and weaknesses, and a system that in- 
corporates a variety of techniques is 
likely to provide better performance 
than a system that relies on a single 
method. 

Some of the experts run in real time 
on conventional 68000 microproces- 
sors, while others require specialized 
parallel circuitry to provide real-time 
performance. In this specialized cir- 
cuitry, 68000 microprocessors pro- 
vide function control and sequencing, 
while the circuitry acts like peripherals 
to them. The resulting architecture 
consists of multiple 68000s, each with 
its own RAM (random-access read/ 
write memory) space, plus specialized 
circuitry incorporating additional 
RAM spaces. 

(continued) 



178 BYTE 



MARCH 1986 



MICRO CAP and MICRO LOGIC 
put your engineers on line... 

not in line. |f||f|| 










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TV- 






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/viyoWAi m/o^ksT/IT/oa! 




How many long unproductive hours 
have you spent "in line" for your simula- 
tion? Well, no more. MICROCAP and 
MICROLOGIC can put you on line by 
turning your PC into a productive and 
cost-effective engineering workstation. 

Both of these sophisticated engineering 
tools provide you with quick and efficient 
solutions to your simulation problems. 
And here's how. 

MICROCAP: 

Your Analog Solution 

MICROCAP is an interactive analog 
circuit drawing and simulation system. 
It allows you to sketch a circuit diagram 
right on the CRT screen, then run an AC, 
DC, or Transient analysis. While pro- 
viding you with libraries for defined 
models of bipolar and MOS devices, 
Opamps, transformers, diodes, and much 
more, MICROCAP also includes features 
not even found in SPICE. 

MICROCAP II lets you be even more 
productive. As an advanced version, it 
employs sparse matrix techniques for 
faster simulation speed and larger net- 




"Typical MICROCAP Transient Analysis" 

works. In addition, you get even more 
advanced device models, worst case capa- 
bilities, temperature stepping, Fourier 
analysis, and macro capability. 



MICROLOGIC: 

Your Digital Solution 

MICROLOGIC provides you with a 
similar interactive drawing and analysis 
environment for digital work. Using 
standard PC hardware, you can create 
logic diagrams of up to 9 pages with each 
containing up to 200 gates. The system 
automatically creates the nedist required 
for a timing simulation and will handle 
networks of up to 1800 gates. It provides 
you with libraries for 36 user-defined 
basic gate types, 36 data channels of 256 
bits each, 10 user-defined clock wave- 
forms, and up to 50 macros in each net- 
work. MICROLOGIC produces 
high-resolution timing diagrams showing 
selected waveforms and associated 
delays, glitches, and spikes — just like the 
real thing. 




Typical MICROLOGIC Diagram " 



Reviewers Love 
These Solutions 

Regarding MICROCAP ... "A highly 
recommended analog design program" 
(PC Tech Journal 3/84). "A valuable tool 
for circuit designers" (Personal Software 
Magazine 11/83). 

Regarding MICROLOGIC . . . "An effi- 
cient design system diat does what it is 
supposed to do at a reasonable price" 
(Byte 4/84). 

MICROCAP and MICROLOGIC arc- 
available for the Apple II (64k), IBM PC 
(128k), and HP-150 computers and priced 
at 8475 and 8450 respectively. Demo 
versions are available for S75. 

MICROCAP II is available for the 
Macintosh, IBM PC (256k), and HP- 150 
systems and is priced at S895. Demo 
versions are available for 9100. 

Demo prices are credited to the 
purchase price of the actual system. 

Now, to get on line, call or write today! 

Spectrum Software 

1021 S. Wolfe Road, Dept. B 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087 
(408)738-4387 Inquiry 325 



Inquiry 366 for End-Users. Inquiry 367 for DEALERS ONLY. 



m?& 




A Telephon 
Type Connector 
Serial Data Switch for 
Increasing Computer 
System Productivity. 

No computer system should be without a 
Via West Data Switch. At the touch of a 
button (or key), you can connect your 
computer to the peripheral device you 
want to use. 

Over 16 types are available to fit either 
serial or parallel systems. This includes 



I 



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OUR PLUG-IN CARD 
GIVES YOU PLUG-IN 
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VOICE WRITER 



To take maximum advantage of a 
multiple-expert strategy, you must 
combine the results from each expert 
in a way that recognizes its unique 
strengths and weaknesses. In general, 
the system can quickly and accurate- 
ly resolve each recognition within a 
small perplex set of words. After this 
initial cut of the vocabulary to a small 
set (ranging from one word to a few 
dozen), the expert-management tech- 
niques depend to a great extent on 
the nature of the resulting perplex set. 
Some of the expert-management 
techniques are knowledge-based. For 
example, the handling of homonym 
sets is done through a single expert 
that is capable of differentiating be- 
tween homonyms based on context. 
Other techniques involve probability: 
the methods of combining the prob- 
abilities from each expert are con- 
trolled by statistics on how the various 
experts have performed for different 
types of perplex sets. Some of these 
parameters are derived from statistics 
gathered during a particular user's 
time on the system and thus form part 
of the overall user-adaptation process. 

Language Experts 

A number of experts try to predict the 
likelihood of different words occurring 
at a particular lexical entry point 
based entirely on context. These ex- 
perts use a variety of information- 
theory as well as sentence-parsing 
techniques. 

The sentence-parsing expert is 
similar to the type of parser used in 
some natural-language understanding 
programs in that a tree-like structure 
is generated showing the part of 
speech of each word and its relation- 
ship to other words in the sentence. 
One significant difference is that the 
KVW parser is able to generate parses 
on incomplete sentences. At a par- 
ticular point in a dictated sentence, we 
have only the "left" part of the 
sentence (from the beginning up 
through and not including the current 
word). Based on each parse of the in- 
complete sentences as they come in, 
the parsing expert is able to assign 
probabilities to different parts of 

[continued) 



180 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 58 



You would think when IBM needs 
EPROM Programmers they would choose 
the best and the most expensive. 

They don't. They only choose the best. 

GTEK. 





MODEL 7956 (w/RS-232 option) S1099 

MODEL 7956 (stand alone) 5 979 

GTEK's outstanding Gang Programmer with 
intelligent algorithm can copy 8 EPROMS at a 
time! Use the 7956 in a production environ- 
ment when you need to program a large num- 
ber of chips. Programs all popular chips through 
the 2751 2 EPROMS: supports CMOS EPROMS 
through the 27C256; supports EEPROMS 
through the X2864A; supports Intel's 2764A & 
27128A chips. The 7956 will also program 
single chip processors. 



MODEL 7228 $ 599 

GTEK's 7228 has all the features of the 
7128, plus Intelligent Programming Algorithms! 

It supports the newest devices available through 
51 2K bits. The 7228 programs 6 times as fast 
as standard algorithms. It programs the 2764 in 
one minute! Supports CMOS EPROMS through 
the 27C256; supports EEPROMS through the 
X2864A; supports Intel's 2764A & 271 28A chips. 
Supports Tektronics, Intel, Motorola and other 
formats. 





MODEL 7128 S 429 

The 7128 has the highest performance-to- 

cost-ratio of any unit. It supports the newest 
devices available through 256Kbits. 



MODEL 7324 $1499 

The 7324 has a built-in compiler. It programs 
all MMI, National and Tl 20 & 24 pin PALS. It 
has non-volatile memory and operates stand- 
alone or via RS-232. 
MODEL 7322 $1 249 

Same as Model 7324 but operates only via RS-232. 
MODEL 731 6 $ 749 

This PAL PROGRAMMER programs Series 20 PALs. It has a built-in PALASM compiler. 
MODEL 705 S 299 

68705V3, U3, P3 PROGRAMMER. 



EPROM, PROM& PAL 



PROGRAMMERS 



— These features are standard from GTEK — 

Compatible with all RS-232 serial interface ports • Auto select baud rate • With or without 
hand-shaking • Bidirectional Xon/Xoff • CTS/DTR supported • Read pin compatible ROMS • No 
personality modules • Intel, Motorola, MCS86 Hex formats • Split facility for 16 bit data paths • 
Read program, formatted list commands • Interrupt driven — program and verify real time while 
sending data • Program single byte block or whole EPROM • Intelligent diagnostics discern bad 
and/or unerased EPROM • Verify erasure and compare commands • Busy light ■ Complete with 
Textool zero insertion force socket and integral 1 20 VAC power (240 VAC/50Hz available) • 



UTILITY PACKAGES 



GTEK's PGX Utility Packages will allow you to specify a range of addresses to send to the 
programmer, verify erasure and/or set the EPROM type. The PGX Utility Package includes 
GHEX. a utility used to generate an Intel HEX file. 

PALX Utility Package— for use with GTEK's Pal Programmers— allows transfer of PALASM" 
source file or ASCII HEX object code file. 

Both utility packages are available for CPM," MS-DOS," PC-DOS," ISIS" and TRSDOS" 
operating systems. Call for pricing. 

CROSS ASSEMBLERS 

These assemblers are available to handle the 8748, 8751 , Z8, 6502, 68X and other microprocessors. 
They are available for CPM and MS-DOS computers. When ordering, please specify processor 
and computer types. 



ACCESSORIES 



Model 7128-L1.L2, L2A 

(OEM Quantity) $259. 

Model 71 28-24 $329. 

Cross Assemblers CPM-80 $200. 

MSDOS; CPM 86 . . . $250. 

PGX Utilities Call for pricing 

PALX Call for pricing 



Erasers DE4 $80; PE14T $129 

C25 $349; C50 $599 

U/V Eraser DE-4 $ 80. 

Cables: Serial or Parallel $ 30. 

8751 Adapter $174. 

8755 Adapter $135. 

48 Family Adapter $ 98. 



RUN CPM 

SOFTWARE ON 

YOUR IBM OR 

IBM COMPATIBLE 



M 




If you are a CPM 
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Now all the work you accomplished in CPM is 
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Call GTEK's CPM Hotline . . . 
1-601-467-9019 



NEW PRODUCT FROM GTEK! 
MODEL 8014 PROGRAMMABLE 
PARALLEL PRINTER SWITCH 

, "* . Finally, for everyone 

using multiple parallel 

\ printers, GTEK makes avail- 

.-•" s4p-'' r „ - able a reliable and afford- 
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printer switch. With it's pro- 
grammable printer port, you 
can connect your IBM PC 
or other computer with a 
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Each port is selectable by sending GTEK's 8014 
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By cascading 8014s, you can access as many printers 
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The 8014 will prove invaluable to you ... use 
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And with the Model 8014-32k or 8014-128k, you 
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Model 8014 (switch only) $279.00; Model 
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(128k buffer) $399.00. 



> 




GTEK, PALASM, CPM, 



Development Hardware/Software 
P.O. Box 289, Waveland, MS 39576 
601/467-8048; telex 315-814 (GTEK UD) 
, INC. 

MS-DOS, PC-DOS, ISIS, TRSDOS, & CPEmulator are registered trademarks. 



TEK 



Inquiry 148 



MARCH I986 



1YTE 



181 



VOICE WRITER 



speech. Rather than the eight or nine 
basic parts of speech that grade 
school children are familiar with 
(noun, verb, adjective, etc.), the KVW 
parser uses approximately 200 types 
representing subcategories of the 
basic parts of speech. This degree of 
specificity enables the parsing expert 
to increase the value of its predictions. 



Using a lexicon of approximately 
50,000 words that indicates the like- 
lihood of different parts of speech for 
each word, the parsing expert is able 
to assess the likelihood of different 
words. In particular, the parsing ex- 
pert is good at eliminating choices 
that are syntactically unlikely. 
There is a fortunate orthogonality 




between the strengths of the acoustic 
experts and those of the language ex- 
perts. For example, most homonyms 
represent significantly different syn- 
tactic types that can be determined 
from context. "Two," "to," and "too" 
represent very different grammatical 
categories with readily identifiable 
word contexts. Also, short function 
words, which tend to be more difficult 
for an acoustic recognizer, are actually 
easier for the language model to 
make predictions for. 

Acoustic Experts 

The acoustic experts share an 
acoustic front-end processor that in- 
cludes a high-resolution digitization 
(over 96-decibel dynamic range) and 
a robust filter bank made up of 
several hundred two-pole filter ele- 
ments with 24-bit accuracy. The result- 
ing spectral data is subsequently pro- 
cessed through a series of normaliza- 
tions and other transformations to 
reduce variability and preserve fea- 
ture invariance. Some of the transfor- 
mations are based on an auditory 
model similar in many ways to the 
human ear's auditory front-end pro- 
cessing. 

The acoustic experts utilize a RAM 
storage of word models, which are up- 
dated after each utterance. The 
acoustic experts are capable of 
evaluating the likelihood of every 
word model for a given test token, 
although the expert manager may re- 
quest that a particular acoustic expert 
evaluate only a subset of the models 
based on the results of earlier experts. 

ParallelProcessing 
Architecture 

One area that uses extensive parallel 
processing is the front-end filtering. In 
order to make the fine distinctions 
necessary to handle the perplexity of 
a large vocabulary, a great deal of ac- 
curacy and resolution is needed in the 
number of filter channels and the ac- 
curacy of both the sample stream and 
the filters. Filtering is handled by the 
KSC2408 filter chip (from Kurzweil 
Semiconductor, a division of Kurzweil 
Applied Intelligence Inc.) with several 

[continued) 



BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 134 



Picture the advantages. 




true 



Capture TV-quality images on your personal computer 
for a very affordable price. 




Amazing, but true. 

Only AT&T Truevision'" lets you 
capture and display pictures with 
such clarity and full-color intensity 
so economically. Using only a single- 
slot graphics board. 

True versatility. 

Now your personal computer can 
grab and store true-to-life images 
from any standard video source. 
Modify, enhance, merge and manip- 
ulate them. Superimpose text and 
graphics. And even send them to 
other locations via ordinary phone 
lines. 

Now you can store photo files. 
Create electronic slide shows. And 
display your images in vivid color. 

All with Truevision. 

True economy. 

All you need is the AT&TTruevision 



Image Capture Board. Suggested 
retail price only $1,295. For even 
higher resolution, AT&T offers the 
Truevision Advanced Raster Graphics 
Adapter (TARGA) series. Four sepa- 
rate models address the spectrum of 
your continuous-tone imaging needs. 
Suggested retail prices range from 
$2,295 to $4,995. 

For applications requiring display- 
only capability, the AT&TTruevision 
Video Display Adapter offers the 
same image quality at a suggested 
retail price of $695. 

All products can be used with the 
AT&T PC 6300, IBM or plug compati- 
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your PC. 

AT&T offers software packages, 
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Inquiry 30 



VOICE WRITER 



two-pole filters used for each filter 
channel. Implementing the 2408's 
filter algorithm (for a single two-pole 
filter) on a 68000 requires five 
seconds to process one second of 
speech, or five times real time. Each 
KSC2408 chip includes eight such 
filters (which operate in real time) and 
is thus equivalent to forty 68000 
microprocessors (for the 2408 filter 
algorithm). The current model 1 KVW 
uses 2 5 KSC2408 chips, which is 
equivalent to using a thousand 68000 
microprocessors for the filtering oper- 
ation. 

The equivalent of several thousand 
additional 68000 microprocessors 
(for certain dedicated algorithms, not 
for general-purpose computation) is 
provided by other special circuits 
used in the acoustic-matching pro- 
cess. The language experts and ele- 
ments of the acoustic-recognition pro- 
cess such as normalization and other 



transformations are handled by multi- 
ple conventional microprocessors. 

Using the KVW 

In dictation mode, you simply speak 
your text in a rapid, discrete manner, 
with brief pauses between words. The 
pause required between words is ad- 
justable and should be set just long 
enough to reduce or eliminate the 
ambiguity between word pauses and 
stopgaps within a word. In general, 
this figure ranges from 100 to 250 
milliseconds. The system responds 
within 500 ms after the end of each 
word by displaying the recognized 
word on the screen. A special status 
line displays any alternate word 
choices. In trials of the KVW, when the 
system has chosen the wrong word, 
the correct word has usually been the 
first or second alternate given. 

The basic mode of operation is to 
speak into the system and watch the 



text appear. You don't need to be 
aware of what is in the active vocab- 
ulary. You simply speak and let the vo- 
cabulary-adaptation process proceed 
automatically. 

You can also enter commands by 
voice. To distinguish commands from 
text, you enter a command mode 
either by depressing a function key or 
by speaking an appropriate unique 
verbal "Enter command mode" in- 
struction (for example, "blix"). Once 
you enter command mode, you can 
switch among different types of com- 
mands to go, for example, from appli- 
cation-program commands to operat- 
ing-system commands. 

The primary mode of integrating the 
KVW's capabilities with an application 
program is through "transparent" in- 
tegration. In this mode, the KVW 
simulates the keyboard. Recognized 
text and commands are converted 

[continued] 



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Inquiry 312 



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VOICE WRITER 



into appropriate character strings and 
transmitted to the operating system 
as if they came from the keyboard. 
The character strings come in through 
a special serial line and an appropri- 
ate driver intercepts them and 
presents them to the operating sys- 
tem as having come from the key- 
board. 

User Interface 

One user interface that has been pro- 
posed for ease of use includes a 
pointing device (such as a mouse) to 
control the cursor, which is not easily 
manipulated by either keystrokes or 
verbal commands. The mouse would 
have two buttons, one to toggle be- 
tween text and command mode and 
the second to correct errors. Again, 
you would have the choice of using 
these two buttons or using verbal 
commands. You would have relative- 
ly little use for the keyboard. Being 
able to correct most errors, go back 
and forth between text and com- 
mands, and control the location of the 
cursor would provide most of the con- 
trol necessary aside from the actual 
verbal dictation of the text and com- 
mands. 

To take this concept one step fur- 
ther, you could combine a flat-panel 
display with a touch-sensitive surface 
to provide a "pad" that you would 
hold in your lap or on your desk. As 
you speak to the pad, words would 
appear on its surface display. To con- 
trol the cursor for insertion, deletion, 
or replacement operations, you would 
simply point to the screen. The two 
basic functions of error correction and 
toggle-to-command mode would be 
provided by either displayed "but- 
tons," real buttons, or voice command 
(at your option). For the occasional re- 
quirement to type in a new vocabu- 
lary word, a QWERTY keyboard could 
be displayed on the screen. 

Physical Configuration 

The KVW consists of an approxi- 
mately 100-megabyte Winchester 
disk, four circuit boards, and a power 
supply in a standard rack-mountable 
cabinet. While it would be possible to 
sit the KVW server next to the work- 



station it serves, it is generally found 
in a separate location. Thus, you in- 
teract only with your workstation and 
a microphone. The microphone can 
be either head-mounted, worn on 
your lapel, or desk-mounted. It is con- 
nected to a small box that digitizes 
the signal and transmits it on a high- 
speed serial line. 

Future Directions 

Future applications of the KVW tech- 
nology include integration with 
natural-language-understanding sys- 
tems, domain-specific expert systems, 
text-to-speech synthesizers, and a 
variety of application packages to pro- 
vide executive assistants that are 
powerful and easy to use. Such sys- 
tems will have access to the internal 
databases and MIS (management in- 
formation system) information of the 
user's own organization as well as 
public, semipublic, and restricted- 
access databases accessed by tele- 
communications. Professionals, ex- 
ecutives, students, and others will be 
able to converse with such systems to 
conduct rapid research and inquiry 
into a variety of questions of interest. 
Such questions might involve informa- 
tion retrieval ("How did the sales in 
our Western region for the past 
quarter compare to those of our three 
largest competitors?") as well as sub- 
stantive analysis ("Which financing 
option for the proposed capital ac- 
quisition is best supported by our cur- 
rent balance sheet?"), Questions 
would be asked by voice in natural 
language. The questions would be 
clarified through two-way voice com- 
munication (or display), and final 
answers would be provided by either 
voice, display, or printout, as appro- 
priate. 

The acoustic experts in the KVW are 
adaptable to continuous speech in- 
put. The computation requirements 
must be increased to handle con- 
nected speech, as must the recogni- 
tion power requirements to handle 
the additional perplexity of word seg- 
mentation, interword coarticulation, 
and function word reduction. It is ex- 
pected that economically viable sys- 
tems that can handle continuous 



speech will follow discrete-word KVWs 
within a few years. 

The KVW techniques are also 
adaptable to European languages. 
The acoustic experts require very lit- 
tle change. The principal changes nec- 
essary to the language experts are 
(1) to provide the appropriate gram- 
mar rules to the parsing expert (al- 
though the parsing-expert algorithms 
themselves don't require substantial 
change) and (2) to train the language 
experts on appropriate foreign-lan- 
guage text. Foreign-language KVWs 
will probably follow the English KVW 
within a few years. 

Handling Japanese requires more 
work than do European languages 
such as French or German. While Jap- 
anese has only about 120 syllables 
(compared to around 10,000 in 
English), the syllable set is a perplex 
one, with many syllable pairs being 
distinguished only by the duration of 
the vowel. Also, the differences in Jap- 
anese syntax require modifying more 
than just the parsing expert's gram- 
mar rules. Most of the KVWs tech- 
niques are, however, appropriate to 
the language, and a Japanese machine 
is feasible. 

A number of configurations of a 
speech-to-display sensory aid for the 
deaf using the KVW technology have 
been proposed, which the company 
plans to pursue. Alternatives range 
from a speaker-independent version 
of the KVW (with an increased error 
rate) to a system that displays 
phonetic transcriptions rather than 
words. Such a phonetic transcription 
would contain some insertion, dele- 
tion, and substitution errors but could 
be understood by the user with ap- 
propriate training. 

Conclusion 

The introduction of large-vocabulary 
ASR is expected to provide dramatic 
productivity gains in creating written 
text, an optimal mode of communica- 
tion between persons and intelligent 
computerized devices and services 
for information retrieval and analysis, 
as well as improved understanding 
and communication for the deaf 
population. ■ 



1 YTE • MARCH 1986 



FORTRAN PROGRAMMERS 




LOOK FAMILIAR? 





F77L GETS YOU OUT OF THESE SITUATIONS 



1. PROGRESS IMPOSSIBLE 

You've tried other PC FORTRANS, 
but none of them allow you to 
complete your project. It could be 
the lack of key features, the over- 
whelming bugs, being stuck with a 
subset, or the inability to run large 
programs. 

The answer to your problems is 
F77L. With F77L you not only get 
the full ANSKX3.9— 1978) Standard 
but additional features for flexibility 
in programming. We have done 
more than simply design a product 
to run all your programs, we imple- 
mented a system that allows users 
to reach their full programming 
potential. At LCS, we have been 
specializing in FORTRAN for over 
16 years, and we believe that our 
commitment and dedication to 
FORTRAN has resulted in the 
finest language system available. 
"Judging by Lahey's corporate 
history, they've got lots of 
experience writing FORTRAN 
compilers. Judging by my 
experience with their product, 
I would agree wholeheartedly." 
IEEE Software, November 1985 

2. THE ENDLESS COMPILE 

Your valuable time is spent waiting 

endlessly for your programs to 

compile. 

We have not only developed an 

unbelievably fast compiler but we 

did it without sacrificing features, 

diagnostics, or the speed of execution. 



This uncompromising attitude is 
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compiler speed. 

"FjfL compiled the five files in a 
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times as fast as MS FORTRAN and 
an astounding 6 times as fast as 
Pro FORTRAN." 

PC Magazine, Dec. 24, 1985 

3. MYSTERY MESSAGES 

The messages your FORTRAN is 
giving don't make any sense. 
F77L eliminates the confusion by 
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compiler and run time messages 
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"The manual that comes with this 
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messages are clearly explained, the 
compiler's unique features are well 
documented. . .All in all, FjyL is a 
fine, well supported product that we 
think will do very well in the 
marketplace." 
Computer Language, January 1986 



Isn't it time to say good-bye to all the 
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F77L 

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Requires: PC/MS-DOS, 256K, 8087/80287 

TO ORDER OR FOR MORE INFORMATION 
(213) 541-1200 

Lahey 
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Systems, Inc. 

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Rancho Palos Verdes, CA 90274 

MS FORTRAN e a trademark of Mcrosorl Corporation 
Professorial FORTRAN ts a trademark of International Busness Macnines 




Inquiry 202 



MARCH 1986 'BYTE 187 



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JB1270G/1275A (ea.) $99.99 

JB12B0G TTL $129.00 

JB1285A TTL $129.00 

JC1460 RGB $249.00 

JC1225 Composite $179.00 

JC1401 Multi Sync RGB $549.00 

PRINCETON 

MAX-12E Amber $179.00 

HX-9 9" RGB $469.00 

HX-9E Enhanced $519.00 

HX-12 12" RGB $469.00 

HX-12E Enhanced $559.00 

SR-12 Hi-Res $599.00 

SR-12P Professional $699.00 

115 12" Green $119.00 

116 12" Amber $129.00 

121 TTL Green $139.00 

122 TTL Amber $149.00 

610 510x200 RGB $NEW 

620 640x200 RGB $NEW 

630 640x200 RGB $NEW 

640 720x400 RGB $NEW 

QUADIWl^ 

8400 Quadchrome I $499.00 

8410 Quadchrome II $339.00 

8420 Amberchrome $179.00 

6500 Quad Screen $1449.00 

ZVM 1220/1230 (ea.) $99.99 

ZVM 1240 IBM Amber $149.00 

ZVM 130 Color $269.00 

ZVM 131 Color $249.00 

ZVM 133 RGB $429.00 

ZVM 135 RGB/Color $459.00 

ZVM 136 RGB/Color $599.00 



INTERFACES 



Multi I/O (Apple II) $159.00 

MMfHtAcrtCAi 

mPtJHPHOULS 

Graphcard $79.99 

Seriall Card $99.99 

Microbutter II + $169.00 

Microbutfer 32K $189.00 

Microfazer from $139.00 

Efazer (Epson) from $79.99 

JJOrange (Tlkro 

Grappler CD (C64) $89.99 

Grappler + (Apple) $89.99 

Grappler 16K+ (Apple) $159.00 

DIGITAL DEVICES 

Ape Face (Atari) $4'„.99 

U-Print A (Atari) $54.99 

U-A16/Buffer (Atari) $74.99 

U-Call Interface (Atari) $39.99 

U-Print C (C64) $49.99 

P-16 Print Buffer $74.99 

U-Print 16 apple lie $89.99 



a 



PRINTERS 



Canon 

A40 CALL 

LBP-8A1 Laser CALL 

^CITIZEN 

MSP-10 (80 col.) $279.00 

MSP-15 (132 col.) $389.00 

MSP-20 (80 col.) $349.00 

MSP-25 (132 col.) $509.00 

crroH 

Prowriter 7500 $179.00 

Prowriter 1550P $349.00 

Slarwriter 10-30 $399.00 

corona 

Lazer LP-300 $2799.00 

DIABLO 

D25 Daisywheel $549.00 

635 Daisywheel $899.00 

D80IF Daisywheel CALL 

d*sywriter 

2000 $749.00 

EPSON 

Homewriter 10, LX-80, LX-90 CALL 

FX-85, FX-286, RX-100, JX-80 CALL 

DX-10, DX-20, DX-35 CALL 

SQ-2000, Hi-80. HS-80. AP-80 CALL 

LQ-800, LQ-1000. LQ-1500 CALL 

JUKI 

6000 Letter Quality CALL 

6100 Letter Quality CALL 

6200 Letter Quality CALL 

6300 Letter Quality CALL 

5510 Dot Matrix CALL 

LEGEND 

808 Dot Matrix 100 cps $179.00 

1080 Dot Matrix 100 cps $259.00 

1380 Dot Matrix 130 cps $289.00 

1385 Dot Matrix 165 cps $339.00 

NEC 

3000 Series $999.00 

8000 Series $1399.00 

ELF 360 $449.00 

Pinwriter 560 $999.00 

OKIDA1A 

182. 183. 192. 193, 2410, 84 CALL 

Okimate 10 (Specify C64/Atari)$1 89.00 
Okimale 20 (IBM) CALL 

Panasonic 

KX1080 $NEW 

KX1091 $259.00 

KX1092 $389.00 

KX1093 $479.00 

Quadjet $399.00 

Quad Laser CALL 

^SJIYER-REEO 

500 Letter Quality $279.00 

550 Letter Quality $419.00 

770 Letter Quality $759.00 

§M»r 

SG-10C (C64 Interface) CALL 

SB/SD/SG/SR Series CALL 

Powertype Letter Quality CALL 

Texas Instruments 

TI850 $529.00 

TI855 $639.00 

TI865 $799.00 

TOSHIBA 

1340 (80 column) $469.00 

P341 (132 column) $949.00 

P351 (132 column) $1099.00 



PC COMPATIBLES 



Inquiry 84 



SOFTWARE FOR IBM 



IBM PC SYSTEMS 

Configured to your 

specification. 
Call for Best Price! 

IBM-PC, IBM-PC II, IBM-XT, IBM-AT 

KP-2000 Portable .7 CALL 

Kaypro PC CALL 

ANSA Software 

Paradox :. $549.00 

ASHTON-TATE 

Framework II $399.00 

dBase III Plus CALL 

BORLAND 

Lightening $59.99 

Sidekick (unprotected) $59.99 

Reflex $59.99 

Newspack $59.99 

CENTRAL POINT 

Copy II PC-Backup $29.99 

DECISION RESOURCES 

Chartmaster $229.00 

Signmaster $169.00 

Diagram Master $219.00 

FOX & GELLER 

Quickcode III $169.00 

FUNK SOFTWARE 

Sideways $39.99 

HARVARD SOFTWARE 

Total Project Manager $269.00 

INFOCOM 

Cornerstone $279.00 

LIFETREE 

Volkswriler 3 $159.00 

LIVING VIDEOTEXT 

Think Tank $109.00 

Ready $64.99 

LOTUS 

Symphony CALL 

1-2-3 CALL 

MECA SOFTWARE 

Managing Your Money 2.0 $99.99 

MICROSTUF SOFTWARE 

Crosstalk XVI $89.99 

Crosstalk Mark IV $149.00 

Remote $89.99 

MICRORIM SOFTWARE 

R:Base 4000 $249.00 

R:Base 5000 $389.00 

Clout 2.0 $129.00 

MICROPRO 

WordStar 2000 $249.00 

WordStar 2000 + $299.00 

WordStar Professional $199.00 

Easy $99.99 

MICROSOFT 

Word $229.00 

Mouse $139.00 

Flight Simulator $39.99 

MultiPlan $129.00 

MULTIMATE 

Advantage $289.00 

Multi Mate Word Proc $219.00 

On File $89.99 

Just Write $89.99 

NOUEMENON 

Intuit $69.99 

NORTON 

Norton Utilities 3.1 $59.99 

ONE STEP 

Golf's Best $39.99 

PFS:IBM 

First Success W/F/P $199.00 

File/Graph (ea.) $79.99 

Report $74.99 

Write/Proof Combo $79.99 

PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE 

Wordplus-PC w/Boss $249.00 

THE SOFTWARE GROUP 

Enable $259.00 

SATELLITE SYSTEMS 

Word Perfect 4.1 $219.00 

SORCIMflUS 
Accounting 

AP/AR/GL/INV/OE (ea.) $299.00 

SuperCalc III $199.00 

EasyWriter II System $199.00 

Super Project $199.00 

SPI SOFTWARE 

Open Access $379.00 

SUBLOGIC 

Jet $39.99 

5th GENERATION 
Fast Back $109.00 



PC-138 Series CALL 

PC-148 Series CALL 

PC-158 Series CALL 

PC-160 Series CALL 

PC-171 Series CALL 

AT-200 Series CALL 

^ SANYO 

MBC 550-2 Single Drive $649.00 

MBC 555-2 Dual Drive $949.00 

MBC 675 Portable CALL 

MBC775 $1699.00 

MBC 880 Desktop CALL 

Axnr 

Safari (7300) CALL 

6300 CALL 

corona 

PPC400 Dual Portable $1289.00 

PPCXT 10 meg Portable $1989.00 

PC40022 Dual Desktop $1389.00 

PC400-HD2 10 meg $1989.00 

ITT 

ITT X-TRA 

256K, 2 Drive System CALL 

256K.10 meg Hard Drive System CALL 
XP5, 20 meg CALL 



Sperry-AT as low as $1749.00 

Sperry-IT as low as $2699.00 

Call for Specific Configuration! 
All Models CALL 



EME5E3ZIE 



Rampage $379.00 

Six Pack Plus $229.00 

I/O Plus II $139.00 

Advantage-AT $399.00 

Graph Pak/64K $599.00 

MonoGraph Plus $399.00 

Preview Mono $299.00 

PC Net Cards $379.00 

5251/1 1 On-line $669.00 

5251/12 Remote $579.00 

IRMA 3270.. „~"™~! $879.00 

IRMA Print $999.00 

IRMA Smart Alec $779.00 

=SVEREX— 

Edge Card $259.00 

Graphics Edge $259.00 

Magic Card II $169.00 

HERCULES 

Graphics $299.00 

Color $159.00 



ssociaies 

IDEA 5251 $589.00 

MYLEX 

The Chairman $469.00 

PARADISE 

Color/Mono Card $149.00 

Modular Graphics Card $259.00 

Multi Display Card $219.00 

Five Pack C, S $129.00 



Bob Board $359.00 

ll — 

Captain - 64 $199.00 

Captain Jr. 128K $199.00 

Graphics Master $469.00 

QUADBAN^ 

Quadport-AT 3sE.. $11 9.00 

Liberty-AT (128K) $349.00 

The Gold Quadboard $449.00 

The Silver Quadboard $239.00 

Expanded Quadboard $209.00 

Liberty $309.00 

QuadSprint $499.00 

QuadLink $399.00 

QuadColor $199.00 

QuadJr. Expansion Chassis $419.00 

Expansion Chassis Memory $199.00 

Chronagraph $79.99 

Parallel Interface Board $64.99 

INTEL 

PCNC8087 5MHz 

PCNC8087-2 B MHz CALL 

PCNC80287 6 MHz FOR 

1010 PC-Above Board YOUR 

1110 PS-Above Board pc 

2010 AT-Above Board 




Dept. A 103 




190 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 68 for End-Users. Inquiry 69 for DEALERS ONLY 



HOMEBOUND COMPUTING 



INCREASING 
INDEPENDENCE 
FOR THE AGING 

by K. G. Engelhardt and Roger Edwards 



Robotic aids and smart technology 
can help us age less dependency 



FOR THE FIRST time in history, a 
significant portion of our population 
is living to be senior citizens, and we 
have no experience in caring for large 
numbers of healthy, literate, articulate 
older persons, many of whom are 
highly educated. As our society grays, 
we need more ways to help increase 
the independence of those with 
chronic and multiple disabilities. 
Rapid advances in microprocessor- 
based technologies are providing us 
with many new possibilities. Their 
miniaturization, flexibility, modularity, 
and ever-decreasing costs now make 
it possible to realistically address 
human problems that we could not 
just 10 years ago. 

The need to control our environ- 
ment and our lives in order to reduce 
dependence is critical to human de- 
velopment. Loss of personal in- 
dependence is costly, not only in ac- 
tual dollars spent on institutional and 
long-term care, but also in emotional 
and psychological terms. The need to 
reduce premature and unnecessary 
institutionalization of our elderly 
citizens is critical. We need more 
devices that will increase the in- 



dependence and the sphere of con- 
trol of individuals with disabilities and 
to augment the care givers' tasks with 
state-of-the-art tools to help them pro- 
vide better care. 

This article discusses potential ap- 
plications of microprocessor-based 
technology for increasing inde- 
pendence in those with declining 
abilities. From panic buttons to smart 
houses, from stationary telemanipula- 
tors to self-navigating robots, from 
memory-aid devices to expert sys- 
tems for daily living, microprocessor- 
based technology can assist the func- 
tionally dependent older person. 

Applications 

An applications team was formed dur- 
ing the winter of 1984 to investigate 
potential uses for robots and robotic- 
related technologies. The team iden- 
tified 54 subgroups of tasks and 
divided them into 12 major categor- 
ies: patient transport-lift-transfer, 
housekeeping, ambulation (walking 
patients to help prevent bedsores), 
physical therapy, depuddler (urine 
cleaner), surveillance (to help with 
wandering patients), physician assis- 



tant, nurse assistant, patient assistant, 
vital-signs monitor, mental stimula- 
tion, and one miscellaneous group. 
Let's look at some possible robotic 
applications in a few of these groups. 
Lifting and Transferring: The 
challenge of lifting and transferring in- 
dividuals with partial or total paralysis, 
extensive weakness, or increased 
fragility due to age is significant. One 
robotic solution could be a track- 
mounted robot arm that glides along 
the ceiling until it reaches the room 
to which it has been summoned. The 
care giver or the older person could 
then direct the arm to assist in lifting 
or transferring the individual from bed 
to chair or wheelchair to bath, for ex- 
ample. This assistance could also help 

[continued 

K. G. Engelhardt is a senior research scien- 
tist and codirector of the Health and Human 
Services Robotics Laboratory at the Robotics 
institute of Carnegie-Mellon University. 

Roger Edwards is a research scientist in the 
H.H.S. Robotics Laboratory at the Robotics 
Institute of Carnegie-Mellon University. They 
can be reached at the Robotics Institute, 
Carnegie-Mellon University, Schenley Park. 
Pittsburgh. PA 15213. 



MARCH 1986 



i YTE 



191 



AGING INDEPENDENTLY 



An expert system 
could aid in keeping 
people independent and 
in their homes. 



reduce back injuries and increase job 
satisfaction for health-care workers 
and offer increased independence for 
the older person. 

Ambulation: This same ceiling- 
mounted robotic arm could offer an 
"elbow" to people who need exercise 
but are a bit shaky, or it could help 
by pushing a wheelchair along the 
arm's track corridor. Another solution 
could be comfortable parachute-like 
harnesses to safely support weakened 
individuals in standing positions. 
These "people walkers" would be pro- 
grammed to move at varying speeds 
(under computer control) depending 
on the individual's prescribed exercise 
needs. Currently, patients are rarely 
walked individually on a daily basis 
because there is not enough free staff 
time to assist them. Regularly pre- 
scribed exercises might affect an 
older person's quality of life, health, 
and sleeping patterns. 
Patient Assistant: Robotic aids can 
also perform manipulation tasks in an 
older person's physical environment. 
Our research has shown that older 
people are capable of using a robotic 
aid, and it has identified a range of 
health and independence-related ap- 
plications from stationary, sensory- 
less, bedside-mounted manipulators 
to problem-solving, self-navigating 
vehicles with robotic arms that work 
in coordination. A low-cost manipula- 
tor could be mounted on a bedside 
table, hospital bed, or wall track and 
perform pick-and-place tasks for a 
bedbound person. A stationary sys- 
tem with some sensory capabilities, 
such as force and tactile sensors, 
could help with some personal 
grooming and feeding tasks. A 
mobile, guided vehicle could deliver 
food trays or perform simple fetch- 
and-carry tasks. A self-navigating 



robot wheelchair could transport the 
individual and have a robotic arm at- 
tached to perform manipulation tasks. 

Daily-Living Expert Systems 

Expert systems that offer cognitive 
assistance are another possibility. 
Such a system could help someone 
with physical or cognitive limitations 
to make the decisions required in 
everyday living. An expert system 
could aid in keeping people indepen- 
dent and in their own homes for a 
longer time. It could help remind 
older individuals to perform certain 
tasks. It could also alert a care giver 
elsewhere should a change of status 
signal an emergency situation. 

Development of a memory aid or 
"mind jogger" for specific activities is 
the first step in creating an expert sys- 
tem for daily living. Such aids are 
needed for a wide spectrum of peo- 
ple with short-term memory deficienr 
cies. Work on this problem is under- 
way at the University of Michigan (see 
reference 1). Development of an effec- 
tive memory aid for those with declin- 
ing cognitive abilities depends on the 
system's ability to communicate 
reminders to its user and on the user's 
ability to comprehend those mes- 
sages. Both the quality and content of 
the information conveyed are impor- 
tant considerations. 

What is the best way for a remind- 
ing aid to present information so it is 
most likely to be understood? We 
know virtually nothing about how 
much and what kinds of information 
are needed for various use groups. 
There is a range of choices that vary 
depending on the intended user. 
Whether we use visual or auditory 
reminders or both depends on the 
user's "cognitive perceptual and 
motor demands." Voorhees (see refer- 
ence 2) has demonstrated the impor- 
tance of careful integration of multi- 
modal information systems in design- 
ing airline cockpits. This analogy is not 
as farfetched as it may seem, since 
automated feedback in both instances 
serves a reminding function. In both 
cases, we must consider specific char- 
acteristics associated with visual and 
voice output. Our goal, as in Voorhees's 



cockpit design, is to deliver the "max- 
imum amount of information transfer 
under conditions of minimum cogni- 
tive effort" (see reference 2, page 54). 
Determining the requirements for 
devices that improve independence 
requires examining the functional 
capabilities of older users. Their 
cognitive statuses, hearing losses, and 
visual abilities are three main factors 
in designing input control schemes 
and effective verbal or visual feedback. 

Lawton's concept of "centers of con- 
trol" that older people create in their 
environments (see reference 3) can be 
a starting point for considering tech- 
nology's capability for increasing in- 
dependence. He observes that older 
people with decreased mobility gen- 
erally have a favorite easy chair sur- 
rounded by those objects that they 
consider essential, including tables, 
television, medicines, water and pitch- 
er, pictures, and other personal mem- 
orabilia. They usually face an entrance 
so they know who is entering and 
leaving. Since elderly individuals often 
spend increasing amounts of time in 
their own homes, control over their 
home environments becomes increas- 
ingly important to their sense of 
independence. 

In an airplane, the cockpit is the 
organized center for controlling an 
aircraft. Its design allows the pilot to 
maximize the interactive workspace. 
Work with disabled persons, whose 
wheelchairs serve as their primary in- 
teractive lifespace, has brought a new 
meaning to this concept of "centers 
of control." 

Voice I/O 

For older people, voice technology 
offers a more natural approach to 
controlling objects and devices within 
their personal space. They need a 
natural-language interface that 
enables them to communicate with 
the system in everyday English as op- 
posed to computerese. 

Environmental and remote control 
of televisions, appliances, stereos, 
doors, windows, and locks under 
voice control already exist. Voice 
operation of entertainment items is 

(continued) 



192 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



Turbocharged AT ? 
Turbocharge Your Office. 



Introducing 
the ARC 286 turbo. 
An AT compatible 
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ARC. 



OEM and Distributor Sales: 

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.iL r r r r : r r r r r t t t i 
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XVClidbility. We design it in, we build it in, we test it in. With 
two separate R&D staffs. With the highest quality components and board. 
With 72 hour burn in. And we guarantee it for two years. 

A 6CnnOIOgy . We produced the first guaranteed compatible XT 
"turbo" system. The first V-20 based system designed to run at 2.8 times 
XT speed. The first XT dimensioned AT upgrade. 

V ill UG . It's not an outdated concept at ARC. Whether your company 
is small or big, the value we provide makes a difference to your business. 
At ARC, providing value is our job. 

XT and at are trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 



American Research Corporation 
2001 West Chestnut Street 
Alhambra, CA 91803 

Inquiry 392 for End-Users. Inquiry 393 for DEALERS ONLY. 




Reliability. 



American 
Research 
Corporation 
Technology. Value. 



MARCH I? 



IYTE 193 



NO OTHER PRINTERS 
CAN PRINT THIS 




Panasonic 



Panasonic. That name already says a lot 
about the kind of reliability you expect from a 
computer printer. 

But we don't just let our name speak for itself. 
Every Panasonic printer is backed by Panasonic's 
exclusive 2-year warranty. How many printers do 
you know of that can make that statement? 

And speaking of strong statements, consider 
these, as well: 

All Panasonic printers, whether dot matrix or 
daisy wheel, are compatible with today's most 
popular business computers. 

All of them offer a variety of sophisticated 
advances you'd expect from a company like 
Panasonic. Like astonishingly legible compressed- 
letter styles available for easy-to-read spread- 
sheets on any of our dot matrix printers. Or an 
impressive array of word processing embellish- 
ments like boldface, shadow, underline and more 
on our daisy wheel printers. 




KX-P1080DOI Matrix 100 CPS KX-P1091 Dot Matrix 120 CPS KX-P1092 Dot Malnx 180 CPS 



All of them have Panasonic's seamless, 
endless, continually self re-inking ribbon so you 
can print clean and fast from the first character to 
the last. 

And speaking of fast, you'll be able to print 
your documents at velocities of up to 240 charac- 
ters per second. 

Most printers feature time-saving bi- 
directional printing and logic-seeking. Some 
even have a built-in print mode or font selectable 
switch that allows you to change printing styles 
directly on the printer rather than through your 
computer. 

But what really says the most about 
Panasonic printers is how well we back them: two 
full years, double the standard in the industry. See 
it at your dealer. 

Need we say more? 

(Oh, yes . . .for the dealer near you, call toll 
free:1-800-PIC-8086.) 



Panasonic 

Industrial Company 




KX-P1592 Do! Malnx 180 CPS 



KX-P1595 Do! Matrix 240 CPS KX-P3131 Daisy Wheel 17 CPS KX-P3151 Daisy Wheel 22 CPS 



194 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 262 



AGING INDEPENDENTLY 



important also. Security can be 
enhanced by voice-activated door 
locks and by using smoke detectors 
that have feedback designed for 
"aged ears." 

Voice technology might play an im- 
portant role in functions such as re- 
minding older people to take their 
medicines. A buzzer or bell gives only 
one level of communication: sound 
without content. Voice messages act 
as a more effective memory jogger by 
reminding people what they need to 
do. 

We can apply principles already 
operating in natural-language data- 
base interfaces to this area. Several 
age-related considerations could be 
important in voice input and output 
and in a natural query language for 
older users. The jargon or slang of 
relevant decades could be stored and 
used to optimize a specific person's 
ability to communicate by using 



familiar terms. For example, if you 
want to ask whether an older person 
wants to listen to the stereo, you 
might use words such as "record 
player" or "phonograph" to improve 
that person's understanding of the 
question. 

Voice output could also be used in- 
teractively with human input to help 
maximize functional well-being. For 
instance, a smart system might ask its 
user, "Can you hear this?" and, based 
on the response (or nonresponse), ad- 
just volume levels of various output 
devices. The system could also de- 
crease or increase its speech output 
rate in order to increase intelligibility. 
In this way, it could temporarily or 
permanently adapt to changing user 
or environmental characteristics. 
Redundancy and repetition may also 
play important roles in successful use. 
In one research situation where we 
worked with older persons with 



cognitive deficits, the guide rule was 
"everything in triplicate— we repeated 
all instructions three times. 

Creating a Safer Smart 
Environment 

Another potential application for the 
aging or disabled person is the smart 
card— 'one or more microelectronic 
chips mounted in a piece of plastic 
the size of a credit card" (see refer- 
ence 4)— which can contain a com- 
plete medical history and other rele- 
vant information and may provide an 
easy, secure way of interfacing with in- 
telligent machines. If paramedics had 
card-reading machines, they could ob- 
tain vital health information very 
quickly in an emergency situation. 
Devices that can read such cards also 
have sufficient information about an 
individual to adapt its feedback, pace, 
and overall interaction to that person's 

(continued) 




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Inquiry 63 



MARCH 1986 'BYTE 195 



AGING INDEPENDENTLY 



People need support 
without isolation 
as well as the tools 
to help protect 
dignity and privacy. 



capabilities. For example, an auto- 
matic-teller machine could adjust its 
speech rate or volume when it detects 
a particular code on a smart card. 

Smart-card technology could also 
be used to pay for home-delivered 
groceries ordered through a com- 
puterized television catalog. A nutri- 
tionist, as part of a home-care team, 
could maintain a minimum recurring 
order that the older person could add 
to. The smart card could pay for and 
inventory the groceries when they 
were delivered. In this way, a forget- 
ful older person could obtain and pay 
for groceries and not have to worry 
about cash transactions or remember- 
ing to buy necessary foods and sup- 
plies. Such applications could help 
delay removing older people from 
their own homes, from independent 
living. 

Emergency-alert systems provide an 
individual with immediate access to 
a health-care affiliate and enable a 
distressed individual to contact or 
signal neighbors, family, or profes- 
sional help. In one European country, 
the personnel at the midway answer- 
ing point have met the older users so 
that the person who responds to the 
call for help is not an unknown. This 
blending of a personalized approach 
with telecommunications technology 
offers security without isolation for 
many older people. 

Electronic instrumentation enables 
us to monitor babies during birth, 
unstable heart patients, and other 
severely traumatized individuals in 
order to determine the well-being of 
a person "at risk." The capabilities of 
this technology have also been ex- 
tended to include remote monitoring 



of well individuals in potentially hazar- 
dous situations, for example, 
astronauts. By combining remote 
vital-signs monitoring with panic but- 
tons, we can achieve an interactive 
biotelemetry that provides a chroni- 
cally but not critically ill person with 
the physical and psychological securi- 
ty to remain in a home setting. In- 
dividuals who are unable to call for 
help are assured that "someone" will 
know when they are not functioning 
properly and will initiate assistance. 
We need to provide support without 
isolation as well as the tools to help 
protect dignity and privacy. 

Ultimately, a total living environ- 
ment that is smart enough to help 
maximize functional security and 
capability for a disabled, elderly per- 
son may be the best way to care for 
our growing over-85 population. The 
first steps to creating a smart, forgiv- 
ing environment could incorporate 
current distributed-intelligence capa- 
bilities such as appliances (e.g., irons) 
that turn themselves off when they 
are not in use, stoves that buzz or 
speak to you (like the seat-belt 
reminder to buckle up), and pro- 
grammed thermostats that help con- 
serve energy. 

Brody claims that the first integrated 
smart house will be built in 1986-87 
(see reference 5) and will include ap- 
pliances that can communicate with 
each other and with the occupants, 
environmental and appliance opera- 
tion from a single TV-like remote-con- 
trol device or through voice com- 
mands, energy-consumption manage- 
ment, and security through various 
sensing devices. Subsequent efforts 
could incorporate technological capa- 
bilities already utilized in the space 
program to monitor the health and 
well-being of a homebound older 
person. 

Conclusion 

While we as a nation have conquered 
many of the challenges of land, air, 
undersea, and space travel, we have 
not conquered the frontiers of our 
own aging bodies and minds. One of 
the first steps we need to take is func- 
tional rehabilitation. If we can provide 



the assistance that will enable people 
of all ages and abilities to function at 
their highest level of performance, we 
will be taking giant steps forward. 
Using technology to serve human 
needs is not a novel idea. However, 
using evolving electronic innovations 
in this service role is still an exciting 
new field to be explored as we begin 
to understand our older citizens and 
their roles. 

A new era of technology demands 
a new era of attitudes. The use of 
technology to augment human in- 
dependence and dignity is a critical 
concern for each of us as we also age. 
Today's elderly have witnessed more 
rapid technological change during 
their lives than has any prior genera- 
tion. Many of these people rode in 
horse-drawn buggies as children, 
drove family automobiles in their mid- 
dle years, and now fly to visit their 
grandchildren. It is up to us to con- 
sider what technologies we want de- 
veloped and available to us as our 
abilities also decline, so that we can 
live longer, more independent lives. ■ 

REFERENCES 

1. Levine, S. P.. N. L. Kirsch, M. Fellon- 
Krueger, and L. A. Jaros. "The Microcom- 
puter as an 'Orthotic' Device for Cognitive 
Disorders." Proceedings of the Second Interna- 
tional Conference on Rehabilitation Engineering. 
page 130. Ottawa, Canada: 1984; Washing- 
ton, DC: RESNA. 

2. Voorhees, James W. "The Integration of 
Voice and Visual Displays for Aviation 
Systems." ]ournal of the American Voice \nputl 
Output Society, vol. 1, no. 1, June 1984, page 
48. 

3. Lawton, M. P. Technology and Aging 
Conference. Palo Alto. CA: March 1985. 

4. Mclvor, R. "Smart Cards." Scientific 
American, vol. 253. no. 5. November 1985, 
page 152. 

5. Brody, H. "The Smartest House on the 
Block." Higft Technology, vol. 5, no. 5, May 
1985, page 60. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
We would like to thank Margaret Gianinni. direc- 
tor of the Rehabilitation Research and Development 
Service of the Veterans Administration in Wash- 
ington. DC. for her support. We would also like 
to thank the staff and patients who have par- 
ticipated in our research at the VA Nursing Home 
Care Unit in Menlo Park. California and colleagues 
at PAVAMC. 



196 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



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198 BYTE • MARCH 1986 inquiry 166 



HOMEBOUND COMPUTING 



COMPUTING 

FOR THE 
BLIND USER 

by Aries Arditi and Arthur E. Gillman 



Some special human factors must be considered 
in assembling a workable system 



INEXPENSIVE COMPUTERS and non- 
visual communications hardware 
have, in theory, made personal com- 
puting as accessible to blind as to 
sighted persons. But in practice, per- 
sonal computing has its own special 
set of problems for the blind user. In 
this article we'll present some of the 
human-factors issues specific to non- 
visual personal computing. Our con- 
cern is to make computers more ac- 
cessible and efficient for blind and 
visually impaired persons. We hope 
our suggestions will be useful to in- 
dividuals and to designers of hard- 
ware and software. Many of the im- 
provements we discuss below can be 
implemented in several ways, often in 
more than one component of the sys- 
tem. They are intended to illustrate 
human-factors issues rather than to 
critique specific products. 

The system we use as a basis for this 
discussion is a popular one for blind 
and visually impaired users and is in- 
expensive enough for home use as 
well as employment settings. It con- 
sists of an Apple He microcomputer 
operating under DOS 3.3, a Votrax 
Personal Speech System for voice out- 



put, and Raised Dot Computing's 
Braille-Edit program version 2.44a. 
[Editor's note: There is a more recent version 
of Braille-Edit with a number of new features 
and enhancements. See Henry Brugsch's 
review, "Braille-Edit',' on page 2 51. Also, for 
an address list for manufacturers of products 
mentioned in this article, turn to page 208. | 
Most blind users have a printer for 
producing sighted (conventional) hard 
copy. Another useful peripheral is a 
braille printer, since braille hard copy 
is easier to proofread than voice out- 
put. While we will not specifically 
discuss braille hard copy, many of the 
human-factors issues discussed here 
are relevant to the design of braille 
printers. 

Braille-Edit is an integrated software 
package designed to satisfy most 
blind users' needs to process docu- 
ments. It is intended for use with a 
low-cost artificial-voice system such as 
the Votrax Personal Speech System or 
Street Electronics' Echo series (in- 
cluding the Echo-i- speeejb syn- 
thesizer) and various other periph- 
erals. Braille-Edit is not intended to 
(and does not) make all programs that 
run on the Apple accessible to the 



blind user, nor is it particularly useful 
in programming the computer. But it 
has a number of desirable utilities for 
the blind user, such as a translator of 
text to and from grade II braille (a 
commonly used coding system similar 
to Speedwriting shorthand) that 
makes impressively few errors and a 
copy facility for copying files to and 
from a paperless brailler such as the 
Versabraille from Telesensory Systems 
Inc. (TSI). 

The hardware and software de- 
signed to make a system accessible to 
the blind user can be viewed as an in- 

(continued) 
Aries Arditi, Ph.D., is a vision scientist and 
experimental psychologist in the Department 
of Research at the New York Association for 
the Blind (111 East 59th St., New York, NY 
10022) and an adjunct associate professor 
in New York University's Department of 
Psychology. 

Arthur E. Gillman, M.D., is a practicing 
psychiatrist and past director of research at 
the New York Association for the Blind. He 
is now clinical director of Central Westchester 
Community Services, Rockland Children's 
Psychiatric Center. He can be contacted at 3 4 
Pryer Manor Rd., Larchmont, NY 10538. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 199 



BLIND USER 



Our concern is 



with the accuracy, 
speed, and generality 
of the blind-user 
interface. 



terface between the user and hard- 
ware or software that presumes that 
the user is sighted. Our concern is 
with the accuracy, speed, and gen- 
erality of the blind-user interface. Ac- 
curacy and speed are areas in which 
data transmission to and from the 
computer can be improved by better 
design of the individual components 
of the interface or by the coordination 
or compatibility of the components. 
Speed and accuracy need to be 
balanced to produce the greatest 
levels of efficiency. Generality has to 
do with the scope of programs not 
specifically written for blind users that 
can be run by the blind user as a 
result of interface design. 

Accuracy 

Inaccuracies in data interchange be- 
tween the blind user and the com- 
puter arise from imperfect transla- 
tions of normal input and output into 
the special modes of the blind user. 
The normal text output of the screen 
must not merely be redirected to a 
voice device but must also be trans- 
lated into speech that effectively con- 
veys all of the information on the 
screen. Similarly, if you type in braille, 
the braille text input must be accu- 
rately translated to standard com- 
puter text prior to processing. 

One of the main functions of any 
voice-based software interface is to 
send the text that would normally go 
to the screen to the voice-output 
device. The fact that text data is not 
essentially visual is what makes the 
accessibility of computers to blind 
people possible in the first place. The 
voice peripheral receives streams of 
characters and pronounces either full 



words or individual characters. Full- 
word pronunciation breaks up each 
word into likely phoneme or allo- 
phone strings based on its spelling. 
Even though there may be errors in 
pronunciation resulting from excep- 
tions to these pronunciation rules, this 
scheme has the advantage of an un- 
limited vocabulary of pronounceable 
words. An excellent and readable 
discussion of issues relating to text- 
to-speech conversion can be found in 
reference 1. 

Full-word pronunciation is desirable 
when the computer is prompting the 
blind user or conveying the results of 
its operations. For example, it is 
quicker and more natural for the sys- 
tem to pronounce "Enter selection" 
than to spell it out. Full-word pronun- 
ciation is also useful in editing docu- 
ments, primarily as a means of find- 
ing your place in a document. But you 
cannot rely on artificial full-word text 
for other aspects of editing because 
text-to-speech conversion pronounces 
neither nonprinting characters such as 
space or tab characters nor punctua- 
tion symbols that are embedded in a 
text file. Typographical errors are also 
difficult to detect since they may 
result in only subtle if detectable pro- 
nunciation errors. For example, a 
voice device would pronounce 
"really" the same way it would pro- 
nounce "reelly" because it would 
analyze the two character strings into 
the same component phonemes (or 
allophones). 

Spelled-pronunciation mode is the 
only viable way to know precisely 
which text characters have been 
typed and is therefore preferred for 
most editing and all proofreading. But 
even with spelled-pronunciation 
mode it may be difficult to distinguish 
between similar sounding letters such 
as "m" and "n" or "t" and "p." 

The particular voice device you 
choose determines both the intelligi- 
bility of the artificial speech and 
usually the quality of the text-to- 
speech (full-word pronunciation) con- 
version. The "voice synthesizer" chip 
within the device is responsible for 
generating the sounds corresponding 
to each phoneme or allophone ele- 



ment, and the discriminability of such 
sounds is largely determined by this 
chip. A microprocessor and memory, 
also parts of the voice device, typical- 
ly perform the text-to-speech conver- 
sion. The time and memory taken by 
the algorithm that implements the 
conversion are important factors in- 
fluencing the accuracy of the conver- 
sion. Although most speech devices 
allow you to control a number of 
speech parameters, such as speech 
rate, inflection, and pitch, through 
special commands or controls, none 
of the less-expensive speech devices 
has as yet incorporated these param- 
eters into their text-to-speech algo- 
rithm. This would excessively reduce 
the speed and/or increase the com- 
plexity of the algorithm. The result is 
a usually intelligible but monotonous 
parade of pronounced phoneme 
strings separated by short pauses for 
word separation. The near future will 
undoubtedly bring us more natural 
sounding artificial speech at low cost. 

Thus far, we have discussed prob- 
lems translating text to voice. Trans- 
lating braille to text poses additional 
accuracy problems. One way for a 
blind user to enter text into the com- 
puter is with a braille keypad or key- 
board. The braille keypad can be 
simulated with an ordinary keyboard 
by using the space bar and the six 
keys on the lower tier of the keyboard. 
These six keys correspond to the dots 
of a braille character cell. With Braille- 
Edit you can choose to have whatever 
is typed show up on the screen as or- 
dinary print-style text (through braille- 
to-ASCII conversion) or as visual 
braille, which is of some use to the 
sighted transcriber. 

However, the lack of a one-to-one 
correspondence between ASCII 
codes and braille symbols causes 
significant problems. If the software 
doesn't take this into account, you will 
get garbage on the screen and gib- 
berish through the voice device. For 
example, the "dot 6" character in 
braille signifies that the next charac- 
ter should be interpreted as upper- 
case. To have the text spoken out 
properly, the software that takes input 

{continued) 



200 BYTE • MARCH 1986 




tfco* e 



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YES YOU CAN RECOVER 
ERASED FILES 

Even '-*.*. With Brown Bag™ Software's File 
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MENU-DRIVEN and 
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Do you have "one-of-those" in your office.. .we do 
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FIX A DAMAGED FILE TOO! 

Sometimes flies can get "glltched," by a power 
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We don't care. We work with floppy disk, most hard 
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We know that most people don't read manuals. (But 
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ou erase #, tile, and jieed.Jt recovered NOW, you're 
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the window size of your choice. 

FREE MAIL MERGE 

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KEYBOARD MACROS INCLUDED 

Brown Bag™ Software's Word Processor for the 
IBM-PC and compatibles Includes a built-in Macro 
Processor. This feature allows you to re-assign 
almost any key on the keyboard to a more favored 
one, or to assign commonly used text, boiler-plate, 
signature blocks, etc., to a keystroke. Save 
keystrokes, eliminate errors, increase productivity! 

POWERFUL EDITING FEATURES 

Like right and/or left justification, global search and 
replace including wildcards, un-replace, un-do, block 
moves, block copy and/or delete, word wrap, 
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headers, trailers (multi-line), mixed right and left 
pages, page numbering option, on-screen page 
breaks and more more more! 

PRINTERS AND FONTS GALORE! 

Brown Bag™ Software's Word Processor for the 
IBM-PC and compatibles Includes drivers for 47 
types of printers, Including the new lasers! Multiple 
fonts are standard too, Including draft printing (high 
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any document continuously (until you either run out 
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GREAT DOCUMENTATION AND 
FREE TELEPHONE SUPPORT 

Brown Bag™ Software's Word Processor for the 
IBM-PC and compatibles comes with a 175+ page 
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registered owners of this package, only: Additional 
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charge. This additional support is charged to Visa or 
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COMPATIBILITY 

IBM-PC and most compatibles including XT, AT, 
JR, Compaq, Tandy PC's, Eagle, etc. 128K of 
memory Is preferred. Monochrome display, single 
color, or multi-color mode, pick your own colors, or 
use our defaults, 24 editing lines. Use your existing 
word processor files, tool Requires 1 double-elded 
floppy disk drive. It runs on hard disks, and will use 
DOS 2.0 or greater sub-directory commands and 
path names. 

inquiry 48 



BLIND USER 



Rates of information 
exchange between the 
user and the machine 
will be inherently worse 
for a blind user. 



from braille-keypad mode and sends 
it to the screen or speech synthesizer 
must delete dot 6 characters and 
capitalize the first character of the 
subsequent word. This is fine for final 
copies of documents, but since this 
translation takes time, it is not really 
practical for writing and editing. To 
make the braille-keypad mode usable 
for editing documents, the voice- 
output device must be made to say 
"dot 6" or "capital" at the moment a 
dot 6 is encountered. This can either 
be done within programs like Braille- 
Edit, or it can be incorporated into in- 
telligent voice-output-device firmware, 
whereby they can be made to run in 
braille mode, filtering out all special 
braille characters and making appro- 
priate translations when the text is 
received. 

A specific difficulty for systems 
using braille input resulting from the 
lack of one-to-one character corre- 
spondence is that if you are using the 
braille-keypad mode, two different 
systems for coding numbers may have 
to be remembered. Standard braille 
uses the convention of coding num- 
bers as strings of characters whose or- 
dinal position in the alphabet (for "a" 
through "i") is equal to the value of 
each digit in the number; each such 
string is preceded by a braille "#" 
character. For example, the two-char- 
acter string "34" corresponds to the 
braille symbols for "#cd," a three-char- 
acter string, and the print and braille 
translation facilities assume that 
numbers have been typed in the lat- 
ter format. 

But user commands .that include 
numerical arguments (e.g., the com- 
mand for "advance the cursor 34 



characters") are best entered as 
Nemeth code, a system of braille used 
for mathematics, in which braille 
numbers are represented by a string 
of characters just as in ordinary braille. 
However, in Nemeth code, the 
number is not preceded by "#"; in- 
stead, each character in the number 
is shifted down one row in the braille 
cell matrix to distinguish the character 
as a digit. Because Nemeth code 
omits the "#," a Nemeth number re- 
quires the same number of characters 
to represent as a print-style digit 
string and therefore is much more 
easily translated into a string of ASCII 
digits. 

These translation problems should 
not necessarily be solved with soft- 
ware. It would not be difficult, for ex- 
ample, to design a braille keyboard 
that emulates and could replace a 
standard keyboard. Likewise, a voice 
device could easily have a braille-to- 
voice conversion mode built into its 
firmware. 

Another solution to braille-to-text 
translation problems is for the blind 
user to learn to type with a standard 
computer keyboard as Braille-Edit 
users do. This circumvents the lack of 
one-to-one correspondence between 
braille and ASCII codes entirely. By 
using spelled-pronunciation mode, 
you get immediate feedback as to 
which keys you have pressed. (In- 
cidentally, small raised dots on the D 
and K keys of the Apple keyboard aid 
in finding the home keys.) 

Speed 

Rates of information exchange be- 
tween the user and the machine will 
be inherently worse for a blind user 
than a sighted user because vision 
conveys text information more quickly 
than other sense modalities. The 
sighted user viewing a display screen 
can receive a screenful of information 
all at once, whereas the blind user 
working with artificial-voice output or 
a braille computer terminal receives 
information from the computer in 
serial fashion only and much more 
slowly than the sighted user. Because 
of this, increasing speed is especially 
important for the blind user. 



A general design issue that greatly 
affects the speed of the blind-user in- 
terface is the choice of driving the 
program by menus or by command 
language. A menu lists on the screen 
all the options currently available and 
prompts you to select one. This has 
the advantage that commands need 
not be memorized, and thus the user 
does not need experience to run the 
program. In contrast, a command lan- 
guage generally provides only a 
prompting character such as "*" to 
signal that the program is ready to 
receive a command. It takes time to 
learn a command language, but once 
you learn it, you can specify desired 
actions more tersely and more quickly 
than with a menu. 

For the blind user, the menu format 
is especially slow because the menu 
must be listened to rather than seen. 
Also, since it is easy to forget options 
listed early in the menu, lengthy 
menus must often be repeated. For 
these reasons, we think command-lan- 
guage format is better for the blind 
user. Command languages often pro- 
vide help-command supplements as 
teaching and mnemonic aids. The 
command language with help facili- 
ties combines the advantages of a 
menu with those of the command lan- 
guage because you can use a help 
menu while learning the program and 
avoid it when it would otherwise be 
unnecessary clutter. 

Another bottleneck that reduces the 
speed of the blind-user interface is 
the difficulty in translating screen for- 
mat to voice format. Redirection of 
the screen contents to the artificial- 
voice device makes the primary out- 
put of the computer intelligible, but 
a good deal more effort must go into 
making the output easily accessible to 
the blind user. Since so much soft- 
ware is screen-oriented, it is desirable 
to buffer the output to a "virtual 
screen." This virtual screen is an area 
of memory that contains one or more 
screens full of text and a virtual 
"voice" cursor. The virtual cursor may 
be moved about the virtual screen 
without affecting the contents of the 
ordinary terminal cursor. With key- 

(continued) 



202 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



: 






SlfUS 111^3" I 



Toshiba 3-in-One 






Introducing the com^^Wr^oWwProfWnTO^^ 

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And while we're introducing the P321, you get a 
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Call 1-800-457-7777 Operator 32 for your nearest 

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In Touch with Tomorrow 

TOSHIBA 

TOSHIBA AMERICA. INC. Information Systems Division 

Inquiry 356 



BLIND USER 



stroke commands such as "Speak 
phrase at cursor," the blind person 
can quickly read text anywhere on the 
screen. This feature has been incor- 
porated in several "talking terminals," 
in TSl's VERT, and in other recent soft- 
ware packages for the IBM PC. 

It is important for the user to know 
the locations of both the actual and 
the virtual cursors, and there should 
be a command serving this function, 
Locations should be spoken out as 
line and column number rather than 
serial character position because it is 
easier to imagine location in two 
dimensions than in one. For example, 
it is of limited use to know that you 
are 323 characters into a page, espe- 
cially when that page may contain 100 
space characters. 

Speed of use also depends greatly 
on the user's ability to adjust voice pa- 
rameters of the system. Because intel- 
ligibility depends on many factors, in- 
cluding speech rate and sound-fre- 
quency content (or "pitch"), such con- 
trols should be accessible to the user 
in some way, whether by command or 
by knobs on the voice device itself. 
Your ability to understand the artificial 
voice improves the more you listen to 
it, and you can maximize efficiency by 
using the fastest speech you can 
understand. 

There should also be some simple 
way to interrupt the voice device. A 
problem with our example system is 
that during output of long menus, the 
only way to terminate voice output is 
to turn off the power switch on the 
voice unit. Otherwise, you must listen 
to boring, lengthy menus you have 
memorized so thoroughly that it is ir- 
ritating to have to wait for them to 
finish. Turning off the power on the 
voice device to clear its buffer and 
force it to silence also resets the unit. 
Then commands to set parameters 
such as speech rate must be sent all 
over again. A special key or button on 
the voice device could be dedicated 
to the "Abort voice output" function. 

The choice of word processors ver- 
sus text-file processors also affects 
user speed. These are two fundamen- 
tally different approaches in programs 
designed to aid document writing. 



With what we call the "text-file pro- 
cessor" approach, you create a text 
file with commands embedded within 
the text to be executed later by the 
text-file-processor program. These 
commands do nothing to the text on 
the screen during an editing session 
but give the text a more pleasing 
spatial layout later, when the chapter 
is printed through the text-file pro- 
cessor. The embedded commands 
are, of course, filtered out and do not 
appear in the output. 

A more popular approach with per- 
sonal microcomputers is that of the 
word processor, in which editing and 
formatting the page are combined in 
the same process. Writing with a word 
processor makes the screen appear 
similar to the printed page that will 
eventually be printed out. As you 
type, the words are automatically ar- 
ranged on the "page" to fit within the 
margins with the currently selected 
line spacing, etc. Commands such as 
"Center next line" are performed on 
the screen as soon as you issue them. 
For example, whereas the file to be 
formatted with a text-file processor 
might contain only $$c to signal that 
the next line should be centered 
when formatted, the word processor 
would insert the number of spaces 
needed for the line to be centered 
during the editing session. 

Each approach has its advantages. 
Files to be text-formatted are much 
shorter because blank spaces and 
lines are added only when the file is 
processed. Also, you can make 
sweeping changes to the entire file 
with single commands such as "Set 
double spacing." For the blind user 
working with voice output, blank 
space and lines are abbreviated as 
commands such as $a20 rather than 
being counted one by one as the 
voice device repeats "space, space, 
space. ..." A disadvantage of text- 
file processors is that it is more dif- 
ficult to imagine how the page will ap- 
pear when printed out. Although this 
might not seem to be a drawback for 
blind users, in fact most blind people 
make use of spatial imagery in similar 
ways as sighted people (reference 2) 
and do imagine the spatial structure of 



the printed page. Another disadvan- 
tage is that the command strings may 
be somewhat distracting when spoken 
out by the voice device in full-word 
pronunciation mode. 

Advantages to the word processor 
are that the text need not be cluttered 
with the embedded commands, and 
you see the page in a form that is 
more similar to its printed ap- 
pearance. A disadvantage is that since 
the text is being rearranged con- 
tinuously during editing, words move 
about more. It may be difficult for the 
blind user to find words, since they 
rely more on the constancy of word 
positions in each line. Most word pro- 
cessors, however, allow you to enable 
and disable the automatic formatting 
facilities at will. 

The choice of word processor or 
text-file processor generally depends 
on how the location of the cursor is 
represented and on how the voice 
system represents blank space. If cur- 
sor location is represented in charac- 
ter units, then the text-file processor 
is preferred because it is difficult to 
interpret a cursor location number 
due to the possibility of significant 
amounts of blank space. However, if 
line and column representation is 
used, and blank space can be spoken 
out in abbreviated form such as "20 
spaces" or as nonspeech sounds rep- 
resenting spaces or linefeeds, then 
word-processor format is preferred 
because it is easier to imagine the 
final output. 

Generality 

Finally, generality must be considered 
in designing a system for the blind 
user. Although a system designed 
from the bottom up to serve only 
blind users would have obvious ad- 
vantages for the blind person, a more 
realistic goal, and one that fosters bet- 
ter communication with sighted users 
and produces more employment op- 
portunities, is to design a system that 
gives the blind user access to all 
general-audience software that is not 
intrinsically visual. 

A flexible and general system 
should allow the user to customize 

(continued) 



204 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



SOMETIMES 
JUST NOT 



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In addition to the new features of 3.0, the Lattice C Compiler still 
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A powerful and flexible tool for interactive screen design. 
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Inquiry 206 



c 1985 Lifeboat Associates 

MARCH 1 986 



Y T E 205 



BLIND USER 



the workings of the blind-user inter- 
face. You should be able to set all 
parameters of that interface while an 
applications program is running. Gen- 
erally, this involves having either a 
separate keypad or switches on the 
voice device, or a special switch or 
command that redirects normal key- 
board input to the voice device. This 



approach would avoid the possible 
conflicts between keys (e.g., function 
keys) that are used both to operate 
the applications program and to con- 
trol the voice device. 

Some voice devices now allow con- 
siderable flexibility in speech style, in- 
cluding options such as whether 
numbers ought to be pronounced by 



You already own a 
computer that can talk. 

Now let it. 



Now you can upgrade almost any personal computer 
and make it more powerful than ever, by giving it the power of speech. 



The Votrax Personal Speech System is the least 
expensive sophisticated voice synthesizer available today 
The PSS's text-to-speech vocabulary is virtually unlimited, 
and you can define an exception word table and custom- 
ize your translations. So the PSS can say just about anything 

It's a speech and sound specialist. 

The PSS can also mix speech and sound effects or speech 
and music. It contains its own speaker a programmable 
master clock, 256 programmable frequencies, a program- 
mable speech rate for a more natural rhythm, and 1 6 
programmable amplitude levels for incredible control of 
word emphasis. You can control the volume. Plus, it 
doesn't use any of your computer's valuable memory. 

It's computer friendly. 

The PSS is unbelievably easy to use. It doesn't need an 
interface card for most computers. It comes with standard 
serial and parallel ports. Speech, music, and sound effects 
are as simple as printing out a document. 

What do you do with a talking 
computer? 

There are countless practical applications. Businesses may 
want the PSS for spoken transmission of information, 
narration of displays, and product demonstrations. It 
makes verification of data input possible for the blind. 
It can be part of a burglar alarm system. 
Children can use the PSS as a study 
aid. And it helps games come alive, 
speaking while you play. 

Whatever your computer can 
do, the PSS can help it do it better at 
a cost that makes it all worthwhile: 
only $395* Call (313) 583-9884 to hear an actual voice 
demonstration of the PSS. 

'Suggested rela.l price 



There's also the Type 'N Talk. 

If you want a less sophisticated unit and want to spend a 
little less, consider the Votrax Type 'N Talk (TNT). Its vocab- 
ulary is also limited only by what you can type. It doesn't 
use any computer memory, it's compatible with most 
computers, and it's only $249* Just plug it in to your own 
speaker and go! 

For more information about the Personal Speech 
System or the Type 'N Talk, see your local computer 
retailer call toll-free or write: 




individual digits or as full words, how 
to handle abbreviations and 
acronyms, whether or not to signal 
punctuation symbols, etc. Some allow 
you to redefine pronunciations of 
words and thus correct deficiencies of 
the text-to-speech algorithm. Such op- 
tions can be useful, but they must be 
easily accessible through hard con- 
trols or software. Our Votrax speech 
synthesizer, for example, has codes to 
set the speech rate and to abort 
speech, but Braille-Edit has no facili- 
ty to send such commands. If the 
Votrax had separate knobs or buttons 
to control them, the system would be 
completely software-independent in 
regard to these functions. 

Another important feature of the 
virtual screen with the virtual cursor 
described above is that it allows blind 
users to read portions of the screen 
that they would not be able to read 
with an ordinary cursor. An ordinary 
cursor is generally prohibited from 
moving into certain areas of the 
screen (protected fields, e.g., an area 
that displays current margin settings, 
tabs, etc.) where information is dis- 
played constantly rather than being 
pushed off the screen (from scrolling) 
after the screen is full. With the or- 
dinary cursor, the blind user has con- 
stant access only to those portions of 
the screen that have been explicitly 
directed by the program to voice out- 
put. But a virtual cursor can move 
within the protected fields, and you 
can read what would otherwise be 
hidden without affecting the actual 
cursor that must obey the boundaries 
set by the applications program. 

Perhaps the major disadvantage of 
our example system is that it is not 
possible for us to run any applications 
programs that are not specifically de- 
signed for the blind user. Braille-Edit 
is a useful program that performs all 
the functions featured on its menus 
and probably makes the Apple II 
computers more accessible to blind 
people than any other system, but 
greater flexibility can be achieved by 
systems' that modify or extend the 
operating-system facilities. 

Most applications programs send 

[continued) 



206 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 371 









It's not just that 
COMB\Qi$6 Computers are getting 
a rave reviews. . . 



■ ■ 






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^:W 












r / 



/ 



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It's why 




Since we introduced the COMPAQ DESKPRO 
286* and COMPAQ PORTABLE 286*, the 
accolades haven't stopped: 

Info World: "(COMPAQ DESKPRO 286 isj a superb 
performer. It races through its tasks with efficient 
competence and heartwarming speed. Most IBM PC 
programs worked much faster than on the PC or XT. 
Wordstar's speed is a joy. Lotus' 1-2-3 zips along. . . 
this machine will outperform the AT." 

PC Week: ". . . the machines IBM should have 
built." ". . . significant user advantages over IBM's 
machine ... a standard dual-mode monitor, reliable 
tape backup, . . . better construction than IBM's, an 
impressively fast drive and other little extras — at a 
price below similarly configured IBM's." 

Popular Computing: ". ..genuine enhancements, 
such as higher CPU speed, greater RAM capacity, 
portability, . . .greater hard-disk capacity, and an 
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Why are the COMPAQ 1 286 computers getting 
such rave reviews? They simply work better. 

For a free brochure or the location of your nearest Authorized 
COMPAQ Computer Dealer, call toll-free 1-800-231-0900 and ask 
for Operator 13. 
"1985 COMPAQ Computer Corporation. All rights reserved. 



, 







.table 286 Has Po<ver Ml I I I I l|| 



y 



COfnPAOL 



It simply works better. 



BLIND USER 



output and receive input through 
these facilities. Almost all, for exam- 
ple, request the operating system to 
type characters on the screen rather 
than writing a new section of program 
to perform this task. They do this both 
because it is easier and because it 
maintains the generality of the pro- 
gram; i.e., the program will run on all 
machines that use the same operating 
system. If the operating system is 
modified so that all screen output 
also automatically goes to a voice 
synthesizer, then virtually any pro- 
gram that is run will send whatever or- 
dinarily goes to the screen to the 
voice output as well. Operating-sys- 
tem modifications would have the 
generality that allows programs not 
written for blind users to be accessi- 
ble to them nevertheless. In this way, 
blind and sighted users can work 
together, using the same software. 
Braille-Edit is not this kind of 
modification— it is simply a good ap- 
plications program written for the 
blind user. The alternative to operat- 
ing-system modification is that each 
commercial program that is devel- 



oped will require parallel develop- 
ment of a blind-users version of that 
program. 

In recent months several new sys- 
tems have been offered commercial- 
ly that do work by these principles. 
One is TSI's Professional VERT a 
voice-output hardware and software 
configuration for the IBM PC that we 
have not evaluated. Another is an 
operating-system modification and 
addition called The Enhanced PC Talk- 
ing Program (from Computer Conver- 
sations). This program also runs on 
the IBM PC and will work with most 
inexpensive voice-output peripherals, 
although the Votrax Type-'N-Talk is 
recommended. Another similar, more 
recent package for the IBM PC from 
Computer Aids Corporation is called 
Screen Talk. Both VERT (with an ad- 
ditional plug-in board) and The 
Enhanced PC Talking Program can 
emulate several popular computer 
terminals, making them especially at- 
tractive in employment settings. Final- 
ly, Maryland Computer Services' Total 
Talk PC system is a talking version of 
the Hewlett-Packard HP 150 Touch- 



Products 


Mentioned 


Screen Talk 


ECHO + 


Computer Aids Corp. 


Street Electronics Corp. 


124 West Washington, Lower Arcade 


1140 Mark Ave. 


Fort Wayne, IN 46802 


Carpinteria, CA 93013 


(219) 422-2424 


(805) 684-4593 


The Enhanced PC Talking 


VERT 


Program 


Versabraille 


Computer Conversations 


Telesensory Systems Inc. 


2350 North Fourth St. 


455 North Bernardo Ave. 


Columbus, OH 43202 


Mountain View, CA 94043 


(614) 263-4324 


(415) 960-0920 


Total Talk PC 


Personal Speech System 


Maryland Computer Services 


Type-'N-Talk 


2010 Rock Spring Rd. 


Votrax Inc. 


Forest Hill, MD 21050 


1394 Rankin Dr. 


(301) 879-3366 


Troy, MI 48083 




(313) 588-2050 


Braille-Edit 




Raised Dot Computing Inc. 




408 South Baldwin St. 




Madison, WI 53703 




(608) 2 57-9595 





screen personal computer. Yet an- 
other system, a passive screen reader 
card for the IBM PC, currently being 
developed by Tim Cranmer and 
others at the National Federation of 
the Blind, will not modify or add onto 
the operating system but will receive 
and interpret all data sent to the video 
screen buffer, so that even programs 
that bypass operating-system calls to 
write to the screen can be run. 

The rapid introduction of so many 
new systems illustrates how rapidly 
the field of making computers ac- 
cessible to blind persons is growing 
and becoming more competitive. Un- 
doubtedly the capabilities of com- 
puter hardware and software de- 
signed for blind users will continue to 
grow in parallel with the capabilities 
of systems designed for sighted 
users. 

For a microcomputer to be as ac- 
cessible as possible to blind people, 
designers must interface the system 
to the blind user at as primitive a level 
as possible. If the computer's operat- 
ing system "thinks" it is receiving stan- 
dard keyboard input but is in fact 
receiving braille that is translated 
before it is received by the operating- 
system software, then any program 
that uses the keyboard ought to be 
able to use braille entry as well. 
Similarly, if the operating system 
"thinks" it is sending output to a 
screen but actually sends it to a buf- 
fer that holds as much as a screenful 
or more, the blind user can peruse 
desired sections of it much the same 
way as a sighted person, for whom 
the program was originally designed. 
We hope that our observations have 
provided some structure to the 
various problems in designing a blind- 
user interface. We feel that solutions 
to the problems we have described 
will contribute to the more efficient 
and broader use of computers by 
blind people. ■ 

REFERENCES 

1. Stoffel, David. "Talking Terminals." BYTE, 
September 1982. page 218. 

2. Kennedy, I. M. "Haptic Pictures." Tactual 
Perception, W Schiff and E. Foulke. eds. New 
Rochelle, NY: Cambridge University Press, 
1982. 



208 BYTE • MARCH 1986 




A FRIEND INDEED. 



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needs help with faulty power. 

So give your hard disc or critical-use 
system LINE Z power conditioning. And 
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surges. Brownouts. Spikes. v 

LINE 2 Power Conditioners are designed 



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inrush currents don't affect them. Neither 
do power problems. And they're amazingly 
economical. 

A LINE 2 Power Conditioner can be 
your PC's best friend. And a friend in 
need is a friend indeed. Call us today at 
(619) 279-0831, or contact your local 
Square D distributor. 



Inquiry 354 for End-Users. 
Inquiry 355 for DEALERS ONLY. 



TOPAZ 

SqURRE f) COM PR NY 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 209 



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HARD DRIVE TAPE PRICE 

20 MEG 20 MEG $1379 

20 MEG 60 MEG $1654 

32 MEG 60 MEG $1870 



A perfect match! Colors and casing 
to conform with your IBM or 
ADEPT PC. In two convenient 
models to suit your space require- 
ments. Add hard drives in 20, 32 
or 40 megabytes. Cartridge tape 
backup in 20, or 60 megabytes. 
Combine hard drive and tape back- 
up for complete storage solutions. 
All units come with power supply, 
cables, software and manual. 



EXTERNAL 
STORAGE 

20 and 32MB. . From $724 
20 MB 
Combination Systems 



HARD DRIVE 



TAPE 



PRICE 



20 MEG 
20 MEG 
32 MEG 



20 MEG 
60 MEG 
60 MEG 



$1419 
$1694 
$1915 



TTTT 



ORDERS 

800 426-6246 

In Tcu« 

800 252-3404 



Mainstreet Computer 

1025 Main St. 

Bastrop, IX 78602 



Hoars: 

Mon-Fri: 9 am -6 pin 
Saturday: 9 am- 3 pm 




III 



SOFT WARE— Many titles available 800 426-6246 
Lowest inquiry 218 Call for Latest Version and Price 



Pricing On 
Borland! 



Examples — 



Borland Superkey $35 Copy II PC $25 
Multimate $238 Norton Utilities $49 



I 



BITE 



Reviews 



Reviewers Notebook 

by Glenn Hartwig 215 

Kaypro 286i 

by Harry Krause 217 

Modula-2 System for Z80 CP/M 

by Brian R. Anderson 225 

Pocket APL 

by Eric H. }ohnson 237 

Arity/Prolog 

by William G. Wong 245 

Braille-Edit 

by Henry Brugsch 251 

Printit 

by Henry Brugsch and Joseph J. lazzaro . . . 261 

Review Feedback 265 



THIS MONTH'S SECTION starts with an in-depth look at one of the proliferating 
generation of machines based on the 80286 processor, the Kaypro 286i. A 
fact about the machine, which is either a benefit or a defect depending on 
how you view the IBM PC AT is that the two machines are so close as to 
be nearly indistinguishable. On the other hand, there is a wide gulf between 
the prices that our reviewer, Harry Krause, found advertised for the IBM PC 
AT and the Kaypro 286i. 

Reviewer Brian R. Anderson looks at a Modula-2 compiler system for Z80 
CP/M from Hochstrasser Computing AG. Mr. Anderson begins by noting that 
the close association between the authors of the compiler and the author 
of the language led him to expect a high-quality product. He reports that his 
expectations were fulfilled. 

Eric H. lohnson begins his review of Pocket APL by noting that its cost and 
special hardware requirements have hampered the spread of a generally 
popular language outside academic or corporate environments. Now comes 
a new version of the language that runs in as little as 128K bytes of memory 
and requires no special hardware. On top of that, it's a complete implemen- 
tation of the language. Drawbacks? Some. Are they serious? Not if you use 
the language as a learning tool or to write fairly small programs. 

Arity/Prolog is an implementation of Prolog for MS-DOS systems and, says 
reviewer William G. Wong, one that matches implementations found on a 
number of mainframes. Given the fact that this version of Prolog is not cheap 
(you can pay from $495 for the base version Prolog interpreter to a whop- 
ping $1950 for a native-code compiler with the interpreter), you would ex- 
pect it to have something going for it. In Mr. Wong's view, it does indeed. 

Braille-Edit from Raised Dot Computing is a word processor that utilizes 
just about every kind of input and output not dependent on sight. For exam- 
ple, you can print to braille or print to paperless braille (storing braille 
characters on magnetic tape), you can run it on a variety of speech devices, 
and you can write files in braille using dedicated keys on the computer 
keyboard. One of the things blind computer users have long complained about 
is that products for them were simply shoddy, that they didn't represent a 
large enough "market segment" for vendors to take seriously. Reviewer Henry 
Brugsch gives careful consideration to the overall quality of this talking word 
processor and delivers his judgment on how well Braille-Edit conforms to or 
rebels against that trend. 

In our final review, we hear again from Henry Brugsch, this time collaborating 
with Joseph J. Lazzaro on a discussion of Printit— a card that lets you print 
anything you can get up on your Apple lis screen. Printit can also send any 
nongraphic data to a speech-output device. If you want your software package 
to "talk," and it won't do so in any other way, Printit will let you hear any text 
you can get on the screen. 



MARCH 



• BYTE 213 



TODAY 

PROGRAMMING BECAME 
A THREE LETTER WORD 




The Artek Ada compiler is the most advanced implementation of Ada available for personal computers. 
Fast and efficient, the compiler increases programming productivity and cuts costs. 



Ada is here to stay 

Ada is the most powerful general purpose language available today. It 
was designed for the largest user of computer hardware and software 
in the world (a nonprofit organization commonly referred to as the 
U.S. Department of Defense). Billions of dollars have already been 
invested in Ada projects, and there is more to come. Ada is unquest- 
ionably the computer language of the future. It will be used to 
program everything from spreadsheets to space stations. 

Artek Ada: A new standard in software engineering 

Ada provides you with powerful facilities for modular programming 
and separate compilation. Reusable components (generics) save costly 
code re-writes. Software reliablility is ensured through Ada's inbuilt 
error handling. System programming features provide low-level access 
to hardware while the language's standardization guarantees 
portability. 

Artek Ada: The most advanced Ada compiler for 
personal computers 

Artek Ada implements the DoD's 1983 Ada standard, including 



generics, derived types, overloading, packages, separate compilation, 
dynamic arrays, standard I/O, string handling, array and record 
aggregates and much more. The only major Ada feature not imple- 
mented is tasking. Minimum hardware requirements are: IBM PC or 
a compatible computer running MS-DOS or PC-DOS (2.0 or later 
versions) with 384 Kb RAM and one double sided floppy-disk drive. 
Artek Ada works with the IBM PC network. For further information 
see our information kit. 

Artek Ada is available now 

You can order the Artek Ada compiler now for only $ 895.00 includ- 
ing a debugger and a screen editor. Outside the U.S.A. add $ 20.00. 
A demo diskette is also available for 8 29.95 (including p&panywher 
in the world). Ask for our free information brochure. For orders or 
information call toll free 1-800-PC-ARTEK, in New Jersey or outside 
the continental U.S.A. call (201>867-2900, or write to our address. 
VISA, MC and AMEX accepted. 

New Jersey residents: Add 6% sales tax. Please pay with credit card 
or a bank draft, payable in U.S. dollars drawn on a U.S. bank. 
Dealer and distributor inquiries welcome. 



Ar t e 




<4^0t> Inquiry 29 

Artek Corporation 100 Seaview Drive Secaucus 
NJ 07094 

Artek is a trademark of Artek Corporation. 

Ada is a trademark of the U.S. Department of Defense, AJPO. 

IBM and PC-DOS are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation. 

MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. 



REVIEWER'S NOTEBOOK 



We've been concerned by what 
we thought were electrical 
power problems, so when we saw a 
power-line monitor designed to work 
with micros, we felt that this was 
something we ought to explore. It's 
called the Powertrac and it comes 
from Vertex Systems Inc. in Los 
Angeles. It consists of a power-line in- 
terface that plugs into your com- 
puter's serial port. From there, a con- 
nection leads to an Atari plug-in 
power supply that you slip into a wall 
socket. So much for setup. The soft- 
ware is a disk with programs for col- 
lecting data on power-line conditions. 
It'll function as a background data log- 
ger if you want to leave it on and run- 
ning while you go about your normal 
tasks. When you decide you've sam- 
pled an interval long enough, you pull 
a report. You can also use it as a real- 
time monitor with a graphics display 
that simulates a strip recorder. An- 
other graphics display shows up as a 
crude oscilloscope to help you point 
out voltage spikes and high-frequency 
noise. The version we got is for use 
with the IBM PC, but there's also one 
that works with the entire Apple II 
series. The company notes, however, 
that the background data logger only 
works on the IBM PC version. 

Powertrac generally seems to work 
pretty well. It's actually kind of 
fascinating to watch it redraw the 
graphs every minute or so. Major 
problems tend to be spectacular 
enough that we're not really in- 
terested in calm, rational responses. 
But in the normal course of things, 
you could probably use the Powertrac 
to make a case for calling in the elec- 
trician or asking your next-door 
neighbor to shut off the arc welder. 
The Powertrac would probably be a 
handy thing to have if you moved 
your computer around a lot and 
wanted to be sure you weren't deal- 




ing with a flaky electrical system 
before you got too deeply involved in 
an important application. 

Super Utility, from Powersoft Prod- 
ucts in Dallas, is a repair kit for 
damaged data files. You use it, first 
and foremost, to unerase files that 
you've accidentally gotten rid of. 
Beyond that, however, it has functions 
to edit, verify, or modify sectors, copy 
sectors to files, do sector diagnostics, 
map file-allocation tables for in- 
dividual files or whole drives, edit 
directories and subdirectories, 
rename files, set their attributes, and 
do string searches. 

This is the same company that 
makes the popular disk utility pro- 
gram of almost the same name (Super 
Utility Plus) for the TRS-80. They put 
a notice in their sales flyer that Super 
Utility PC is not SU+ "ported over" 
from the Tandy line. Fair enough, but 
if you're already familiar with SU + 
you'll be on more familiar ground. 

I think one of the nicer aspects of 
Super Utility is the fact that it's very 
simple and straightforward. The com- 
pany seems to have remembered that 
someone who's just erased a file or 
a disk is not going to be in the mood 
for lighthearted banter that gets in the 
way of quickly and faultlessly restor- 
ing all that lost work. The directions 
in the little documentation pamphlet 



are clear and to the point. 

Once you call the program by typ- 
ing su, you get a screen with a copy- 
right notice, and it also tells you to hit 
the escape key if you're having a hard 
time reading the screen. It does this 
because it's normally set to work with 
a color monitor and can be unread- 
able with some monochrome units at 
first. Once you tell it, in effect, what 
kind of monitor you have, you go right 
to a menu that asks you what you 
want to do and it lets you do it. 

When you want to unerase a file, the 
program shows you a DOS directory 
of your disk. Those that have been 
erased— but not yet overwritten— will 
flash and are printed on the screen 
with the first letter of the filename 
missing. You supply the missing let- 
ter and the program gives you a 
screen full of data, asks you if it looks 
like the data you're trying to restore, 
and tells you to press the return key 
if it is. It samples each cluster of like- 
ly data and you restore the file, or pro- 
gram, in increments. 

Powersoft says you can use Super 
Utility with the IBM PC, XT or AT and 
such compatible computers as the 
Compaq, AT&T 6300, and Tandy 1000, 
1200, and 2000. It's being introduced 
at $89.95 and looks like something that 
would be a comfort to have around. 
Glenn Hartwig 
Technical Editor, Reviews 



ILLUSTRATED BY MACIEK ALBRECHT 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 215 



"Power Protection 



Full sine 
wave output 



200W, 300W^ 
800W, 1500W 
output available 



Real-time 
status display 



Extended 
back-up time 
I — available 




Factory installed, premium 



Output filtered Audible Heavy-duty handles 



case 



5 year maintenance-free batteries and surge protected alarm and rugged 



Announcing: AP1000 Series UPS 

Full sine wave UPS for low power applications 

from Emerson, the Technology and Price Leader 

in Uninterruptible Power Systems 



Your electronic equipment depends upon clean 
uninterrupted power. If that power is 
disturbed by "Black-outs", "Brown-outs", 
Spikes or Surges, your equipment could be damaged 
and memory lost. Your valuable system becomes 
worthless. 

Do you have these? 

P.C.'s, office computers, ATM's, PBX's, Point 
of Sale Terminals, Security Systems, or Test 
Equipment. They could be vulnerable to power-line 
disturbances. 

Now they can be economically protected with the 
new Emerson AP1000 Series UPS with power 
ratings from 200-1500 watts and starting at $379. 
From 200V A to 4,000 KVA, Emerson has you 
covered. 



For a free Technical Brochure and the Distributor/ 
Dealer nearest you, call toll free 1-800-BACK-UPS. 
Emerson Computer Power, 3300 S. Standard St., 
Santa Ana, California 92702. 



CALL 

1-800-BACK-UPS 

For Your Free 

Technical 

Brochure 



m 



I5MIER5DN 

Computer Power 




216 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 124 for End-Users. Inquiry 125 for DEALERS ONLY. 




SYSTEM REVIEW 



An AT clone 

at a good 

price 



by Harry Krause 



Kaypro 286/ 



Harry Krause (10214 Forest lake 

Dr.. Great Falls, VA 22066) 

is a marketing consultant 

whose interests include 

microcomputers, writing, 

and sailing. 



The Kaypro 286i, a well-designed 
and well-manufactured clone of the 
IBM PC AT, is widely available from 
retail dealers at what appear to be bargain- 
basement prices. 

The $4450 list price (about $1000 less 
than a similarly equipped IBM PC AT) in- 
cludes 512K bytes of RAM (random-access 
read/write memory), two 1.2-megabyte 
floppy-disk drives, a built-in battery-backed 
clock and calendar, a color-graphics driver 
board, two built-in parallel ports and a nine- 
pin serial port, an RGB (red-green-blue) 
monitor, and a large assortment of software. 
However, you can obtain the computer far 
below the list price; local Kaypro dealers in 
the Washington, DC, metropolitan area 
advertise the basic system for $3000, or 
about $2 500 less than a similar IBM prod- 
uct. One dealer offered the machine with 
a 20-megabyte hard disk for $3295. 

Like the IBM PC AT, the 286i uses the Intel 
80286 microprocessor running at the same 
6-MHz clock speed. The main board of the 
evaluation unit had 512K bytes of 1 50-nano- 
second RAM chips. Two rows of nine 2 56K- 
bit chips each (the extra chip is for parity 
checking) provide 512K bytes. IBM took a 
different approach on the AT using piggy- 
backed 64K-bit chips. The Kaypro solution 
is more elegant. 

Two additional rows of empty memory- 
chip sockets are next to the 2 56K-bit chips, 
and you might assume that you can fill the 
empty sockets with additional 2 56K-bit 
chips (for a total of 1024 K bytes of RAM on 
the motherboard). However, the Kaypro 
documentation indicates that the empty 
sockets are for 64K-bit RAM chips only, 
limiting the motherboard to no more than 
640K bytes of RAM, the limit of memory 
directly addressable by current versions of 
MS-DOS. If Microsoft raises the 640K-byte 
memory limitation, you might try installing 
the additional 2 56K-bit RAM chips. The 
machine's design and the capabilities of the 
80286 CPU (central processing unit) allow 
up to 15 megabytes of system RAM. 



The rest of the Kaypro's guts resemble an 
IBM PC AT, with generic chips, boards, 
drives, and sockets. The 286i's motherboard 
has a socket for Intel's 80287 math copro- 
cessor chip, but the evaluation unit did not 
have one. The disk-controller card looks just 
like the one in a PC AT and can handle two 
hard disks and two floppy disks. 

Kaypro shipped its first 286i machines 
with two floppy drives and later announced 
the availability of hard disks. The evaluation 
unit had two 1.2-megabyte floppy drives; 
you can purchase your unit with a 1.2-mega- 
byte floppy and a 360K-byte floppy or just 
one floppy drive. The Kaypro dealership I 
contacted was getting different hard disks 
for the 286i from three different manufac- 
turers. The dealership installed the drives, 
a fairly trivial task that takes no more than 
half an hour and a couple of common hand 
tools. Compatible 20-megabyte hard disks 
are available for under $1000. 

If you buy your own hard disk, make sure 
it comes with adequate instructions; you 
won't find much help in Kaypro's manuals. 
The bundled software includes voluminous 
documentation, but the hardware manual 
is an inadequate 32-page booklet. In fact, 
it might be a good idea to buy an IBM PC 
AT technical manual. 

Kaypro did not include an operating sys- 
tem with its early production of the 286i. 
According to the documentation, the com- 
puter requires either PC-DOS 3.x or MS- 
DOS 3.x. Therefore, you will need to buy 
Microsoft's MS-DOS 3.x operating system 
separately, perhaps from an IBM PC dealer 
if Kaypro has not yet released its version. 
Kaypro does bundle GW-BASIC, which runs 
most programs written for BASICA. 

Kaypro is also bundling WordStar Profes- 
sional, MailMerge, PolyWindows, and MITE 
(for telecommunications), but if you are 
already using good applications software, 
you may not want to switch from your pro- 
grams. I had no trouble running any software 
written for the PC AT. I could not run soft- 

[continued) 



MARCH 1986 • BYTE 217 



SmarTEAM 
Smart move. 




SmarTEAM 2400 

* Bell 103/212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 bis 

* Auto speed selection (300, 1200 or 2400) 

* Auto answer, auto dial (tone or pulse) 

* Hayes compatible 

* Call progress detection (dial tone, ringing, busy) 

* Speaker with volume control 

* 8 LED status indicators 

* 6 self test modes 

* 2 YEAR WARRANTY 



$599 




SmarTEAM 2400B 

Short card for IBM PC, XT, AT and 
compatibles software included 





$299 



SmaiTEAM 1200AT 

100% compatible with Hayes 1200 




$299 



SmaiTEAM 1200B 

Full card for IBM PC. XT, AT 
compatibles MITE software included 



ind 




SmarTEAM V.21/22 
(CCITT) 

300, 1200bps full duplex 
Hayes commands compatible. 



$299 




$249 



SmarTEAM V. 21/2 3 
(CCITT) 

1200/75/5 bps - Hayes compatible 



OEM designs: 

Send us your specifications. We will deliver a prototype in 30 days. 



Inquiry 340 



car 



INC. 

Unit 1 



HEAD OFFICE: 

TEAM TECHNOLOGY INC. 

I0F, 270. NANKING E. RD., SEC. 3, TAIPEI, 

TAIWAN, R.O.C. 

TLX; 19725 PETRCHEN ATTN TEAM 

TEL: (02)7414270, FAX: (02) 771-2985 



U.S.A. 

MORRISON 
&DEMPSEY 

COMMUNICATIONS 

19209 PARTHENIA ST., SUITE D 
NORTHRIDGE, CA 91324 
TEL: (818) 993-0195 

* Hayes is a registered trademark or Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. 

* IBM PC. XT. AT are regislered trademarks ol Inlernaltonal Business Machines Corp. 

* MITE is a regislered trademark o! MYCROFT LABS INC 



CANADA 

BUDGETRON 

1320 Showson Drive 
rvlississougd, Ontario 
Canada L4W IC3 
TEL: (416)6737800 
TLX: 06-968080 



See us at 

)C®ffl»iMi/winter '86 

April 1-3. 1986 

Los Angeles Convention Center 

Ids Angeles, CA 

Booth *1523 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Kaypro 286i 

Company 

Kaypro Corp. 
533 Stevens Ave. 
Solano Beach, CA 92075 
(619) 481-4300 

Size 

21 by 16 1 /2 by 5% inches 
System unit (without hard 
disk) and keyboard: 
40 pounds 

Components 

Processor: 6-MHz Intel 80286 
Memory: 51 2K bytes of 
150-nanosecond 256K-bit 
RAM chips standard, 
expandable to 640K bytes 
Display: Kaypro 14-inch RGB 
monitor, 80 characters by 25 
lines 

Keyboard: Detached with 84- 
key QWERTY layout including 
10 function keys, numeric 
keypad, Caps Lock, Num 
Lock, Scroll Lock, and 
indicator lights 
Expansion: Eight expansion 
slots 

I/O interfaces: Two parallel 
ports, serial port, RGB 
monitor port 

Software 

GW-BASIC, WordStar 
Professional, MailMerge, 
PolyWindows, and MITE 

Documentation 

32-page user's manual for 
computer, voluminous 
manuals for software 




Price 

Dual 1.2-megabyte 
floppy-disk system 



$4450 



MEMORY SIZE (K BYTES) 

200 400 600 



DISK STORAGE ( K BYTES) 
300 1000 400 800 1200 1600 2000 



P§§ 





























1 


1 









BUNDLED SOFTWARE PACKAGES 
2 4 6 1 



10 



PRICE ( $1000) 
2 4 



8 10 





~J KAYPRO 286i [~~1 IBM PC 



APPLE HE 



The Memory Size graph shows the standard 
and optional memory available for the com- 
puters under comparison. The Disk Storage 
graph shows the highest capacity for a single 
floppy-disk drive and the maximum standard 
capacity for each system. The Bundled Soft- 
ware graph shows the number of software 
packages included with each system. The Price 
graph shows the list price of a system con- 



figured with two drives, a monochrome monitor, 
graphics and color display capability, a printer 
port and a serial port, 256K bytes of memory 
(64K bytes for 8-bit systems), the standard 
operating system for the computers under com- 
parison, and the standard BASIC interpreter. 
Note that the price of the Kaypro 286i is for the 
dual floppy-disk-drive system and does not in- 
clude the cost of the operating system. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 219 











bhibp ii,i i 







The back panel of the Kaypro 286i. 



DISK ACCESS IN BASIC (SEC) 
250 



24 1 ~777> 



.46- 




234 J 



WRITE 



SYSTEM UTILITIES (SEC) 
50 



READ 





Inside the Kaypro 286i: six slots appear on the left. The review 
unit included two floppy-disk drives. 



BASIC PERFORMANCE (SEC) 
250 




100 



CALCULATIONS 



SPREADSHEET (SEC) 
25 



15 



an 



40K FORMAT/DISK COPY 40K FILE COPY 

■ KAYPRO 286i 



The graphs for Disk Access in BASIC show how long it took to write 
and to read a 64K-byte sequential text file to a blank floppy disk. 
(For the program listings, see BYTE's Fall 1985 special issue, Inside 
the IBM PCs, page 195.) The Sieve graph shows how long it took 
to run one iteration of the Sieve of Eratosthenes prime-number bench- 
mark. The Calculations graph shows how long it took to do 10,000 
multiplication and 10,000 division operations using single-precision 



LOAD 
APPLE HE 



RECALCULATE 



numbers. The System Utilities graphs show how long it took to for- 
mat and copy a disk (adjusted time for 40K bytes of disk data) and 
to transfer a 40K-byte file using the system utilities. The Kaypro was 
tested using the drives in double-density mode. The Spreadsheet 
graph shows how long it took to load and recalculate a 25- by 25-cell 
spreadsheet where each cell equals 1.001 times the cell to its left. 
The spreadsheet used was Microsoft Multiplan. 



220 BYTE- MARCH 1986 




Become twice as productive with half the effort and three times 
the fun. Whether you're using AutoCAD, Lotus 1-2-3, PC 
Paintbrush or Reflex. LOGIMOUSE is the productivity demon 
that gets you there faster. 

At a powerful 
$ 99 price. 

HARDWARE SUPERIOR LOGIMOUSE has always been 
hardware superior. Which is why it's the consistent choice of 
professional users. 

■ HIGH resolution — twice as high as most other mice 

■ NO pad, NO external power supply — FREE of the optical 
mouse jumble of pads, wires, and plugs 

■ IBM PC, XT, AT compatible directly into any serial port 

SOFTWARE SUPERIOR LOGIMOUSE software is still a 
generation ahead in bringing the mouse to its full power within 
your application. 

■ Fully compatible with AutoCAD, GEM, Lotus 1-2-3, 
MS Windows, all Microsoft compatible programs, PC 
Paintbrush, Reflex and many, many more 

■ LOGIMOUSE Software Disk FREE with every mouse, 
including: 

Universal Mouse Driver with easy Mouse Setting File 
TAG, the Text-And-Graphics editor 
LOGIMOUSE INTERFACE for 1-2-3 

LOGIMOUSE INTERFACE FOR LOTUS FREE 

The all new LOGIMOUSE INTERFACE for Lotus 1-2-3 sets a 
new industry standard for making 1-2-3 work faster and easier. 
LOGIMOUSE is not just a replacement for keyboard key- 
strokes. It's a 1-2-3 liberator that makes Lotus more fun to use. 
OFFERED FREE for a limited time 
on every LOGIMOUSE Software Disk. 

LOGIPAINTSET $149 

LOGIMOUSE C7 plus PC Paintbrush 3.0 is the most advanced 
paint set available for the PC. Use LOGIPAINT for designing a 
logo, creating a cartoon, or drawing a picture of a product 
you're developing. You won't believe its power with either free 
hand drawing or graphics. 

To place a credit card order 
call our special toll free number: 

800-231-7717 

In California: 

800-552-8885 



YES 



I I want to seize the LOGIMOUSE Power! 
! Please send me: 



□ LOGIMOUSE C7 with the Universal Mouse Driver, TAG 
and the LOGIMOUSE INTERFACE for 1-2-3. $99* 
□ LOGIPAINT SET— LOGIMOUSE C7 with the Universal 
Mouse Driver, TAG, the LOGIMOUSE INTERFACE for 
1-2-3, PLUS PC Paintbrush 3.0. $149* 

*Add $5 for shipping and handling. 
□ VISA □ MASTERCARD □ CHECK ENCLOSED 



Card Number 



Expiration Date 



SIGNATURE 
NAME 



ADDRESS. 



CITY, STATE_ 
ZIP 



. PHONE- 



m LOGITECH 



LOGITECH, Inc. 

805 Veterans Blvd., Redwood City, CA 94063, USA 

Telephone: (415) 365-9852 



LOGIMOUSE is a registered trademark of LOGITECH Inc. AutoCAD is a trademark of 
Autodesk Inc. GEM is a trademark of Digital Research Inc. Lotus and 1-2-3 are trademarks 
of Lotus Development Corp. MS Windows is a trademark of Microsoft. PC Paintbrush is a 
trademark of ZSoft Corp. Reflex is a trademark of Borland/Analytica Corp. 



Inquiry 212 



MARCH 1986 'BYTE 22! 



a message 

to our 
subscribers 

From time to time we make 
the BYTE subscriber list avail- 
able to other companies 
who wish to send our sub- 
scribers material about their 
products. We take great care 
to screen these companies, 
choosing only those who are 
reputable, and whose prod- 
ucts, services, or information 
we feel would be of interest 
to you. Direct mail is an effi- 
cient medium for presenting 
the latest personal computer 
goods and services to our 
subscribers. 

Many BYTE subscribers ap- 
preciate this controlled use of 
our mailing list, and look for- 
ward to finding information 
of interest to them in the 
mail. Used are our subscrib- 
ers' names and addresses 
only (no other information 
we may have is ever given). 

While we believe the distri- 
bution of this information is 
of benefit to our subscribers, 
we firmly respect the wishes 
of any subscriber who does 
not want to receive such pro- 
motional literature. Should 
you wish to restrict the use 
of your name, simply send 
your request to the following 
address. 

BYTE Magazine 

Attn: Circulation 

Department 

70 Main St 

Peterborough NH 

03458 w 



REVIEW: KAYPRO 286i 




1111, 
lillllllllll 

aaiiaiiiiiiie 

^lltflllill 9! 



n n r-i 

r r mu i 



SU'll'S 

llli 

:' : a m m 



Photo 1: The Kaypro 286i keyboard uses the IBM PC AT layout. 



ware that will not run on the PC AT. 

It is easy to unpack and set up the 
286i. Remove the equipment from its 
boxes, plug in the monitor and key- 
board cables, plug in the electrical 
cord, and turn on the machine. Like 
the PC AT the Kaypro includes a small 
barrel key that fits into a lock on the 
front panel and switches the keyboard 
on and off. If you leave the lock in the 
Ready position, you won't have a 
problem when you lose the key. For- 
tunately, Kaypro supplies two keys. 

It is easy to hook up a printer to the 
parallel port at the back of the 286i; 
Kaypro uses the IBM PC adaptation 
of the Centronics standard. Unfor- 
tunately, the serial port follows the 
IBM PC AT standard. It is a nine-pin 
male plug, virtually useless without an 
extra-cost adapter ($40 retail) that 
turns it into a standard PC serial port. 
IBM reportedly used the smaller serial 
plug so that a serial and parallel port 
could be placed on the same card. 
Kaypro picked up the PC AT's bad 
features along with the good. 

The Kaypro's keyboard (see photo 
1) uses the same layout as the PC AT, 
but the Enter key and right-hand Shift 
keys are a little larger. The PC AT's 
keyboard has the feel of an IBM PC 
keyboard, requiring firm pressure on 
the keytops to enter data. It is also 
noisy. The Kaypro keyboard requires 
a softer touch and is much quieter. 

The 14-inch RGB monitor, bundled 
with the system or available separate- 



ly for $595, is barely adequate for a 
machine with the 286i's capabilities. 
The retail price is high for a monitor 
with a shadow-mask aperture of only 
0.4 millimeters. Characters closely 
resemble those produced by the IBM 
graphics adapter/monitor combina- 
tion, but the letters are coarse; ex- 
tended use would probably give you 
eyestrain. Color graphics are ade- 
quate, but there are many more rea- 
sonably priced RGB displays on the 
market that will produce better results 
with characters and graphics than the 
Kaypro monitor. The monitor has a 
built-in tilt stand, a minor con- 
venience. 

If you're intrigued by the Kaypro 
286i as an alternate to the IBM PC AT, 
I don't think you'll go wrong. I couldn't 
uncover any hardware incompatibili- 
ties. IBM's Enhanced Graphics 
Adapter and Enhanced Graphics 
Monitor worked perfectly. And, like 
the AT, the Kaypro is very fast. When 
running the System Information rou- 
tine from The Norton Utilities, the 
286i's CPU processes data approxi- 
mately 5.7 times faster than the Intel 
8088-based IBM PC, the same rating 
as the IBM PC AT. The Kaypro's results 
on the BYTE benchmarks were similar 
to the IBM PC AT (see page 220). 

The Kaypro 286i is a true compati- 
ble with a list price substantially lower 
than the IBM machine. A careful shop- 
per can save close to $3000 by buy- 
ing the Kaypro instead of the IBM. ■ 



222 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



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inquiry 346 




SOFTWARE REVIEW 

Modula-2 System 
for Z80 CP/M 



Hochstrasser's 
package 



most features 

as defined 

by Wirth 



by Brian R. 
Anderson 



The Modula-2 System for Z80 CP/M 
produced by Hochstrasser Com- 
puting AG was written in Zurich, 
Switzerland, by four graduates of ETH 
SUDDOrtS (Federal Institute of Technology), where 
Niklaus Wirth developed both Pascal and 
Modula-2. Because of the close association 
between the author of the language and the 
authors of this compiler, I had every expec- 
tation of a high-quality product that 
adhered closely to Wirth's definition of 
Modula-2. 

1 was not disappointed. This is a full-fea- 
tured system with extensive library support 
and a very smooth user interface. Every- 
thing seems to be well engineered and rela- 
tively bug-free. The system supports virtual- 
ly all features as defined by Wirth, lacking 
only processes and monitors. Version con- 
trol is currently disabled. All features are 
expected sometime in the future and will 
be available to registered users at a nominal 
charge for media and printing. This review 
refers to version 2.0 of the compiler. The 
release date was March 28, 1985. 

The library modules (most with com- 
mented source code) include three separate 
file systems— two sequential, one random- 
access; a program chaining system that 
allows data sharing; full access to both 
BDOS (basic disk operating system) and 
BIOS (basic input/output system) calls; math 
functions (transcendentals); and many 
others. 



Hardware 

A Z80 CP/M system with at least 52 K bytes 
of RAM (random-access read/write mem- 
ory) and two disk drives is required. The 
compiler uses about 170K bytes of disk 
space. The linker and all its support files 
(that is, library and utility modules and ex- 
cluding the source files) take up about 120K 
bytes. Since the compiler and linker don't 
have to be present on the system at the 
same time, it would be possible to work 
with disk drives as small as 170K bytes. 
However, to work comfortably, it would be 



Brian R. Anderson (2977 East 
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experience in communications and 
industrial control He works as an 
instructor at Vancouver Community 
College. His interests include motor- 
cycling and playing the guitar. 



better to have larger drives; Hochstrasser 
recommends at least 300K bytes each. The 
Z80 is a must; the compiler will not work 
with an 8080 or 8085. 

My computer system consists of an S-100 
single-board computer made by Intercon- 
tinental Micro Systems, using a 4-MHz Z80 
operating under CP/M 2.2. All tests were 
done with an 8-inch single-sided single- 
density (SS/SD) disk as the data disk. The 
system disk was an 8-inch double-sided 
double-density (DS/DD) disk. 

The documentation that comes with the 
compiler is quite good. The manual, 
Modula-2 System for Z80 CP/M. is organized 
so that the first-time user can get up and 
running quickly 

The first section of the manual explains 
system requirements and guides you 
through configuration and a sample com- 
pile session (several sample programs are 
on the disks). 

The manual's introduction to Modula-2 
provides a good insight into the differences 
between Modula-2 and Pascal. It is not a 
replacement for Programming in Modula-2 by 
Niklaus Wirth (Springer-Verlag, 2nd edition, 
1983), but this introduction is a worthwhile 
companion to it. 

The implementation section explains the 
use of the compiler in detail and describes 
the library modules. The description of the 
compiler is excellent. Although the library 
description is adequate for most purposes, 
it is at times sketchy and vague; keep Wirth's 
book handy. (Another useful companion is 
Modula-2 for Pascal Programmers by Richard 
Gleaves [Springer-Verlag. 1984|. It is based 
on the MS-DOS implementation of 
Modula-2 by Volition Systems, and it de- 
scribes the library modules in some detail- 
along with example programs. The Volition 
and Hochstrasser implementations are very 
similar, and virtually everything in Gleaves's 
book applies equally to the Hochstrasser 
Modula-2.) 

Also in the system manual is an advanced 

{continued) 



MARCH 1986 'BYTE 225 



REVIEW: Z80 MODULA-2 



programming guide that has tips and 
techniques to improve efficiency, in- 
terface to assembly-language 
modules, and other useful informa- 
tion. 

Finally, there is a set of appendixes, 
including an explanation of the linker 
format, an EBNF (Extended Backus- 
Naur Form) language definition, and 
a list of error messages used by the 
compiler and linker. 

Evaluation 

The method I chose to evaluate this 
compiler was to develop several 
benchmark programs, each testing a 
specific feature. Compile time is im- 
portant to everyone, so all compile 
times (using automated batch pro- 
cessing) are tabulated for the test pro- 
grams. Different features are signifi- 
cant depending on your application; 
therefore, 1 have evaluated four 
separate areas for execution speed: 
integer math, floating-point math, 
screen output, and file I/O (input/ 
output). 

As a concession to tradition, 1 also 
include the Sieve of Eratosthenes 
among the test programs. The Sieve 
tests the ability to perform loops, but 
little else. 

Comparison Languages 

For comparison, I compiled and ran 
similar programs in Pascal (using 
Borland International's Turbo Pascal) 
and in C (using Aztec C). Choice of 
comparison languages was dictated 
mostly by what I had available. How- 
ever, I'll try to justify my choices on 
technical grounds, too. Since 1 know 
of no other Z80 compiler system for 
Modula-2 (and I've looked), there was 
no option but to compare with com- 
pilers of other languages. 

Pascal is closely related to 
Modula-2, so it seems natural to com- 
pare these two. Turbo Pascal is an ex- 
cellent product, known particularly for 
its compilation and execution speed. 

Both C and Modula-2 are con- 
sidered to be "systems" languages 
(that is, useful for writing operating 
systems). Both have separated scope 
(visibility) and lifetime (existence) for 
variables. Both use modules. (C, how- 



ever, does not formalize this; C's in- 
dependent compilation units are 
similar to Modula 2's modules— 
instead of the import/export lists. C 
uses the extern concept.) Since C and 
Modula-2 seem to be vying for the 
same space, it does not seem unrea- 
sonable to compare them. Aztec C 
has received consistent high marks in 



reviews comparing it to other imple- 
mentations of the language. 

The Benchmarks 

The math benchmarks are simple. The 
programs execute one operation 
repeatedly; I timed the operation and 
then divided the total time by the 
number of repetitions. The result is 



Listing 1: Benchmark to evaluate integer operations. 

MODULE MTIMEI; 

FROM Terminal IMPORT (* standard module as 
def ined by Wi rth *) 

Write, WriteLn, WriteString; 

FROM ASCII IMPORT 
bel ; 



VAR 



x, y, z : INTEGER; 
i : CARDINAL; 



PROCEDURE Delay (x : CARDINAL); (* 
variable Delay, x in milliseconds *) 



VAR 



i, j : CARDINAL; 



BEGIN 

FOR i := 1 TO 
FOR j := 1 
END; 
END; 
END Delay; 


X 

TO 


30 
18 


DO 


BEGIN 

x := 11; y := 2; 








WriteString ('Blank 
Delay (500); 
Write (bel); 
i := 1; 

REPEAT 


'); 




WriteLn; 


z := y; 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 








WriteString ('Addit 
Delay (530); 


'on 


'); 


WriteLn 


Write (bel); 
i := 1; 
REPEAT 








z := x + y; 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i - 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 









226 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 350 



REVIEW: Z80 MODULA-2 



the time taken to perform that opera- 
tion once. To factor out overhead for 
the loop and assignment portion of 
the operation. I also included a blank 
loop in the tests. I subtracted the time 
for this blank loop from the other 
times before calculating time per 
operation. See listing 1 (Integer) and 
listing 2 (Floating Point). [Editor's note: 



All programs shown here are available for 
downloading from BYTEiief Listings. (617) 
861-9764, or on disk (see page 358 for 
details). | 

This compiler implements floating- 
point math in a single-precision for- 
mat, which is similar to that proposed 
by IEEE (Task 754. 1981). and pro- 

[continued) 



WriteString ('Subtraction"); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := x - y; 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Multiplication'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := x * y; 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Division'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := x DIV y; 

i := i + 1 ; 
UNTIL i - 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Modulus'); WriteLn; 
Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 
i := 1; 
REPEAT 

z := x MOD y; 

i := i + 1 ; 
UNTIL i - 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Good-bye...'); WriteLn; 
END MTIMEI. 



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MARCH 1986 -BYTE 227 



REVIEW: Z80 MODULA-2 



vides about 7 significant digits. This 
degree of precision is useful for many 
applications, but round-off error can 
build up quickly if your application re- 
quires much iteration. As an example, 

I calculated factorials (both recursively 
and iteratively) and found the error 
could become excessive after about 

II iterations. With no iteration, the 
transcendental functions appear to be 
accurate to the full 7 digits provided. 
All the usual functions are included 
(sin, cos, arctan, exp. In), plus a power 
function and two conversion functions 
(REAL to INTEGER and INTEGER to 
REAL). 

Note that both Turbo Pascal and 
Aztec C implement their floating- 
point operations in double-precision. 

The third benchmark tests console 
screen output speed— specifically the 
time taken to completely rewrite the 
screen with "The quick brown 
fox . . . ." Rapid screen update is par- 
ticularly important for writing pro- 
grams such as text editors or anything 
that makes extensive use of console 
I/O. In all cases, the console was 
operating at 19,200 bits per second. 
The screen output program is shown 
in listing 3. 

The final benchmark involved disk 
file I/O (listing 4); it's a simple file-copy 
program, ostensibly to create a back- 
up file. The text file copied was 100 
lines of "The quick brown fox . . ."— 7K 
bytes in total. 

Listing 5 shows the Sieve program 
as implemented in this review. 

Statistical results for the mathe- 
matical benchmarks are given in table 
1 . All other benchmark statistics are 
given in table 2. 

I did not encounter any bugs in the 
compiler or linker, although some 
were reported at the beta test sites 
and have been corrected with release 
of version 2.0. I did come across two 
errors in the library/utility modules; 
these also have been corrected in the 
latest release. 

As the tables show, Modula-2 fared 
quite well in most benchmark catego- 
ries. Although compile times were 
much slower than for Turbo Pascal, 
they were similar to those of Aztec C. 

{continued) 



Listing 2: Benchmark to evaluate floating-point operations. 

MODULE MTIMEF; (* times floating point 
operations *) 

FROM Terminal IMPORT 

Write, WriteLn, WriteString; 

FROM MathLib IMPORT 

sin, cos, arctan, In, exp; 

FROM ASCII IMPORT 
be I; 



VAR 



x, y, z : REAL; 
i : CARDINAL; 



PROCEDURE Delay (x : CARDINAL); (* 
variable delay, x in milliseconds *) 

VAR 

i, j : CARDINAL; 

BEGIN 

FOR i := 1 TO x DO 

FOR j := 1 TO 18 DO 
END; 
END; 
END Delay; 



BEGIN 

x := 12.5; 



y := 0.5; 



WriteString ('Blank'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z :- y; 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Addition'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := x + y; 

i := i + 1 ; 
UNTIL i - 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Subtraction'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := x - y; 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 



228 BYTE- MARCH 1 986 



Inquiry 351 



REVIEW: Z80 MODULA-2 



WriteString ('Multiplication'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := x * y; 

i := i + 1 ; 
UNTIL i = 10000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Division'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := x / y; 

i : = i + 1 ; 
UNTIL i - 10000; 



Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 



WriteString ('Sine'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := sin (y) ; 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 1000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Cosine'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := cos (y); 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 1000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 

WriteString ('Arctangent'); WriteLn; 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := arctan (x); 

i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 1000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 



WriteString ('Natural Log'); 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i :- 1; 

REPEAT 

z := In (x); 

i := i + 1 ; 
UNTIL i = 1000; 
Write fbel); 
Delay (4000); 



WriteLn; 



{continued) 




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MARCH I986 -BYTE 229 



REVIEW: Z80 MODULA-2 



Code size is where Modula-2 really 
excelled, at times bettering the com- 
petition by a ratio of 5 to 1. Execu- 
tion times were similar throughout, 
with a slight edge going to Modula-2, 
on average. 

Ease of use 

In most ways, Modula-2 for Z80 CP/M 
runs smoothly and is exceedingly 
easy to use. The system consists of a 
four-pass compiler and a two-pass 
linker. The multipass design results in 
tight, efficient code and acceptable 
compile speed, considering the 
results. Several useful compile 
switches are provided (for example, 
assembly output or listing-file output), 
but not so many that they are hard to 
remember. 

The compiler has two methods of 
handling errors. The default mode 
automatically creates a listing file 
(complete with page breaks, headers, 
and line numbers), with error mes- 
sages embedded. A "star bar" flags 
the line where an error occurs, while 
a pointer shows the position within 
the line. A compiler switch allows 
errors to be handled in a simpler man- 
ner: The lines and positions of errors 
are output to the console. Errors are 
tagged with uncanny accuracy, and I 
seldom got an error message that did 
not make sense. 

Errors are noted by numbers, which 
you must look up in the system 
manual. 1 did manage to invoke an 
error that is not listed in the manual- 
Error 332 was caused by trying to 
EXIT from a WHILE statement. This 
error should have been Error 151 ac- 
cording to the manual. In Modula-2, 
EXIT is allowed only from a LOOP 
statement. I guess I've been tainted 
by C, where you can break (as C calls 
it) from nearly anything. 

The compiler and linker have an ex- 
cellent system that allows them to find 
their respective source files no mat- 
ter what drive they are located on. 
You can easily customize the search 
path at installation. With the module 
concept, such a path search is nearly 
essential, since you are certain to have 
modules on more than one disk (sys- 

(conlinued) 



WriteString ('Natural Antilog'); 

Delay (500); 

Write (bel); 

i := 1; 

REPEAT 

z := exp (y); 
i := i + 1; 
UNTIL i = 1000; 
Write (bel); 
Delay (4000); 
END MTIMEF. 



WriteLn; 



Listing 3: 


Benchmark to test screen 


I/O execution. 


MODULE MSCREEN; 




FROM TERM1 IMPORT (* nonstandard terminal 
module *) 

Write, WriteCard, WriteString, WriteLn; 


FROM ASCII IMPORT 
be I , sub; 




VAR 

i 


; CARDINAL; 




BEGIN 
Write 
Write 


(sub); (* Clear 
(bel); 


Console Screen *) 


FOR i 

Wr 

Wr 

over the 

Wr 

END; 


:= 1 TO 100 DO 
'teCard (i , 3); 
'teString (' The quick brown fox jumped 

I azy dogs back . ' ) ; 
'teString (* 1234567890* ) ; WriteLn; 


Write (bel); 
END MSCREEN. 





Listing 4: Benchmark to lest disk I/O. 

MODULE MFILECPY; 

FROM SeqIO IMPORT 

FILE, FileState, Open, Create, Close, 
Read, Write, EOF; 

FROM Terminal IMPORT 

ReadString, WriteLn, WriteString; 

FROM Strings IMPORT 
STRING; 



VAR 



inFILE, outFILE : FILE; 

name, BAKname : STRING; (* filenames *) 

c : CHAR; 



230 BYTE • MARCH 1 986 



Inquiry 352 



REVIEW: Z80 MODULA-2 





PROCEDURE MakeBAK (in : STRING 


; VAR out : 


STRING; tag : STRING); 






VAR 






i, j : CARDINAL; 






BEGIN 






i := 0; 






WHILE (in[i] # 0C) AND ( 


n[i] # '.') 


DO 


out[i] := in[i]; 
INC (i); 

END; 

j == 0; 

WHILE tag[j] # 0C DO 

out[l] := tag[j]; 

INC (i); INC (j); 










END; 






out[i] := 0C; (*add NULL 


terminator*) 




END MakeBAK; 




BEGIN 






WriteString ('File Backup Ut i 1 


ty'); 


Wr 


"teLn; WriteLn; 






WriteString ('Enter filename: 


): 




ReadString (name); WriteLn; 






MakeBAK (name, BAKname, '.bak' 


); 




IF Create (outFILE, BAKname) = 


FileOK THEN 




IF Open (inFILE, name) = Fi 


eOK THEN 




WHILE NOT EOF (inFILE) DO 




Read (inFILE, c); 






Write (outFILE, c); 






END; 






IF (Close (inFILE) <> Fi 
ose (outFILE) <> FileOK) THEN 


eOK) OR 


(C 






WriteString ('Error c 


os ing 


f i 


es...'); WriteLn; 
ELSE 

WriteString (BAKname) 




Wr 


teString (' completed.'); Wr 
END; 
ELSE 


teLn ; 




IF Close (outFILE) <> Fi 


eOK THEN 




(* do nothing *) 






END; 






WriteString ('Error creal 


ting new 


fi 


e...'); WriteLn; 

END; 
ELSE 






WriteString ('Error opening 


f i le.. . '); 


Wr 


teLn ; 
END; 




END MFILECPY. 





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MARCH 1986 'BYTE 231 



REVIEW: Z80 MODULA-2 



tern modules on the compiler disk 
and your modules on the work disk). 

Due to a small quirk in the compiler, 
the object files are always written to 
the default drive (usually the system 
or A drive). A great improvement 
would result if the object files were 
written (or could be redirected) to the 
disk where the main source file was 
found. Maybe it's me that has the 
quirk, but you be the judge. I think the 
A drive should have the compiler sys- 
tem on it, and the B drive should have 
the source and object files. 

The best solution 1 could find was 
to create three separate CP/M SUB- 
MIT files; one to compile program 
modules (on the B drive), one to com- 
pile definition and implementation 
modules on the B drive, and one to 



compile definition and implementa- 
tion modules on the A drive. Shown 
below are the three SUBMIT files, 
along with an explanation" of each. 
Contents of file modula.sub are 

MC $1 N IX 
ML $1 /V /0:B:$1 
ERA $1.MRL 



MC invokes the compiler in the ver- 
bose mode (A/) and terminates batch 
processing (IX) if there are any com- 
pile errors. As usual with CP/M SUB- Qf A dHVC) 

MIT files, $1 specifies the first 

command-line argument (in this case 
the source filename, without the file 
type). 

ML invokes the linker (also in the 
verbose mode), with the object file 
redirected to the B drive (10). The /O 



Due to a small quirk 
in the compiler, the 
object files are always 
written to the default 
drive {usually the system 



Listing 5: Sieve of Eratosthenes benchmark written in Modula-2. 


MODULE MSIEVE; 


FROM TERM1 IMPORT 

WriteString, WriteCard, WriteLn; 


CONST 

Size = 8190; (* size of 


array *) 

Iterations = 10; (* minimum 1 *) 


VAR 

count, i, iter, k, prime : CARDINAL; 
flags : ARRAY [0..Size] OF BOOLEAN; 


BEGIN 

WriteString ('10 Iterations'); WriteLn; 
FOR iter := 1 TO Iterations DO 


count := 0; 


FOR i := TO Size DO 

flags[i] := TRUE; 
END; 


FOR i := TO Size DO 
IF flags[i] THEN 

prime := i + i +3; 


k := i + pr ime; 
WHILE k <= Size DO 
flags[k] := FALSE; 
INC (k, prime); 
END; 

INC (count); 
END; 
END; (* FOR *) 
END; (* FOR *) 


WriteString ('There were '); 
WriteCard (count, 0); WriteString (' 


pr imes. ' ) ; 
END MSIEVE. 



option allows you to specify the ob- 
ject filename of the linker. Here, the 
filename itself is the same as the 
source filename, with the drive 
specifier forced to B. Linker output is 
a COM file. 

ERA erases the relocatable file 
(.MRL) output by the compiler. This 
file is used by the linker and is then 
no longer needed (at least in the case 
of stand-alone programs). This 
prevents .MRL files from cluttering up 
the system disk. 

File Deflmp/B.SUB contains 

MC$1.DEF/V/X 
MC$1.MOD/V/X 
PIP B: = A:$1* 
ERA $1.MSY 
ERA $1.MRL 

Definition and implementation 
modules are compiled separately. The 
PIP command moves the .MSY 
(Modula symbol) and .MRL (Modula 
relocatable) files to the B drive before 
the unwanted copies on drive A are 
erased. 
File Deflmp/A.SUB contains 

MC S1.DEF/V IX 
MC $1.MOD N 

When compiling to the system disk 
(for example, compiling library 
modules), definition and implementa- 
tion modules are compiled separate- 
ly and left on A. Two examples follow. 
To compile the program module 
sieve.mod, all that is required is 

A>submit modula sieve <CR> 

To compile definition and implemen- 

(continued) 



232 BYTE- MARCH 1 986 



Inquiry 1 85 — ► 



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REVIEW: Z80 MODULA-2 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Modula-2 System for Z80 CP/M 

Company 

Hochstrasser Computing AG 
Chratzstrasse 14 
8954 Geroldswil 
Switzerland 

Format 

Three SS/SD 8-inch distribution disks; 
not copy-protected 

Computer 

Z80-based CP/M system with 52K bytes of 
RAM required, two floppy-disk drives 
holding at least 300K bytes each 
recommended 

Documentation 

User's manual, 240 pages with index 

Price 

$160 



tation modules for NEWMOD to the 
B drive, 

A>submit Deflmp/B newmod 
<CR> 

Conclusions 

These lads from Zurich have done an 
excellent job of implementing 
Modula-2 on a Z80. All features 
operated extremely well. The docu- 
mentation is good and quite com- 
plete. I have no hesitation in recom- 
mending this system to anyone inter- 
ested in working with Modula-2. I 
stress working— this is not a toy com- 
piler. Because of the small code size, 
this system would be suitable even for 
small control applications. The com- 
piler produces native Z80 code that 
is ROMable and reentrant. Because of 
the program chaining facilities, very 
large applications greater than 64K 
bytes can also be easily developed. 
At this time, Modula-2 System for Z80 
CP/M is available only on standard 
8-inch SS/SD (IBM 3740) disks. Other 
formats reportedly are coming 
soon. ■ 



Table 1 : Results of math benchmarks. Execution times are in milliseconds. 


Compile times are in minutes.seconds. For 


the floating-point benchmarks, 


Modula-2 uses 7 significant digits. TUrbo 


uses 10, and Mec C uses 14. 


Integer Operations 






Test 


Modula-2 


C Pascal 


+ 


.007 


.04 .01 


- 


.011 


.05 .01 


« 


.06 


.27 .14 


DIV 


.36 


.55 .43 


MOD 


.32 


.54 .41 


Compile time (TIMEI) 


1:38 


1:44 0:08 


COM file 


2K bytes 


9K bytes 8K bytes 


Floating-Point Operations 






Test 


Modula-2 


C Pascal 


+ 


.29 


.42 .34 


- 


.33 


.50 .38 


* 


.76 


11.60 1.60 


/ 


1.20 


18.10 2.20 


sin 


9.50 


162.00 22.00 


cos 


9.30 


196.00 23.00 


atn 


7.20 


190.00 19.00 


In 


9.30 


184.00 26.00 


exp 


10.70 


149.00 23.00 


Compile time (TIMEF) 


2:01 


2:18 0:07 


COM file 


6K bytes 


15K bytes 9K bytes 



Table 2: Results of I/O and Sieve benchmarks. Execution times are in 
milliseconds. Compile times are in minutes:seconds. 


Screen Update 










Modula-2 


C 


Pascal 


Execute 


1.1 


2.1 


1.1 


Compile time (SCREEN) 
COM file 


1:25 
2K bytes 


1:27 
11K bytes 


0:06 
8K bytes 


File Copy 










Modula-2 


C 


Pascal 


Execute 


15.2 


14.7 


25.1 


Compile time (FILECPY) 
COM file 


1:52 
8K bytes 


1:46 
12K bytes 


0:08 
8K bytes 


(Note: PIP copied the same 


file in 10.2 seconds.) 




Sieve of Eratosthenes 










Modula-2 


C 


Pascal 


Execute 


18.4 


23.2 


22.1 


Compile time (SIEVE) 
COM file 


1:25 
2K bytes 


1:12 
8K bytes 


0:06 
8K bytes 



234 BYTE- MARCH 1986 




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Easy to Use 

"Shift" & 
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Keys are in 
familiar 

Typewriter 
locations. 



I 1 T- T- I- 1 [- 1 i i t- ir r-Ti r i 




w Te jr Tt Jy Tu yi To Tp Ti T> 






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Separate Cursor 

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Easy for 
Numbers 

Separate 
Numeric 
Keys. 



Easy to Enter 

Convenient 

Enter 

Key. 



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Buy a Key Tronic KB 5151 and Receive $25. 



Buy a Key Tronic KB 5151, send in your new or USED 
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Type on the KB 5151 keyboard and feel the difference for 
yourself. It's the Key Tronic touch! 

Look at the layout of the KB 5151. It was designed to 
increase operator speed and comfort. No wonder it's the choice 
of professionals. 

Ask a Key Tronic customer about our products. You will 
learn about our reputation for manufacturing durable 
professional products. 

Key Tronic is the world's largest independent manufacturer 
of full travel keyboards and offers a complete line of integrated 
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The Key Tronic KB 5150 and KB 5151 keyboards are also eligible for Irade-in under ihe 
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s of this rebate program 



Inquiry 198 




Co %^ 




To the best of my knowledge the below 
information is correct and the enclosed key- 
board is an IBM PC, XT or AT keyboard, or 
Key Tronic 5150 or 5151 keyboard. 1 am aware that the condi- 
tions for receiving a $25.00 personal rebate check for the key- 
board include: replacing each such keyboard with a Key Tronic 
keyboard and including a copy of the sales receipt showing the 
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1, 1986, when mailing the keyboard to Key Tronic. I under- 
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keyboards or Key Tronic 5150 or 5151 keyboards. 



Make check payable 
Company _ . 



to: 



Key Tronic Corporation 
ATTN: Rebate Program 
Building 14 

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Contact Name . 
















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SOFTWARE REVIEW 



Pocket APL 



inexpensive 

yet complete 

version of 

the language 



by Eric H. Johnson 



Eric H. \ohnson is a teaching assis- 
tant and undergraduate in the com- 
puter science department at 
Michigan State University. He can 
be contacted do Lyman Briggs 
School. Michigan State University. 
East Lansing. Ml 48824. 



Despite the great popularity that 
APL has gained in recent years, it 
has remained out of the reach of 
many microcomputer owners because im- 
plementations have been too costly and 
often required special hardware (such as an 
8087 numeric coprocessor) and a special 
character ROM (read-only memory). Now, 
however, STSC Inc. has released a reason- 
ably priced, very friendly package for the 
IBM Personal Computer that runs with as 
little as 128K bytes of memory and requires 
no special hardware. Aptly named Pocket 
APL, it is a complete implementation of 
APL that incorporates extended system and 
file functions, a comprehensive on-line help 
facility, and sample workspaces all on a 
single disk— and with plenty of room to 
spare. The introductory tutorial that comes 
with the package is superb, and there are 
adequate reference materials, including a 
user's manual and placards containing the 
keyboard layout as well as keyword and 
symbol references. 

Pocket APL is aimed at programmers who 
are beginning to learn APL or who intend 
to write only small applications. Its only 
serious disadvantage is that its workspace 
area is limited to 64 K bytes, regardless of 
how much memory you have. If you require 
a more powerful APL system, STSC's APL* 
PLUS/PC offers complete memory utiliza- 
tion, full-screen editing, graphics, and many 
more features, but for a considerably higher 
price. On the other hand, if for now you are 
interested in learning APL but aren't sure 
about making the investment in a more 
robust package, then Pocket APL is definite- 
ly the way to go. It is by no means a profes- 
sional package, but you will be surprised at 
some of its capabilities nonetheless. 

Pocket APL comes with some full-screen 
editing capabilities. However, the insert and 
delete functions are extremely sluggish, 
especially with the color/graphics adapter, 
and there is no "true" insert mode; you 
must hit the insert key once for every char- 
acter that you want to put in a line. For 



editing user-defined functions, you can use 
the screen editor along with the "del" 
editor, a version of the editor found on 
most APL systems. Its operation is quite 
straightforward, but when used with the 
screen editor, it is helpful only for line in- 
sertion and deletion. As primitive as it is, 
the screen editor is much more effective for 
in-line editing. 

Pocket APL supports the use of both APL 
component files and regular DOS files. APL 
component files are a powerful tool: They 
allow entire matrices (either numeric or 
character) to be stored as easily as if they 
were single elements, relieving you of the 
burden of having to restructure data. Com- 
ponents may be accessed randomly, and 
components may be of both numeric and 
character type within the same file. Unfor- 
tunately, Pocket APL imposes a severe 
restriction on the size of component files; 
I could not create one greater than about 
10K bytes in size. (This was for an entire file, 
not just one component of a file.) 

File operations are performed through 
special system functions, and there are 
many more system functions and com- 
mands to control the Pocket APL environ- 
ment in general. These make for a versatile 
system, but they can be confusing for a first- 
time user, especially with their unusual (but 
very consistent) syntax. The syntax of 
system functions is the same as the syntax 
of APLs other functions, with the exception 
that system functions are designated by an 
English keyword preceded by a "quad box" 
symbol. 

When you enter APL from DOS, the sys- 
tem asks you whether you would, like to use 
APL symbols or their equivalent keywords, 
and you may switch between the two at any 
time during your session. The keywords can 
be used with either the monochrome or the 
color/graphics adapter card, but I only 
recommend you use the symbols if you 
have the latter. For monochrome boards, 
the standard PC character set is shuffled 

(continued) 



- Inquiry 35 



MARCH 1986 • BYT E 237 



REVIEW: POCKET APL 



around a bit in a good attempt to 
reproduce the APL symbols, but 
many of them aren't there. If just start- 
ing out in APL, you may want to use 
the keywords, but this feature is rather 
awkwardly implemented. The key- 
words can interfere with user-defined 
functions, and they are case-sensitive; 
as you get bogged down in their use, 
the brevity of the symbols looks much 
more attractive. If you come to like 
APL and are not bothered by Pocket 
APLs limited environment, then you 
may want to install an APL character 
ROM, available from STSC for $3 5. 
The APL symbols do not interfere 
with standard ASCII characters, as 



only some of the more obscure 
foreign-language characters are dis- 
placed. It is available for the Hercules 
monochrome board as well as IBM's 
standard. 

Pocket APL comes with a keyboard 
reference placard that you can lean 
up against your monitor or system 
unit. This is fine if you are a touch- 
typist, because all you have to do is 
glance at the placard and touch the 
key where you see the symbol. How- 
ever, if you are a hacker type (such as 
myself) who never took typing classes, 
you have to look at the placard and 
then at the keyboard to locate the key. 
I would prefer little decals that stick 



Table 1: Benchmark times for Pocket APL and IBM BASICA 2.00. The Disk 


Read and Write benchmarks were shortened to account for Pocket APLs limited 


file capabilities. For benchmarks involving real numbers, both Pocket APL and 


BASIC used double precision unless otherwise noted 


(Times are 


in 


minutes.seconds.) 






Test 


3 ocket APL 


BASICA 


Integer summation, 1 to 10,000 


0:25.4 


0:39.2 
(single precision) 


Create 10,000-element array of random integers 


0:3.6 


0:1:13.0 


Find largest element of 10,000-element integer 






array 


0:19.8 


0:52.0 


Sort 100-element integer array in ascending order 


0:0.1 


0:59.0 


Disk Write (shortened) 


0:4.1 


0:12.0 


Disk Read (shortened) 


0:1.3 


0:10.0 


Sieve of Eratosthenes 


3:34.0 


3:27.0 


Calculations 


7:18.0 


4:14.0 


Summation of sin function values (1-360 degrees) 


0:12.1 


0:19.0 



Listing 1: Summation of the integers 1 to 10,000 in (a) APL and (b) BASIC, 
(a) 



+/ i.i0000 



(b) 



5 R E. M S u m m a t i o n o f i n t e q & r s .1 t o 1. O O O 

10 SUM=0 

20 FOR 1=1 TO lOOOO 

30 SUM=SUH+I 

40 next :i: 

50 PRINT "Done, Sum- " 5 SUM 

60 'END 



on the keys, as I am used to the full 
APL keyboards found on the ter- 
minals of large mainframe systems. 

Benchmarks 

Although Pocket APL does not have 
the mind-numbing speed of APL im- 
plementations with 8087 numeric co- 
processors, it does a good job of 
holding its own against other inter- 
preted languages. To test the perfor- 
mance of Pocket APL, I ran bench- 
mark tests between it and another 
popular language, IBM's BASICA 2.00. 
(It is difficult to compare APL with any 
other language, so 1 chose the lan- 
guage that I felt was the best known 
among PC owners.) Where APL could 
be applied appropriately, the func- 
tions were much shorter than the 
BASIC programs to perform the same 
task. The benchmarks were run under 
DOS 2.1 on an IBM PC (see table 1). 

First, let's consider some basic oper- 
ations. The summation of the integers 
1 to 10,000, while a bit simple-minded 
for a benchmark comparison, will 
allow me to point out the major dif- 
ferences between the way APL and 
BASIC perform their operations and 
allocate memory. The BASIC program 
for this task is simple enough; it is 
essentially a FOR-NEXT loop, taking 
five statements. The APL version, 
however, is far more concise (see 
listing 1) and yields the answer more 
quickly. This was not as surprising as 
one other difference: Pocket APL 
responded with a clean 50005000, 
but BASIC came back with an inexact 
5.00029E+07. Using double precision 
in BASIC gave the correct answer, but 
it took a full 8 seconds more than with 
single precision, chugging through in 
47.3 seconds. In APL, all floating- 
point numbers are double precision 
by default. 

In listing 2, 1 compare some elemen- 
tary APL array operations with the 
same operations in BASIC. As you can 
see, not only are the APL versions of 
these operations much more succinct, 
but they execute much faster, due to 
the much lower interpreter overhead. 
One of the most powerful operators 
in APL is the "upgrade," used in sort- 
ing numeric arrays. Curiously enough. 



238 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



REVIEW: POCKET APL 



it took much less time to sort a 
10,000-element array than it did to 
find its greatest element. The sort pro- 
gram written in BASIC is a form of the 
selection sort, a common algorithm 
that requires, for an array of n 
elements, n~2/2 iterations to com- 
plete. More efficient algorithms (par- 
ticularly those involving recursion) 
cannot be implemented in BASIC 
without a great deal of complication, 
so I had to choose something less 
powerful. For direct comparison I 
used an array of size 100. (I had at- 
tempted using an array of size 10,000, 
which Pocket APL still handled very 
well. The BASIC program, on the 
other hand, got hopelessly bogged 
down in the selection sort and I final- 
ly stopped the program after about 1 7 
minutes, at which point the variable 
/ of the outer FOR loop had only 
reached a value of 13.) 

These examples show one of the 
advantages of using APL, in terms of 
time, accuracy, and the generality of 
solutions (also see the text box "APLs 
Flexibility" on page 243). But APL 
also has a dark side. While the BASIC 
program and variables for the first ex- 
ample occupied only 132 bytes of 
memory. Pocket APL hogged nearly 
2 OK bytes to do the same job. This 
was the consequence of APLs not 
having to construct a loop to perform 
the summation; it had to generate a 
10,000-element array containing the 
numeric sequence and then perform 
the summation over the array. (In this 
case, the memory occupied by the ar- 
ray was released back into the work- 
space because 1 did not create a vari- 
able with it.) This is why Pocket APLs 
small workspace is such a disadvan- 
tage. APL can be so memory-intensive 
that in a small system, even simple ar- 
ray operations can take up all avail- 
able memory if the arrays are large 
enough. 

This memory restriction made itself 
emphatically clear when I tried to run 
some of the standard benchmarks re- 
quired of BYTE reviews; the arrays 
generated by the operations quickly 
inundated the small workspace, and 
in each case, all I received for my pro- 

(continued) 



Listing 2: Elementary array operations in APL: (a) generates a 
10,000-element random integer array, [b] finds the largest element 
and (c) sorts it in ascending order. The associated code fragments in 
shown in (d), (e). and (/). 


of the array. 
BASIC are 


(a) 




A * 1 10000 p 10000 




(b) 




r .-■ a 




(c) 




A *■ A [ 4 A 1 




(d) 




5 R EM Gen© r a t e a 1 9 , 9 B 9 — e 1 erne n t a r r 


'• 3. v 


o f r a n d om i n teqer s . 




1 9 D I M AX (. 1 9 9 ) 




29 FOR 1 = 1 T 1 9 




39 AX>; I > = 1 + 1 090*RND 




48 NEXT I 




50 END 




(e) 




5 REM Find the largest element 




of an array . 




6 R EM A s s urn e e x i s t e n c e o t 1 9 , 9 9 9 - e 


& m & n t 


a r r a y AX . 




1 9 XX=AX ( 1 ) 




119 F R 1=2 T 1 




120 IF XX<AX(I> THEN XX=AX( I) 




130 NEXT I 




1 40 PR I NT " Don e . Lar ge s t el erne n t = 


i .■■ .-■ ■ 


150 END 




(f) 




5 REM Array a or t us i ng se 1 set i on a 


gor i t hm . 


6 R EM A s s u m e e x i s t e n c e of 1 9 9 - e 1 e m e n t 


a r r a y AX . 




100 FOR 1=1 TO 100 




1 19 FOR J=l TO 199 




129 IF AX'XJ) <AX< n THEN T=AX 


: I ) : 


AX ( I ) =AX ( J > : AX ( J ) =T 




130 NEXT J 




140 NEXT I 




150 PRINT "Done." 




160 END 





MARCH 1986 



YTE 239 



REVIEW: POCKET APL 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Pocket APL 

Type 

Language 

Company 

STSC Inc. 

2115 East Jefferson St. 
Rockville, MD 20852 
(301) 984-5123 

Computer 

IBM PC, IBM PCjr, and some PC- 
compatibles equipped with PC-DOS or MS- 
DOS; requires at least 128K bytes of 
memory; IBM PC graphics board required 
for APL soft character set 

Documentation 

APL is Easy!, a 173-page tutorial; 22-page 
reference manual; keyword reference card; 
APL keyboard placard 

Price 

$95 ($5 shipping) 



gramming efforts was an unceremon- 
ious WS FULL (workspace full) 
message. To avoid this, I either had to 
"scale down" the benchmark pro- 
grams or formulate iterative solutions, 
which I found to be quite frustrating. 
Another problem was with the com- 
ponent files (for the reasons I men- 
tioned earlier). 

The standard benchmarks used 
were Disk Read and Disk Write, Cal- 
culations, and the ubiquitous Sieve of 
Eratosthenes (see listing 3). The 
results summary indicates that in 
cases where APL could be used most 
appropriately, it was appreciatively 



faster than BASIC. However, where 
APL had to be applied iteratively, as 
in the Sieve and Calculations bench- 
marks, BASIC gave it a hard time. In 
fact, if you compare the code for each 
case, you will see that as the degree 
of iteration increases, the slower APL 
performs. While in the Sieve function 
some degree of parallelism could be 
maintained, there were no parallel 
operations whatsoever in the Calcula- 
tions function, where APL did the 
worst, although it did return an error 
of zero. To further test the precision 
of APLs floating-point operations, I 

[continued! 



Listing 3: The standard benchmarks in APL: (a) is the Disk Write benchmark, 


(b) is 


the Disk Read benchmark, (c) is the Sieve benchmark, and [d) is the 


Calculations benchmark. Note that programs (a) and (b) had to be modified to fit 


Pocket APLs file-size limitations (see text). For the BASIC versions of these 


programs, see the June 1984 BYTE, page 327, and October 1984, page 33. 


(a) 






7DISKUFITE[G]7 


[0] 


DISKURITE;A;B 


m 


n Diskwrite benchmark 


[2] 


n 


[3] 


n Create A, an 8 element character vector 


[4] 


A*-' 12345678' 


[53 


ft Create E, a 96 by 96 element character matrix 


[63 


E*- 96 96 eA 


[7] 


ft Create file 'TEST', with tie number 1 


[8] 


'TEST' DFCREATE 1 


[9] 


ft Write B to the first component of TEST 


[10] 


B OFAPPEND 1 


Cii] 


ft Close file TEST 


[12] 


DFUNT1E 1 


(b) 






?DISKREAD[03" 


[0] 


BISK.REAB 


[13 


ft I'iskread benchmark 


[23 


ft 


[33 


n Open file TEST with tie number 1 


[43 


'TEST' DFTIE 1 


[53 


n Read B from first component of TEST 


[63 


B4-DFREAB 1 1 


[73 


ft Close file TEST 


[83 


DFUNTIE 1 



240 BYTE- MARCH 1986 



REVIEW: POCKET APL 



(c) 

CO] 

Ci] 

[2] 

[33 

[4] 

[5] 

[6] 

[?] 

[8] 

[9] 

[103 

[113 

[123 

[133 

[143 

[153 

[163 

[1?] 

[183 

[193 

[203 

[213 

[223 
(d) 

[03 

[13 

[23 

[33 

[43 

[53 

[63 

[?] 

[8] 

[9] 

[10] 

[11] 

[12] 

[13] 

[14] 

[15] 

[16] 

[17] 

[18] 

[19] 



9S1EVEED3? 

Z<-SIEVE N; FLAGS; I; ILIMIT; PRIME; K;SETZER0 

ft Perform first iteration of Sieve of Eratosthenes. 

ft 

ft Set Index Origin to zero 

0I0«-O 
ft Initialize flag array 

FLAGS«-<N+i)pi 
n Initialize looping parameters 

ILIMITHN*3 

1*0 
ft TOE I«-i TO ILIMIT 
F0R:Kt-I + PRIHE«-I + I + 3 
ft IF FLAGS['I]=0 THEN NEXT I 

-KO=FLAGS[I])/NEXT 
ft Generate indices to set elements of FLAG to zero. 

SETZER0*+\K, i "l + UN-mpRIME>PPRIME 
ft Set FLAG elements to zero 

FLAGS[SETZERO]K> 
ft NEXT I 

NEXT:-XILIMIT2I«-I+1)/F0R 
n 

A Number of primes is equal to number of 1's 
left in FLAG 

Z«-+/FLAGS 



?CALC[D]s 
CALC;A;E;C; I 
ft Calculation benchmark 
ft 

A«-*i ft A«-Natural log base e 

Bt-oi n B«-Pi 

Oi 
ft Initialize looping parameter 

H-l 
ft FOR I<-1 TO 5000 
FOR: 

CKxA 

OCxB 

OC-^A 

C*C*B 
ft NEXT I 

NEXT:-K50002I<-I + i)/FOR 
ft 

'DONE' 

'ERRORS ' 

C-i 



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MARCH 1986 -BYTE 241 



REVIEW: POCKET APL 



Listing 4: Am illustration of the order of operations in APL. This example 
calculates a summation over the values of sin(x), where x ranges from 1 to 360 
degrees. 


+/io(^i80)xov360 




+ / 1 o (4-180) x o ,,360 


Generate integers 1 through 360 


+/ 1 o (4-130) x o v360 


multiply each by Pi 


♦/ 1 o (4-180) x o v360 


divide result by 180 


+/ 1 o (4-180) x o ^360 


take the sine of' each element 
of' the result 




*/ i o (4-130) x o v360 


finally, take the sum 
of the whole. 




"1.193489751E"15 «■- 


Answer printed directly 
by system. 



made it perform the summation of 
the sines of the angles 1 through 360, 
which should yield a null result. 
(Besides, 1 could do it noniteratively 
so as not to offend my sense of 
purism.) The expression is in listing 4; 



it is reminiscent of the gloriously 
undecipherable "one-liners" that are 
the experienced APL programmer's 
claim to fame. These are fun once in 
a while, but I don't recommend that 
you adopt them generally unless you 



either document them very well or en- 
joy solving computational puzzles 
later on when you've forgotten what 
you wrote them for. 

Documentation 

The introductory tutorial that comes 
with the package deserves more than 
the passing mention I gave it earlier; 
it is truly excellent. APL is Easy! by 
Jerry R. Turner offers newcomers a 
straightforward introduction to the 
language. Its only flaw is that it 
assumes you are at once familiar with 
the APL keyboard, which for new 
users can be terribly confusing. A 
general overview of each chapter is 
given in the introduction, and the for- 
mat of the tutorial is clearly explained. 
There are exercises at the end of each 
chapter (with solutions in the back of 
the book) and examples galore. The 
sample programs in the book are 
even on the system disk so you don't 
have to type them in. APL is Easy! will 
not teach you everything there is to 
know about APL, but it will give you 
an excellent working knowledge and 
a very solid base upon which you can 
further develop your skills. 

In addition to the tutorial is a 
22-page reference guide containing 
summaries of APL and system fea- 
tures. Like the tutorial, it is well 



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242 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 210 



REVIEW: POCKET APL 



APL's Flexibility 



Array operations in APL can be 
extended to arrays of any dimen- 
sion. For a one-dimensional array, 
called a vector, we can find the 
summation of its elements with the 
expression + /A, where A is the name 
of the vector. The number of elements 
in the vector is of no concern to the 
programmer; the parameters for 
controlling the summation are taken 
care of internally. In BASIC, the 
summation would have to be handled 
this way: 

10 Sum = 
20 For I = 1 to Maxl 
30 Sum = Sum + A(l) 
40 Next I 

If the length of A were to change, the 
value of Maxl would have to be 
changed, too. What's worse, if the 
number of dimensions of A were to 



change, then more code would have to 
be added: 

10 Sum = 

20 For I = 1 to Maxl 

25 For J = 1 to MaxJ 

30 Sum = Sum + A(l,J) 

35 Next J 

40 Next I 

and so on as the number of 
dimensions were increased. The values 
of Maxl and MaxJ (the number of 
elements along each respective 
dimension) might have to be changed 
as well. 

In APL, to perform the summation of 
any numeric array, the expression is 
+ /,A. The comma between the slash 
and the A acts on the array A by "ravel- 
ing" it, or taking all its elements and 
forming a vector for the purpose of the 
summation. 



organized and its format is explained 
in the introduction. 

If you require assistance with APL 
on line, the system help facility is very 
useful. The panic button is F6; when 
you press it, the screen clears and is 
filled with the names of the various 
topics (there are 3 5 of them). To see 
information on a topic, just move the 



cursor to where you see it listed and 
hit the enter key: the screen for that 
topic then appears, and there are 
often subtopics to choose from. 

Conclusion 

Although Pocket APL has some mad- 
dening limitations, STSC should be 
applauded for creating an APL pack- 



age that is intended for the general 
PC user. It's terrific for quick-and-dirty 
calculations, and the fact that it runs 
on an unmodified PC makes it even 
more attractive. If, however, you are 
an experienced APL user, you will be 
disappointed. Many features found in 
more advanced APL systems are 
missing, such as groups, shared 
variables, and auxiliary processors. 

The most disappointing part of 
reviewing Pocket APL was the fact 
that, since the standard benchmarks 
could not be implemented in the 
most appropriate way, it performed 
very poorly on them. I tell people un- 
familiar with APL that it has power 
and elegance, especially in its han- 
dling of arrays. 

If nothing else, Pocket APL is a 
means of exploring an entirely dif- 
ferent kind of programming language, 
one that will make you think about 
programming in a new and broader 
sense. Naturally, it is much slower 
than professional APL packages, par- 
ticularly for floating-point operations. 
But since both the workspace size and 
file capacity are so limited, you will 
not find yourself using it for serious 
applications to begin with. You may 
find that it works well for small 
numerical applications, but don't push 
it too hard. ■ 



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Language Features 








Functions 










abs 


conbuf 


feof 




isascii 


movmem 


replace 




• Data Types: char, short, 


asm 


cone 


ferror 


getdseg 


Iscntrl 


open 


repmem 


stremp 


int, unsigned, long, float, 


asmx 
atan 


cos 

cpystr 


fflush 

fgets 


getd 
putd 


isdiglt 
islower 


outp 
peek 


rewind 
right* 


strcpy 
strlen 


double 


atof 


creat 


fileno 


getdate 


isprint 


perror 


rindex 


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filet rap 


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ispunct 


poke 


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strnemp 




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poseurs 


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curs row 


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getkey 


Itoa 


printf 


setbufsiz 


system 


extern, static, register 


bios 


cursoff 


forintf 


getmode 


keypress 
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putc 


setcolor 


tolower 




blosx 


curson 


routs 


setmode 


putchar 


set date 


toupper 


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calloc 

cell 


delete 

(hand 


(read 
free 


gets 
getw 
neaps iz 
heaptrap 


len 
log 


puts 
putw 


settlme 

setjmp 


ungetc 
ungetch 

unlink 
write 


Bit Fields, Enumerations 


cfree 
chain 


exec 
execl 


freopen 
fscanf 


loglO 
longjmp 


rand 
read 


setmem 
sin 




character 


execv 


feeek 


hypot 
index 
inp 


lseek 


readattr 


sound 


writechs 


• Structure Assignment, 


chdlr 
chmod 


exit 
exitmsg 


ftetl 

fwrite 


malloc 
alloc 


reach 
writech 


sprintf 

sqrt 


xmembeg 
xmemend 


Passing/Returning 


clearerr 
close 


exp 
fabs 


getc 
getch 


insert 
iofllter 


mathtrap 
mld$ 


readdot 
writedot 


srand 
sscanf 


xmemget 
xmemput 


Structures 


clrscrn 


fclose 


putch 


isalnum 


mkdir 


realloc 


stacksiz 


xmovmem 




cmpstr 


fdopen 


getchar 


isalpha 


modf 


rename 


str$ 


^exit 





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244 B YTE • MARCH 1986 




SOFTWARE REVIEW 



An 



excellent 



microcomputer 
version of 



Prolog 



by William G. Wong 



William G. Wong [Logic Fusion 

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AritylProlog 



Arity/Prolog is an implementation of 
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The base version of Arity/Prolog includes 
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$3 50. You can purchase a native-code com- 
piler with the interpreter for $795. (I re- 
viewed version 3.2; see the text box "Arity/ 
Prolog 4.0" on page 247 for a look at the 
recently announced version.) The compiler 
can generate code for stand-alone programs 
or code that you can use with the interpreter. 
There are no license fees for stand-alone 
programs. Compiled Prolog code has all the 
advantages of conventionally compiled 
code, including faster execution. 

Copy Protection 

Arity/Prolog is a great product, as the rest 
of this article will show. However, it has what 
I consider one major problem: copy protec- 
tion using a key-disk system. This only ap- 
plies to the interpreter and compiler. Stand- 
alone programs do not have copy pro- 
tection. 

You must have the key disk in drive A 
when you initially run the programs, even 
on a hard-disk system. Also, you get only 
one key disk and nothing runs without it. 
1 would hate to have the key disk fail in the 
middle of important research or writing. 

DOCUMENTATION 

Arity/Prolog comes in a nice vinyl binder 
with two books entitled The Programming 
Language and The Programming Environment. 
Arity Corporation expects to have new 
documentation in the near future. The exist- 
ing documents are good and include ap- 
pendixes and an index. 

The Programming Language describes the im- 
plementations of Arity/Prolog, including all 
functions built into the system. This book 
contains a number of good examples but 
is not intended to be a tutorial. The only 
item not covered in enough detail is the tail- 
recursion optimization. 



The Programming Environment describes how 
to use the interpreter, compiler, and utility 
programs. It also describes the assembly- 
language and Lattice C interface and has a 
detailed presentation of the Prolog inter- 
nals. The organization and examples are 
excellent. 

Data Types 

Arity/Prolog has a number of different basic 
data types, including 16-bit integers, float- 
ing-point numbers, strings, lists, variables, 
atoms, and structures. It lets you manipulate 
integers and floating-point numbers using 
normal arithmetics, logical bit operators, 
and logarithmic and trigonometric func- 
tions. The language uses an 8087 numeric 
coprocessor for floating-point manipulation 
if it is resident. 

Strings and lists have the usual set of 
manipulation functions found in languages 
such as C and BASIC. Strings are charac- 
ter-based vectors, while lists can contain any 
data type. A string is written with dollar 
signs as delimiters; double-quote delimiters 
are reserved for a list of characters. This is 
different from other languages but does 
provide the required differentiation. See 
table 1 for examples of the two types. 

Although lists have the advantage of 
holding an item of any type, the string usual- 
ly holds text more efficiently. You will often 
use lists to hold a list of atoms that can be 
searched quickly. However, Arity/Prolog 

also provides the string search function, 

which allows quick examination of strings 
for tokens. Multiple occurrences of a string 

can be found using string .search because 

it supports backtracking. For example, 

string search($xyz$, $xyz abc xyz$, X) 

would succeed twice with X being instan- 
tiated to and 8. 

Prolog variables start with a capital letter 
or an underscore. An underscore alone is 
the anonymous variable. Atoms are con- 
stants and start with a lowercase letter or 

(continued) 



MARCH 1986 • BYTE 245 



REVIEW: ARITY/PROLOG 



are enclosed in single quotes. See 
table 2 for a list of valid variables and 
atoms. 

Unfortunately, all variables are con- 
verted into internal names when they 
are placed into the database. Internal 
variable names have an underscore 
and a hexadecimal number, as in 

1CD8. This is an inconvenience 

only when you use the interpreter 
because 

likes( X, some fruit ) : - 

likes( X, apples ), 
likes( X, oranges ). 

gets converted to 

likes( _0123, some_fruit ) : - 
likes( _0123, apples ), 
likes( 0123, oranges ). 

Structures provide a general- 
purpose mechanism for describing 
relationships between terms. The 
name of a structure, called a functor, 
must be a constant. A structure can 
have a number of terms listed be- 
tween parentheses and separated by 
commas. The functor can be listed by 
itself if it includes no terms, as in 

functor with no terms 

likes( John, apples ) 
plural( apple, apples ) 
kind of( apple, fruit ) 

The only quirk is that the left paren- 
thesis must be adjacent to the func- 
tor. Any intervening spaces indicate 



that the functor has no terms as- 
sociated with it. In addition, infix 
operator precedence can be specified 
so the previous examples could ap- 
pear as 

John likes apples 
apple plural apples 
apple kind of fruit 

Database Support 

Arity/Prolog uses a single database 
containing clauses that are structures. 
Clauses can be hidden in a modular 
fashion only if you use the compiler. 
A complete set of operators is pro- 
vided for adding and deleting clauses. 
Any interpreted clauses can be listed 
to the screen or to a file. This capabili- 
ty is somewhat limited, but you can 
easily extend it. 

In addition, you can save the entire 
database or restore it from a file very 
quickly. The save option allows in- 
cremental backup. The restore option 
lets you resume a session in the same 
condition as it was saved. This pro- 
cess is much faster than reading Pro- 
log text, since information is already 
placed into the database. 

I/O Support 

Arity/Prolog supports a wide variety 
of I/O (input/output) functions for 
character devices and disk files. You 
access character devices, such as the 
console and the printer, by using the 



Table I : Examples 


of lists and strings in Arity/Prolog. 


Example 


Description 


[a, b] 


Two-element list 


.( a, .( b, nil )) 


Same as [ a, b ] 


$This is a string.S 


Normal string 


$A dollar sign$$.$ 


String with embedded $ sign 


"abc" 


Same as [ 97, 98, 99 ] 



Table 2: Arity/Prolog' s valid variables and atoms. 



Variables 



0394 

Sack of items 



Atoms 

anonymous 

x 

'France' 

box of apples 



same functions as the disk file. I/O is 
stream-oriented and disk files can be 
randomly addressed. All input and 
output uses character- string-, or 
structure-based operations. The lan- 
guage currently has no formatting op- 
tions similar to PRINT USING in 
BASIC or format strings in C. However, 
you can convert numbers to strings by 
using a limited formatting capability, 
and then you can print them. 

The I/O operators can use the stan- 
dard input and output files or specific 
file handles. For example, 

getO(Character) 
getO(Handle, Character) 

shows the use of the character-input 
operator with the standard input file 
and a specified file handle. I/O redirec- 
tion is possible and is described in the 
documentation. You can perform re- 
direction of the standard input and 
output files permanently or for the 
duration of a Prolog goal search. 

Arity/Prolog supports the DOS 2.x 
subdirectories and a search-path 
facility for data files similar to the DOS 
PATH command. Directory-mainte- 
nance operations and subdirectory 
creation and deletion are also sup- 
ported. 

You can access the screen directly, 
including cursor-positioning control 
and character-attribute manipulation. 
This makes menu presentation much 
easier. You can also retrieve screen 
contents, which makes programming 
menu windows a snap. 

Arity/Prolog includes direct access 
to the I/O ports accessible to the 
8088/8086. This lets you create com- 
munications or process-control pro- 
grams in Prolog without using assem- 
bly-language functions. 

In general, the I/O support is ade- 
quate for most AI (artificial intel- 
ligence) applications but is limited for 
general applications that require for- 
matted output. You can access binary 
files, but this is difficult using the exist- 
ing operators. 

System Access 

Direct access to the DOS for non-file- 
related functions is limited to time 
functions and invocation of the DOS 



246 B YTE • MARCH 1 986 



REVIEW: ARITY/PROLOG 



Command program. The latter lets 
you run other programs directly from 
Prolog. 

You can directly access the current 
time and date. Also, the format of the 
time-stamp structure is the same as 
that used by the directory-manipula- 
tion functions. 

Access to DOS interrupts and other 
system-related functions is possible if 
you include assembly-language or C 
functions. 

Error Handling 
and Tracing 

Arity/Prolog error handling is ade- 
quate but different from most lan- 
guages. It lets you change error mes- 
sages and turn the error messages for 
syntax and file I/O on and off. Arith- 
metic errors cause the evaluation to 
fail, and any variables involved are 
bound to the atom err. This is a nice 
feature when you are dealing with 
mathematical proofs. All other opera- 
tions cause the goal to fail. 

Only fatal errors, such as insufficient 
space, will cause the program to 
abort. This is unfortunate, since the 
state of the database is lost. Abort- 
ing current computation and return- 
ing to the top-level prompt or some 
specified clause would have been 
preferable. 

The trace facility is very good. It in- 
cludes a single-step-mode option with 
a number of other options. You can 
monitor a clause when it is called, 
when it exits, when it fails, or when 
backtracking occurs. 

The only type of operation not sup- 
ported by Arity/Prolog is a LISP-style 
CATCH/THROW including an UN- 
WIND_PROTECT. This would let a 
computation return a single result 
without your explicitly declaring such 
a possibility within a database. It also 
would provide a better error-handling 
facility for both fatal system and pro- 
gram-induced errors. 

Virtual Memory 

Virtual-memory support is built into 
Arity/Prolog, both interpreted and 
compiled. The Prolog database is 
automatically moved between a file 
and main memory as the program re- 



Arity/Prolog 4.0 



I received some preliminary docu- 
mentation for version 4.0 just before 
this article was to be published. Al- 
though 1 could not review the actual 
software, the documentation gives a 
glimpse of things to come. 

The first change is a cleaner "cut" 
operation called a "snip." A snip looks 
like a list with cut symbols added, as in 

[! snippet !] 

where snippet can be any clause. The 
snip prevents backtracking through the 
snippet if it succeeds. This allows more 
control over the backtracking than a 
cut, which prevents backtracking to any 
prior point in a body. For example, 

test :- a, [! b, c !], d. 
test :- a, b, c, !, d. 

The first allows backtracking on a if b 
and C succeed but d fails, whereas the 
second causes test to fail if d fails. 

Version 4.0 also adds support for 
multiple "worlds." A world is a parti- 
tion within the database (there is still 
only one). Separate "code" and "data" 
worlds are possible, with a current and 



default set being accessible at one 
time. The structure is not hierarchical 
nor automatic for any set larger than 
the current and default worlds. 

Multiple worlds let you partition in- 
formation for ease of use. It also in- 
creases efficiency, since the virtual- 
memory system works on world 
boundaries. Access to data within a 
particular world is faster because infor- 
mation in other worlds does not have 
to be examined. 

TWo other major additions are sup- 
port for B-trees and hash tables. These 
are structures within the database and 
not file-oriented support modules. 
However, they do provide faster access 
to large amounts of information, even 
faster than using different worlds. 
Multiple-key support is described in 
the documentation but is not built in. 

If all goes as planned, the new ver- 
sion of Arity/Prolog should be a power- 
ful superset of the existing product. 
Sophisticated applications seem ap- 
propriate for this implementation, 
especially if you have a large hard disk 
and extended memory support. 



quires. Obviously, faster file access 
leads to faster program execution. 
Virtual-memory files are impractical 
on floppy disks, acceptable on hard 
disks, and very nice with RAM (ran- 
dom-access read/write memory) disks. 
Arity supplies a menu-driven en- 
vironment-definition program to con- 
trol the operation of the virtual-mem- 
ory system and a number of other sys- 
tem parameters. 

Compatibility 

Arity/Prolog is an extended version of 
Prolog as found on many mainframes. 
A recommended Prolog text is Pro- 
gramming in Prolog by W. F. Clocksin and 
C. S. Mellish, which matches Arity/Pro- 
log very well. 

Arity/Prolog supports some sophis- 
ticated Prolog features, such as infix 
notation with operator precedence 
and definite clause grammars (DCGs). 



This module is very useful for building 
natural-language parsers. 

Compiler and Assembly- 
Language Interface 

The compiler is available at additional 
cost and provides a number of major 
benefits. You can compile any inter- 
preted program unless it contains 
string or floating-point constants. 
However, you can achieve the desired 
effect by placing these constants in 
compiled code as atoms along with 
atom-conversion operators. Even so, 
this limitation can cause major prob- 
lems. Additional mechanisms provide 
a method of defining modules that let 
you hide internal definitions from 
other modules. You can reduce name 
conflicts by using this feature. 

Compiled code runs faster than in- 
terpreted code. The speed increase is 

(continued) 



MARCH 1986 • BYT E 247 



REVIEW: ARITY/PROLOG 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Arity/Prolog 3.2 

Company 

Arity Corp. 
358 Baker Ave. 
Concord, MA 01742 
(617) 371-2422 

Computer 

IBM PC, XT, AT, or compatible 

PC-DOS/MS-DOS 2.0 or later 

256K-byte minimum (640K bytes 

recommended) 

One floppy-disk drive (hard disk 

recommended) 

Compatible Software 

Microsoft MASM assembler and linker 
Lattice C 

Documentation 

The Programming Language 
The Programming Environment 



Price 




Demo disk 


$19.95 


Interpreter 


$350 


Compiler/interpreter 


$795 



highly dependent upon the applica- 
tion. Computationally bound algo- 
rithms that do not allocate new ob- 
jects might be up to 20 times faster, 
while other operations might be only 
two or three times faster. Disk opera- 
tions might be only 10 to 20 percent 
faster. 

Running the compiler is easy; it 
prompts for all information. Unfor- 
tunately, these parameters cannot be 
on the command line, which makes 
batch files less useful. The compiler 
generates object files compatible with 
the Microsoft linker normally supplied 
with MS-DOS. You can use compiled 
code with stand-alone programs. The 
code can also be included with the in- 
terpreter, in which case the compiled 
operators are available interactively. 

You can also use assembly code 
and functions written in Lattice C in 
the same fashion as compiled code. 
C code can handle only those argu- 
ments that are integers, atoms, strings, 
and floating-point numbers. The 
documentation gives a number of ex- 
amples and describes the interface 
mechanism in detail. 

Benchmarks 

I performed a few of the standard 
BYTE benchmarks, using an IBM PC 
XT with PC-DOS 2.1, 640K bytes of 
RAM, a 320K-byte floppy disk, a 
20-megabyte hard disk, and no 8087 
numeric coprocessor. 

As you can see from table 3, the 
Write and Read benchmark opera- 
tions are slightly faster than inter- 
preted BASIC and change little be- 
tween interpreted and compiled code, 
indicating the hardware limitation of 
the floppy disk. In general, screen- 



Table 3: A comparison of performance times in seconds for interpreted and 
compiled versions of standard BYTE benchmark programs [writing, reading, and 
calculations) and two additional programs (loop and append), written in 
Arity/Prolog. 



248 



Benchmark Name 


Interpreted 


Time 


Compiled Time 


Write 




31.5 




29.9 


Read 




32.3 




28.7 


Calculate 




362 




153 


Loop 




15.5 




0.9 


Append 




25.3 




1.2 


BYTE ■ 


MARCH 1986 









based I/O will speed up when com- 
piled, but disk-based code will have 
limited speed benefits. 

The floating-point calculation exam- 
ple is significantly slower than inter- 
preted BASIC. However, BASIC is 
using a single-precision floating-point 
number, while Arity/Prolog uses dou- 
ble-precision. Arity/Prolog is slower 
for another reason: Unlike integers, 
floating-point numbers are allocated 
like strings. This uses additional over- 
head. Even so, floating-point opera- 
tions are acceptable, and using an 
8087 can speed up calculations. 

The Loop benchmark (which tests 
the speed of an empty loop) and Ap- 
pend benchmark (which tests the 
speed of list manipulation) show the 
greatest change in elapsed time due 
to compilation. This marked improve- 
ment is more typical of Al-based ap- 
plications where a good deal of unifi- 
cation is performed along with integer 
and list manipulation. 

I did not do a benchmark for the 
Sieve of Eratosthenes prime-number 
program, because Arity/Prolog lacks 
arrays, which the Sieve algorithm uses. 
Using Prolog lists would significantly 
degrade the indexing operations in 
the algorithm. Modification of the 
algorithm to suit Prolog would make 
the algorithm very different from one 
written in BASIC or C. Comparisons 
would be difficult at best. Arity/Pro- 
log works well with computation- 
based operations but not with arrays. 

Summary 

Arity/Prolog is an excellent product. 
It provides a complete set of opera- 
tors, including random file access and 
screen support. The virtual-memory 
facility can handle very large applica- 
tions; it works well with a hard disk 
and is even better with a RAM disk. 
The new expanded memory boards 
should really make the system hum. 
The only major items that need 
changing are the addition of a resi- 
dent editor, removal of the copy pro- 
tection, and better window support. 
However, Arity/Prolog provides a suit- 
able environment for major AI work, 
especially on a PC AT with a large 
RAM disk and hard disk. ■ 

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SOFTWARE REVIEW 



Raised Dot's 

talking 

word 

processor 



by Henry Brugsch 



Henry Brugsch (32 Morgan Ave.. 
Medford. MA 02155) is a profes- 
sional piano tuner who recently 
became interested in computers. He 
has a B.A. from Tufts University. 
His other interests include amateur 
radio and steam-locomotive 
preservation. 



Braille-Edit 



The revolution begun by the printing 
press and the linotype machine has 
created a barrier for the blind. The 
printed word is another reminder that we 
are unable to read or write without verifica- 
tion. The development of the typewriter 
brought us the capability of generating text, 
but we had to type and handle print without 
being able to read it or verify what we had 
typed. This meant that we had to be able 
to type flawlessly and accurately or that we 
had to have a proofreader on hand. In the 
last few years, with the advent of the micro- 
computer and breakthroughs in speech 
technology, a word processor for the visual- 
ly impaired has become a reality. 

Braille-Edit from Raised Dot Computing 
performs general word processing and 
translates printed material into braille and 
back (via a braille input device). You can 
write files in braille using dedicated keys on 
the computer keyboard, and you can move 
from Braille-Edit's file format to generating 
text files or other word-processing files. 

To use the program, you need to install 
a speech synthesizer. Braille-Edit runs well 
with a variety of speech devices, including 
Intex Talker, Type-'N-Talk, and Street Elec- 
tronics' Echo General Purpose Speech Syn- 
thesizer. But the most successful synthe- 
sizer for this program, the one on which it 
is based, is the Echo II (also from Street 
Electronics), now supplanted by the Echo+. 
This slot-mounted device requires 16K 
bytes of RAM (random-access read/write 
memory) to support its speech algorithms, 
which are built into the Braille-Edit program. 
When you purchase Braille-Edit, you get 
a print-interface guide, either a print manual 
or a braille manual (your choice), or cassette 
versions of both. You also receive the 
double-sided disk-based software for the 
Apple II, Apple II + , and Apple He along 
with a year's subscription to Raised Dot News 
letter. The Echo training disk is an option. 
Speech devices and attendant software are 
available from the appropriate manufac- 
turers or directly from Raised Dot Comput- 



ing. Braille-Edit is written in Applesoft 
BASIC and is licensed to run on Pronto- 
DOS, a variant of DOS 3.3. 

Version 2.50 of Braille-Edit features these 
formats: print to braille, print to paperless 
braille (storing braille characters on 
magnetic tape), braille to print, Braille-Edit 
to text file, and text file to Braille-Edit. The 
program lets you copy unprotected disks 
and initialize blank ones. It also lets you 
construct files in the Bank Street format. 

Getting Started 

You are first confronted with the double- 
sided disk and a fairly formidable manual. 
For a first-time user, the "boot before 
reading" approach is not recommended. 
The first time you run Braille-Edit, it asks 
you for a configuration. You can run one of 
four default configurations, which assume 
certain basic equipment conditions, or you 
can set up your own configuration (by hit- 
ting the asterisk key). To choose a default 
configuration, you key *2 for two-drive 
machines or *1 for one-drive machines. If 
you want speech synthesis, you key in *E 
followed by the number of drives on your 
machine to activate the on-board speech 
synthesizer. From the configuration prompt, 
* E enables you to enter your configuration 
through speech, following the appropriate 
prompts. 

Once you have set up a configuration ap- 
propriate to your equipment, you are ready 
to use Braille-Edit. The program tells you 
the title of the menu you are using. In the 
first menu the words "STARTING MENU, 
ENTER COMMAND" are either displayed 
on the screen or spoken if you have a 
speech synthesizer. The starting menu lets 
you copy disks, initialize them, list their 
directories, etc. As the program is current- 
ly written, you get to the main menu by 
turning the disk over and pressing the space 
bar. 

From the main menu you can execute 
basic editing operations or print docu- 

(continued) 



MARCH 1 986 • BYTE 251 



REVIEW: BRAILLE-EDIT 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Braille-Edit 

Type 

Talking word processor for the visually 
impaired 

Company 

Raised Dot Computing Inc. 
408 South Baldwin St. 
Madison, Wl 53703 
(608) 257-9595 



Computer 

Apple 



e, He, and compatibles 



Documentation 

Choice of print or braille manual and print- 
interface guide, or cassette versions of each 

Price 

$300 

($275 prepaid) 



merits; you can translate chapters 
(files) into grade 2 braille and back 
again (grade 2 applies to general 
generic braille); you can access a 
number of braille devices and inter- 
face to them; you can also load a file 
from another computer with a 
modem. You can initiate most Braille- 
Edit commands with a logical 
mnemonic. If you can't think of it, 
however, help is available. Either a 
return or a ? will give you a command 
reference to jog your memory. 

From the main menu you can also 
access two other menus. Entering an 
S takes you to the secondary menu, 
which lets you process chapters. (The 
help functions are available here also.) 
From this menu you can manipulate 
chapters by changing their names or 
deleting, splitting, or merging 
material. Typing a Z at either the main 
menu or the secondary menu pro- 
vides entry to the page menu, which 



lets you treat chapters one page at a 
time. By enabling you to reorganize 
a chapter by shuffling its pages, this 
page-manipulation ability gives the 
program a text-handling capability not 
available in many word processors. 

The Editor 

Braille-Edit is a chapter- and page- 
oriented word processor. The editor 
creates a chapter from which you can 
create pages of text. A page can hold 
up to 4096 characters, the limit of 
allocated buffer memory. When one 
page is full, you can select and write 
the next page. You assign a chapter 
name and fill pages with your text. As 
you write and manipulate text, you 
can move pages about and alter their 
sizes. You can leave one chapter's en- 
vironment and pull pages to another 
one. You can call in pages from other 
chapters and merge them with the 

{continued) 




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252 BYTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 179 



FARSIGHT "SHOCKS" THE INDUSTRY WITH $1000 
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Farsight's Spreadsheet/Data Manager 

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□ Can search for values and labels 
D 2048 rows by 256 columns 

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□ Full editing with insert or strikeover modes 

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case insensitive optional 

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Farsight's Window Manager 

D Allows any combination of spreadsheet and word 
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D User assignable keys for all applications 
D Can record macros from the keyboard 



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INTERFACE TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION 
3336 Richmond, Suite 200, Houston, TX 77098 
(713) 523-8422 



L 



'J 



MARCH 1986 'BYTE 253 



REVIEW: BRAILLE-EDIT 



original work. Only the size of your 
disk limits you. 

Many of Braille-Edits functions are 
chapter-oriented; others, however, are 
limited to page orientation. For exam- 
ple, the search feature can only be 
done one page at a time. If you wish 
to create a braille chapter, you run 
your completed text through the 
braille translator. You can also trans- 
late a braille chapter into print. 

When you move from page 1 to 
page 2, Braille-Edit saves the text from 
page 1. Each time you change the 
page you're working on, the editor 
saves the previous page. This process 
is ongoing as you write and fill pages. 
Quitting the editor also saves your 
text. 

The editor holds up to six screens 
of text in memory at a time. Control 
characters let you move about the 
document. The Apple He's arrow keys 
control up and down line movements 



as well as back and forward space 
movements. Control-F takes you for- 
ward to the next screen, while 
Control-B moves you back. If you are 
using the speech capabilities, there 
are five additional characters plus the 
arrow keys for working with screens. 

Braille-Edit provides a global- 
replace function, available from the 
secondary menu; it lets you replace 
all occurrences of one given character 
or group of characters with another. 
This is done by means of a Braille-Edit 
chapter. You are limited to two pages 
of changes, or 8192 characters. The 
grade 2 translator is based on one of 
these transformation chapters. 

Braille-Edit incorporates sound cues 
to help the blind user more readily ac- 
cess the features of the program. If 
you enter a control function in the 
editor, the program beeps to let you 
know when the function has finished 
execution. There are no sound cues 



for moving forward in text, but there 
is a quick buzz to tell you when the 
voice synthesizer has finished reciting 
the menu help screens. This is par- 
ticularly useful during long chapter 
transcription runs. These buzzes can 
keep you informed of program status 
if you have silenced speech with a 
Control-X. 

Screen Formatting 

Braille-Edit formats screens by 
embedding special commands based 
on the dollar sign; for example, $P in- 
dicates a paragraph, $F initiates a 
form feed, $$H centers and under- 
lines, and $L tells the program to 
issue a carriage return. So does 
Control-M, but for certain braille func- 
tions, this is not recommended. Tabs 
are based on real line spacing; they 
are not influenced by current margins. 
There are other $ commands that ma- 

(continued) 



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Inquiry 257 



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MARCH 1986 -BYTE 255 



REVIEW: BRAILLE-EDIT 



nipulate margins and page number- 
ing, and you can enter these charac- 
ters with a space on either side where 
appropriate in your text. 

How do you see what you have 
typed? The main menu has a printer 
option where you can format the 
screen as you call the print routine. 
When the program asks for a specific 
printer option, you key an S to see 
your text on the screen in print for- 
mat. The Echo II speech synthesizer 
can analyze a 40-column line while 
suppressing the dollar signs. This tells 
you if your formatting is correct and 
whether you have neglected to place 
spaces between the commands. 

When you are satisfied with your 
screen presentation, you can print 
your text. Since Braille-Edit isn't con- 
figured for any particular type of 
printer, it makes some basic assump- 
tions that might need changing. For 
instance, you may have to insert 
printer commands to obtain a desired 
type font. 

Problems 

As functional as Braille-Edit is, 1 found 
a few rough edges. The manual covers 
most contingencies very well. In sec- 
tion 26, the author explains what to 
do during an editor crash, which oc- 
curs far too frequently. In the event of 
a crash, you press Reset and then 
enter RUN 999. This saves whatever 
text is left in the editor in a chapter 
called Save. Then you go to the sec- 
ondary menu, use the F option to 
"fix" the Save chapter, and create a 
new Braille-Edit chapter. Then you can 
append the new page to your article. 
A)) this takes some time. On a few 
occasions, I found a lot of random 
rubbish (control characters and the 
like) that I had to manually strip from 
the text. One time my system crashed 
while formatting a list I was trying to 
create. When the editor died, the 
usual panic stations and alarm bells 
went off. I spent the next hour 
manually cleaning house. There was 
a lot of garbage, which proved a bit 
of a problem for the speech synthe- 
sizer. Indeed, until I got rid of the gar- 
bage, the editor crashed every time 
I loaded the tainted file. Obviously, 



the garbage in the file contributed to 
the program crash. (However, later 
versions of Braille-Edit seem to have 
fixed some of the problems with 
editor crashes.) 

As it turns out, there is an easier 
solution. On the program disk is a 
transformation chapter called TXVB, 
which prepares text for formatting on 
a special braille device. It can also do 
double duty as a housecleaning aid. 
It strips all control and formatting 
characters from the text, and where 
double carriage returns exist, the pro- 
gram inserts a $P to make the 
paragraph acceptable to Versabraille, 
a cassette recorder from Telesensory 
Systems that delivers braille instead 
of music. 

Another problem with Braille-Edit 
occurs with the command WRITE 
CHAPTER TO TEXTFILE. If you write 
an unformatted chapter to a text file 
without specifying a formatting com- 
mand anywhere in the file, you get an 
unformatted text file with no carriage 
returns. As an early user of version 
2.44a, which created a formatted text 
file whenever the WRITE CHAPTER 
TO TEXTFILE program was run, that's 
what I expected to find. The old ver- 
sion placed carriage returns at appro- 
priate intervals (designated by the 
user) in the text. The transition to an 
unformatted text file in the later ver- 
sions of Braille-Edit, 2.45 and up, was 
quite a jolt. After a number of phone 
calls to the author, I got the explana- 
tion that you have to insert certain for- 
matting commands into the text to be 
converted. If you specify the width of 
a line by embedding a $W followed 
by the appropriate number, you will 
get a carriage return at the column 
width you specify. If, on the other 
hand, you wish to leave your carriage 
returns as you previously entered 
them, you will lose them unless you 
specify a line delimiter that tells the 
program to leave all existing carriage 
returns alone. 

A Feature Lost 

The older version of Braille-Edit, 
2.44a, contained a program called 
Text Print that would display your text 
file on the screen. You could see 



whether the text file you created still 
ran true to form. This program doesn't 
exist in versions 2.45 and up; you 
must find your own means of reading 
your text files. 

Another minor irritation is the 
search command. Since it is not a 
global search, you must comb several 
pages of text to locate a specific en- 
try. This command is extremely effec- 
tive, but its utility is lost to some 
degree by having to individually scan 
pages. Since each page has a finite 
limit of 4096 characters, that is the 
largest single amount of text that you 
can store in memory. 

Comments 

on Braille Translation 

Although I cannot evaluate the braille 
output of the program at this time, I 
can summarize the braille features 
available. The configuration menu 
contains a number of profiles for dif- 
ferent braille output options. Braille- 
Edit supports Versabraille. It also sup- 
ports the Kranmer Brailler, an adap- 
tation of the mechanical Perkins 
Braille Writer. The Kranmer Brailler 
was designed to be a stand-alone ter- 
minal and to interface with other ma- 
chines. Braille-Edit also works with the 
braille embossers built by Triforma- 
tions. Another braille output variant 
is the Dipner Dot system, which 
enables a standard letter-quality 
printer to produce braille. Braille-Edit 
can offer grade 2 braille output with 
any of these devices. 

Overall Impressions 

I have been using Braille-Edit for the 
last nine months and have mixed feel- 
ings. It is a highly developed program 
with a great number of useful fea- 
tures, but it has a few failings and suf- 
fers from excessive construction. 
Since it now encompasses two sides 
of an Apple disk, Braille-Edit is some- 
what cumbersome and involves fre- 
quent disk movements. It is not an 
easy program to use and has never 
been offered as such. With practice, 
you can get used to the numerous 
menus and disk accesses. As a diver- 
sified word processor and braille 

[continued] 



256 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



MAS 



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Inquiry 214 MARCH 1986 • B Y T E 257 



REVIEW: BRAILLE-EDIT 



translator, it currently has no equal, 
but there is always room for improve- 
ment. 

Although I had used the program 
before getting the chance to review it, 
1 requested a braille manual from 
Raised Dot Computing for this article. 
When the package arrived, it con- 
tained both braille and print manuals, 
as well as the cassette versions. The 
braille manual was on thick fanfold 
braille paper. Before I could read the 
manual, I had to remove all the 
tractor-feed edges and tear apart the 
pages. Since the manual contains 94 
of these fanfold sheets, this was quite 
an undertaking. Would a commercial 
program for sighted users survive if 
you had to tear apart and organize 
your own manual? The disks arrived 
in two pieces of cardboard stapled 
together. The cassettes were wrapped 
in a piece of paper. 

Version 2.50 of Braille-Edit experi- 
ences too many crashes. The time 
gained by the improvements in the 
editor are offset by the time lost 
recovering from editor crashes. In try- 
ing to deal with this problem, I ap- 
proached several other Braille-Edit 
users to see what their experiences 
have been. One has experienced fre- 
quent crashes in the editor, while an- 
other has never had a problem. 



Phone calls to the people at Raised 
Dot Computing indicate that they 
know about the problem; they sug- 
gested 1 install a line-surge protector. 
I have done this and grounded all the 
equipment in the circuit. The crashes 
still occur. 

Braille-Edit has been highly useful 
during the nine months 1 have had it. 
As improvements have .come out and 
changes have been made, the fea- 
tures have multiplied. But as it has 
grown in complexity, it has also grown 
in size— from one side of a floppy disk 
and two menus to two sides of a flop- 
py disk and four menus. 

If you like, you can bypass Braille- 
Edit's menus. Once you are familiar 
with the program, you can move 
through the different functions by typ- 
ing in the desired command. You 
won't see the menus until you enter 
a return or a ? at the prompt. 

1 have performed some timing tests 
on the program. You should realize 
that these tests were performed with 
Echo speech invoked. The times 
would be shorter without the audio 
clues. The scrolling function required 
between 10 and 12 seconds per page; 
the character count per page varied 
from 3077 to 3328. On top of this, 
each disk access requires 10 seconds, 
and each page requires one disk ac- 



cess. The search function was much 
quicker, needing only 1 second per 
page. However, you must add the con- 
stant of 10 seconds of disk access per 
page to this number as well. 

Summary 

Braille-Edit has moved from a strong, 
reliable word processor in its earlier 
versions to a form that is taking some 
steps backward in version 2.50. The 
program has had to use more disk 
space and generate more disk ac- 
cesses in order to preserve memory 
continuity. This means that as you 
proceed from the main menu to the 
secondary menu and then to the page 
menu with approximately 10 seconds 
for each disk access, you spend a fair 
amount of time waiting. This doesn't 
take into account the boot-up 
procedure. 

Except for the editor crashes, 
Braille-Edit functions reliably. I haven't 
had any irretrievable situations, but 
sometimes it is frustratingly slow to 
get the program going again. How- 
ever, at the time I write this, it is still 
the best talking word processor avail- 
able (there are indications of other 
programs of this type to come). In 
fact, this article would have been im- 
possible without Braille-Edit because 
I am visually impaired. ■ 



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ed systems level routines available for any language. So, while the other guys are 
playing catchup, we're not playing at all. 

S69.95 + 5.00 Shipping and Handling, VISA and Mastercard welcome. 



ORDER LINE 
(206) 367-0650 

Requires Turbo 2 or 3 for compatibles, DOS 2,0 - 
Sidekick & Turbo Pascal trademark Borland Inil 



Sunny Hill 
Software' 

13732 Midvale North Suite 206 
Seattle, Washington 98133 



ft 

3^ W 



258 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 387 



We have over 1000 Software 
and hardware items in stock. 
Shipments on almost all 
items within 24 hours! 



Call for programs 
not listed 



WAREHOUSE 



DATA 
PRODUCTS 



FREE SOFTWARE! 
With over $100 purchase you 
will receive a free diskette for 
your IBM PC with label maker, 
checker game and banner 
programs. 



Technical & Other 
Info. (602) 246-2222 



TOLL-FREE ORDER LINE 1-800-421-3135 



SOFTWARE 
DATA BASE MANAGERS 

Clipper $345 

Clout 2 129 

Condor III 299 

Fox and Geller Quickcode 145 

Fox and Geller Quickreport 145 

Knowledgeman 225 

Knowledgeman II 299 

K Paint 60 

K Graph 135 

KText 105 

K Report 135 

Nutshell 55 

PFS: File 78 

Power Base 2.1 199 

RBase 5000 Call 

Think Tank 93 

Tim IV 169 

WORD-PROCESSING 

Easy (Micro Pro) 89 

Leading Edge w/Merge/Spell 130 

Microsoft Word 2.01 230 

Multimate 3.31 205 

Multimate Advantage 255 

Oasis Word Plus 85 

Peachtext 5000 145 

PFS: Write 78 

Random House Spell Checker 36 

Samna III 3.0 265 

Volkswriter 3 139 

Word Perfect 4.1 199 

Wordstar 170 

Wordstar Propac 238 

Wordstar 2000 238 

Wordstar 2000+ 285 

SPREADSHEETS 

Microsoft Multiplan 115 

PFS: Plan 78 

Supercalc II 145 

Supercalc III 2.1 Call 

Twin 79 

ACCOUNTING 

BPI Accounts Payable 299 

BPI Account Receivable 299 

BPI General Accounting 299 

BPI Payroll 299 

Cyma Call 

Dollars and $ense 95 

MBSI Call 

Tobias Managing Your Money 94 



TCS. Big Four equivalent of Peachtree 
Series 4 - Specially augmented and cus- 
tomized for your IBM PC Terminal and 
Printer - GL, AR, PA, AP, CP/M-80, CP/M- 
86 for PC XT, DOS 1.1, 2.0. 
Each Module $65 For All Four $249 



INTEGRATED 

Enable Call 

Smart Software Call 

TRANSFER PROGRAMS 

Crosstalk XVI 89 

Hayes Smartcom II 88 

Microsoft Access 149 

Move-It 79 

Remote 89 

GRAPHICS 

Chartmaster 215 

Dr. Halo II 99 

Energraphics w/o Plotter 170 

Energraphics w/Plotter 220 

Fontrix 99 

Freelance 199 

Graphwriter/Combo 310 

Microsoft Flight Simulator 30 

PC Paint Brush 62 



PFS Graph 78 

Signmaster 135 



INCREDIBLE 
VALUE! 

Nationally advertised boards for 
IBM PC and compatibles at 
giveaway prices. 

1 year warranty 

5151 Equivalent Keyboards $89 

Monochrome Board w/Printer 

Port . . . $79 Hercules Graphic Board 
Equivalent 
with Parallel Port $99 

Expansion Board to 576 K . . . . $59 

AST Six Pack Equivalent 
with game port $99 

Four Drive Floppy Controller . . . $45 

Color Card without printer port. $79 

Color Card with printer port .... $95 

IBM PC CLONE 

256K, 2 drives 7 expansion 
slots $695 



LANGUAGES 

Concurrent PC/Dos Call 

Fortran 77 208 

Lattice C Compiler 3.0 Call 

Run C Professional 169 

Microsoft C Compiler 239 

Microsoft Fortran 209 

Microsoft Macro Assembler 89 

Microsoft Pascal Compiler 178 

Microsoft Quick Basic 65 

Multi Halo 140 

UTILITIES 

Copy II PC 19 

Copy II PC Board 79 

Copywright 45 

Norton Utilities 3.1 52 

PC Tools 22 

Prokey 4.0 75 

Superkey 35 

PROJECT MANAGEMENT 

Harvard Project Manager 199 

Microsoft Project Call 

Super Project 165 

HARDWARE 

HARD DRIVES 

Bernoulli 20 MB 'A ht 2439 

Seagate 20 MB Internal w/Controller . . . 499 
Turbo 10 internal 529 

MODEMS 

Anchor Express 235 

Hayes 1200 Call 

Hayes 1200B w/Software Call 

Hayes 2400 599 

U.S. Robotics Courier 2400 Call 

U.S. Robotics Password 1200 Call 

RAM 

64K 150NS Chips (Japan - Set of 9) . . 9.50 
256K Ram Chips (Set of 9) 27 

BOARDS 

AST Advantage 359 



HARDWARE 

AST Sixpack (384K) 259 

Hercules Color Card 145 

Hercules Graphics Card 289 

J RAM III Call 

Paradise Five Pak 119 

Paradise Modular Graphics Card 249 

Quadram Board with Par/Ser 

and Game Port 199 

Quadcolor I 185 

Sigma Maximizer Multifunction 149 

STB Chauffeur Board 249 

STB Mono Board 155 

AB Parallel Print Switch w/cables 75 

Mini Micro Parallel Print Buffer 69 

COMPUTERS 

Corona PC Call 



Sperry PC Mono 256K Dual Drive 
Serial Port, Clock, MS/DOS 2.11 
$1650 



IBM PC-AT Call 

ITT Computers PC Compatible 256k 
Dual Drive, Mono, MS/DOS 1395 



ITT XP 80286 IBM/PC Compatible, 512K, 
10 MB Winchester, 3 times faster than an 
XT. 30% faster than an AT $2650 



Zenith 171 Call 

PRINTERS 



FREEI PRINTER SET SOFTWARE 

Purchase an Okidata, Epson, Gemini, Citi- 
zen or Toshiba printer and receive at no 
charge a menu driven program to set print 
characteristics or to make your computer 
function as a correcting typewriter. Retail 
value $35. Available for most disk formats. 



CITIZEN 

MSP-10 255 

MSP-15 355 

MSP-20 329 

Citizen 120D 169 

Premiere 35 Daisywheel 415 

EPSON - Call on all models 
JUKI 

Juki 6100 349 

Juki 6300 685 

NEC 

3550 989 

8850 1349 

P5 Parallel 995 

Elf 360 398 

OKIDATA - Call on all models 
PANASONIC 

1091 239 

1092 320 

1093 429 

KXP3151 410 

STAR MICRONICS - Call for prices 
TOSHIBA 

1340 460 

P351 1049 

P341 875 

MONITORS 

AMDEK Call for price 

Monochrome TTL Monitors 

Amber or green $65 

Taxan 610 319 

Taxan 121 Green 125 

Taxan 122 Amber 134 

Princeton Max 12 169 

1 



TERMS: Prices include 3% cash discount. Add 3% for 
charge and C.O.D. orders. Shipping on most software is 
$5.00. AZ orders *6% sales tax. Personal check- allow ten 
(10) days to clear. Prices are subject tochange. We accept 
purchase orders. 



TOLL-FREE ORDER LINE 1-800-421-3135 

WAREHOUSE DATA PRODUCTS 

2701 West Glendale Ave. • Phoenix, AZ 85051 



Inquiry 372 




Comes standan 

with 512K RAM, 

expandable to 640K 



Normal IBM speed 
emulation switch 



300% performance 
increase 



Compatible with 
IBM Basica programs 



That's right, guaranteed 
performance. The Univation 
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cessing speed of your IBM PC, 
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Just think, the data process 
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everything it did before, only 
300% faster. 

Best of all, the Univation 
Turbocharger works with all 



your existing PC software 
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nothing to change. Speed spreac 
sheets, databases, graphics, even 
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To ensure complete reliability, 
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to provide all 
e processing power 
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Dealer and distributor inquires invited. 

IBM PC, PC/XT and PC/AT are trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. 
260 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



UNIVATION 

Your Expansion C o m p a n 

1037 'North Fair Oaks Ave. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 
(408) 745-0180 

Inquiry 362 



f • •• 


HARDWARE REVIEW 


Printit 

r 



A card that 

lets you print 

anything that's 

on an Apple II 

screen 



by Henry Brugsch 
and Joseph J. Lazzaro 



Henry Brugsch attended Perkins 

School for the Blind and is a 

graduate of Tufts University. He is a 

self-employed piano technician and 

can be contacted at 32 Morgan 

Ave.. Medford. MA 0215 5. 

\oseph }. lazzaro is a 

freelance writer and consultant 

{Talking Computer Systems. POB 

524. Revere. MA 02151. (617) 

289-3828). He specializes in voice 

I/O systems. 



How many times has protected soft- 
ware prevented you from printing 
text or graphics displayed on your 
Apple Us screen? Here is a printer interface 
card that lets you send text or graphics to 
your printer under any software circum- 
stances. 

Printit is a combination serial/parallel 
printer interface card made especially for 
Apple and Franklin computers. The purpose 
of Printit is to dump the contents of the 
screen to any standard serial or parallel 
printer, independent of whatever software 
you are running. This is significant since 
most software marketed today takes a 
heavy-handed approach: total domination 
of your computer. If a programmer decides 
that you should not have a printer routine 
in your new software package, then you are 
forced to live within those limits. 

Printit changes all that. You can print any- 
thing on your screen automatically with a 
full set of print options: ordinary text, low- 
resolution graphics, high-resolution and 
double high-resolution graphics, 80- or 40- 
column text, side-by-side pages, inverse im- 
ages, rotated images, double-size images, 
mixed graphics and text, black-and-white or 
color images, and emphasized print. With 
Printit's Control-I command, you can even 
send format commands to your printer. You 
can also use multiple options (for example, 
print a double-size black-on-white image). 
The combinations are many and useful. 
Printit is also not limited to just driving 
printers. The external device can be a plot- 
ter, another computer, or even a speech 
synthesizer. 

Installing the Printit board is simple: Plug 
it into any Apple expansion slot and con- 
nect it to a printer with the supplied cables. 
(Be sure you get the right cables when you 
order your Printit.) 

Push the activation button on the card 
and then hit a carriage return with any pro- 
gram in memory to get a full screen dump. 
Printit stops the software dead in its tracks. 
When the printing is finished, the program 



restarts where it left off, totally unaware that 
it was interrupted. 

Suppose you have a graphics screen you 
would like to preserve and you can't ini- 
tialize your printer card because the soft- 
ware is protected. Press the Printit button 
and a carriage return and you will get an 
immediate dump of your screen to your 
printer. 

You can print anything that appears on 
your screen, even if it doesn't want you to. 
If you wish to change your printer's con- 
figuration during a program run, simply 
press the Printit button to halt the program. 
Then press Control-1 (ASCII value 9). This 
tells Printit to send control codes to the 
printer. You can then reconfigure the printer 
with its own set of commands. 

Printit and Speech Synthesizers 

Printit can send nongraphic data to a 
speech device. This can be very useful to 
those people dependent on speech synthe- 
sis as their sole output medium. Printit 
works with the Votrax Personal Speech Sys- 
tem, the Intex-Talker, or the Street Elec- 
tronics Echo General Purpose speech syn- 
thesizers. The Votrax and Intex-Talker are 
both serial/parallel synthesizers: they will 
work with Printit configured either as a 
serial or a parallel device. With an Echo GR 
you can use only the serial configuration. 
Think of Printit used in this way as a brute- 
force speech dump. It is not a user-friendly 
way for a blind computer user to access his 
or her software, but if you cannot get a soft- 
ware package to "talk" by any other means, 
Printit is one solution. 

A Standard Interface Card 

Printit functions just like an ordinary serial 
or parallel printer interface card. You do not 
need to press Printit's button to make your 
printer print. Printit can be driven in the nor- 
mal way by most software packages. For ex- 
ample, if your Printit is in slot one and you 
want to set up your printer for 80-column 

{continued) 



MARCH 1986 



IYTE 261 



REVIEW: PRINTIT 



AT A GLANCE 



Name 

Printit 

Type 

Serial/parallel printer interface card 

Company 

Texprint 

220 Reservoir St. 

Needham Heights, MA 02194 

(617) 449-5808 

Hardware Needed 

Apple II or Franklin computer with either 
dot-matrix or letter-quality printer 

Software 

ROM-based firmware requires no external 
software drivers 

Features 

Prints any screen when activation button is 
pressed; drives serial and parallel printers 

Documentation 

24-page manual 

Options 

Serial interface cable, parallel interface 
cable 

Price 

$199 



print, do the following: push Printit's 
button, press Control-I. then type 
80 N. You can even issue these com- 
mands from within a BASIC program: 

10 PRINT CHR$(4)"PR#1" 
20 PRINT CHR$(9)"80N" 
30 END 

As far as a word processor is con- 
cerned, it is talking to a standard 
Apple parallel interface card. All text 
formatting is accomplished in the nor- 
mal manner, and all printer control 
setup codes are the same. 

Compatibility 

Printit is totally Apple-compatible. It 
runs on any Apple II computer (ex- 
cept for the He) and Franklin Apple II 
clones. The Franklin 80-column card, 
which resembles the Videx, will not 
work with Printit in certain configura- 
tions. 

If you have a Microsoft CP/M co- 
processor card in your system, you 
may encounter problems. When you 
press Printit's button, it may not be 
able to halt the coprocessor card. 

Printit with Printers 

We tested Printit on the Star Micronics 
Gemini-lOX and the Okidata MU-92 



printers. The Printit manual provides 
an easy-to-use chart of switch settings 
for most printers. You don't need to 
know anything about data-transmis- 
sion rates or data formats, since the 
chart is indexed by printer type. We 
were able to get good-quality screen 
dumps from popular software pack- 
ages at the press of a button. 

We were also able to double the 
size of the image by pressing Printit's 
button, typing D, and hitting a car- 
riage return. You can print a double- 
size emphasized version of the screen 
by entering ED and a carriage return. 
It is easy to mix multiple command 
options: you can even get an empha- 
sized, doubled, inverted, white-on- 
black image. See table 1 for a com- 
plete list of printer options. 

Conclusion 

Printit is worth its price, especially 
when you consider that this board has 
built-in serial and parallel compatibili- 
ty. Its one drawback is its inability to 
handle two-way telecommunications 
traffic, like the Apple Super Serial 
Card. If you need a flexible printer in- 
terface card with the power to punch 
through protected software, give this 
board a close look. ■ 



Table 1: 


Printit's commands and their functions. Commands can be passed to 


Printit either through software or the keyboard after you press Printit's button. 


Commanc 


Function 


1 


Display page #1 


2 


Display page #2 


4 


40-column print 


8 


80-column print 


P 


Print graphics only 


M 


Print mixed graphics and text 


V 


Double high-resolution or low-resolution graphics 


C 


Normal high-resolution or low-resolution graphics 


S 


Print pages #1 and #2 side by side 


D 


Print double-size image 


R 


Rotate image 90 degrees 


I 


Print inverse image (white on black) 


W 


Print black and white 


L 


Left-justify image 


E 


Print emphasized image 


Control/I 


Send commands to external device 



262 BYTE' MARCH 1986 



_ IN APP/TiON TO ,' ° 

PR/UT/fJ& TETXT j o 

2jx> cps, -me. 

/SA1 PfZOPRjATTE-IS. ' ° 

caa/ Print ah-- . • 




'Z-TATlONE.RW WtThlOVT 
REWOI//N& THE 

OMPftfE.!*. PAPEJZ . 



-foe i&m pkopk/htek <5>u'pp6t?rr'=> 

Mje^T FtoPuj-AR SOFTWARE- 



Built to take it. Priced to take it with you. 
The Proprinter from IBM. 



There's just one thing that's 
as remarkable as the rugged reli- 
ability of our most versatile per- 
sonal printer— and that's its 
price. Under $550. 

The Proprinter is built by 
IBM to last. And simplicity of 
design is what makes it so reliable. 

Yet the IBM Proprinter is a 
full -featured machine. It has 
three printing speeds to give you 
everything from fast first drafts 
to sharp, near-letter-quality cor- 
respondence. It takes perforated 



computer paper for long jobs and 
—without removing the paper- 
will easily print on a sheet of sta- 
tionery or an envelope, thanks to 
a handy slot in front. 

With its all -points-addressable 
graphics and its comprehensive 
character set. the IBM Proprinter 
supports most popular software. 

The Proprinter attaches to 
every IBM PC and to other lead- 
ing personal computers. And it's 
just part of our growing family 
of personal printers. All are 



designed to serve a single purpose: 
To give everything you do the 
finishing touch. 

For the authorized IBM dealer 
or the IBM Product Center 
nearest you— or 1 for free literature 
-call 1 800 IBM-2468, Ext. 104/ 
LH. Or contact your IBM market- 
ing representative. 



IBM Personal Printers...The Finishing Touch 



Inquiry 164 



MARCH 1986 • BYTE 263 



15,000 SAVED FROM CRASH. 



No hysteria. No panic. No 
reports of data loss. No won- 
der more than 15,000 Alpha 
Micro users have chosen our 
Videotrax™ backup technology 
over streamer tape or floppies. 

The best news is it's now 
available for the IBM PC-AT, XT 
and true compatibles. 

BETTER TO BE FAILSAFE 
THAN SORRY. 

Exhaustive testing and 
long term use of Videotrax 
technology prove it more 
reliable than any other backup 



High-tech. 

Open your 
PC and slide 
Hie controller 
board into any 
expansion slot. 
Low-tech. 
Hook up VCR to 
computer uith 
standard con- 
nector cables. 





option available. 
Even more reliable 
than the hard disk you're 
backing up. 

At the heart of the system 
is a patented video tape con- 
troJJer board that employs 
a standard video cassette 
recorder for copying data. 
Which means Videotrax offers 
the sophisticated technology of 
today's VCRs. And the depend- 



ability of a durable consumer 
good. 

EASY DOES IT. 

If you own a VCR, you 
already own half the system. 
And you already know how 
to use it. Or you might opt for 
the complete subsystem 
(controller board 
plus enhanced 
VCR) and 
experi- 
ence the 



Your basic (idea 
cassettes, Reliable, 
cheap, easy h> find. 




joy of its 

automatic, unattended backup 

capabilities. 

Either way, our menu driven 
software, clear documentation 
and wide range of backup 
modes keep it simple: Insert 
a blank video cassette tape 
and follow the directions that 
appear on your screen. 

You can copy or restore your 
entire hard disk, specific files, 
or only files modified since the 
last backup, while the system 
busily self-monitors for proper 
functioning. 

And for the price of taping 
your favorite TV shows, you 
can record your most valued 
computer data. Up to 80MB 
can be stored on a single cas- 



sette at less than a third of the 
cost of streamer tape. 

Of course, if you ever require 
service, your authorized Alpha 
Micro dealer and our world- 
wide network of factory service 
centers will provide all 
the support you need. 
For more informa- 
tion on how Video- 
trax can keep you off 
the crash course, call 
your local dealer or 
Alpha Micro at 
1-800-992-9779 
(in California call 
1-800-821-0612). 



DATA BACKUP FROM 
ALPHA MICRO. 





Corporate Headquarters: 3501 Sunjhwer, PO. Bar 25059, Santa Alia, CA 92799© Alplia Microsystems 1986 



264 B YTE • MARCH 1986 



Inquiry 17 



REVIEW FEEDBACK 



Enable 

I have been an Enable user for ten 
months. The following is my review of your 
review of Enable (January, page 331). 

Steve King concluded the review with 
the statement "Although I've heard version 
1.1 is better, 1 found Enable 1.0 not quite 
ready and able. . ." It seems unprofes- 
sional to publish a review of a product that 
is not the current version. The review men- 
tioned but a fraction of Enable's features. 
One of these was so misunderstood by 
both Rich Malloy and King that it was 
singled out as a major drawback, namely 
the fact that Enable's menu and command 
sequences were dissimilar and therefore 
(so you thought) confusing. 

On the contrary, this is in fact an asset, 
once you understand that the menu selec- 
tion is for those who prefer to use the ar- 
row keys to move the block cursor and/or 
type single initials to match the displayed 
choices of the menu. In this case your 
review was a disservice to both prospec- 
tive Enable buyers and to the Software 
Group, producers of Enable. The update 
1.1 version was first shipped three months 
before the January date of BYTE. 

1 realize the publishing predicament of 
soliciting a review then finding it is out of 
date at the time of publication. The only 
fair course in this case is a new in-depth 
review of Enable 1.1. rather than trying to 
redeem the time-expired review with a 
hasty half-page text box about the new 
version. 

Rev. Francis G. McCloskey 
Albany, NY 

Steve King's review of Enable was right on 
target, making it obvious that he has used 
the program. 

King is absolutely right that version 1.0 
was unusable. My version of 1.1, with 
some October 1985 changes, is a vast im- 
provement. (1 mention the date of my 
latest changes because they are continu- 
ing to make minor changes. An earlier 
release of 1.1 is clearly different.) 

Some may wonder what Enable is good 
for. Enable is the only integrated program 
I've seen with adequate help screens and 
prompts. No keyboard overlay is neces- 
sary, and the commands, if sometimes 
awkward, are at least usually consistent. 



1 have found Enable to be well suited to 
odd multifunction jobs, especially where 
there are involved computations to be 
done in a relational database (exponen- 
tials and trigonometric functions, etc.), and 
the results are to be included in a mail- 
merge letter. Billing for leased equipment 
where there is a variable interest rate is 
a good example of its capabilities. If the 
new release has as many improvements 
as were made in version 1.1, it should be 
a winner. 

Carter Harison 
Beaverton, OR 

AT&T PC 6300 

I am writing in response to Bob Troiano's 
review of the AT&T PC 6300 (December 
1985, page 294). 1 am very familiar with 
the IBM PC XT and I think the AT&T is by 
far the better of the two, especially if you 
use Lotus 1-2-3! 

PC 6300 readers should take note of the 
suggestion for adding 512K bytes of mem- 
ory to the motherboard. This will save the 
PC 6300 owner a lot of money. I paid an 
estimated $550 less than if 1 ordered from 
AT&T, and $450 less than if I acquired 
AST's SixPakPlus with 384K bytes of mem- 
ory a memory-expansion board, and a 
128K-byte expansion kit. 1 had already in- 
stalled the 2 56K memory chips, but I 
could not get anyone to give me the ap- 
propriate DIP switch settings. Mr. Troiano's 
article gave me most of the information 
I needed. 

One caution about the setting of DIP 
switch 1 (aka bank 1): The switch should 
not be adjusted unless the PC 6300 user 
wishes to reconfigure the unit's disk drives. 
For example, the setting that Mr. Troiano 
recommends configures the system with 
a floppy-disk drive and a hard-disk drive 
designated as drive C Settings are dif- 
ferent if you have two floppy drives or if 
you designate the hard disk as drive C, as 
shown below: 

Troiano recommendation: 00110011 
Two floppies: 00000110 
One floppy and the hard disk designated 
as C: 00110100 

In addition. I'd like to offer advice to 
potential PC 6300 buyers: Many dealers 
sell the PC 6300 equipped with 128K or 



2 56K bytes at very similar prices. If you 
select a unit with 2 56K, you will be forced 
to purchase a memory-expansion board 
as well as chip sets to increase the PC's 
memory to 640K. 1 recommend that 
potential buyers order the 128K unit, in- 
stall eighteen 2 56K chips, and set switch 

as recommended. 

As far as software is concerned. AT&T 
has released an update disk for MS-DOS 
2.11 and GW-BAS1C. This disk includes 
some new programs. 

Michael J. Sobota 
Schaumburg, IL 

1 purchased an AT&T PC 6300 in August 
1985 and really do like it: however, it has 
also caused hours of frustration. 

1 agree with Bob Troiano's comments on 
the machine's speed, operability, and com- 
patibility. I have upgraded to 640K bytes 
of memory and have added virtual-disk 
capability with 360K bytes. Uploading my 
operating software to drive C really makes 
the machine faster than any I've seen. I im- 
ported the virtual-disk operating software 
from PC-DOS 3.0, as the AT&T user's 
manuals do not discuss virtual disks. All 
common IBM software runs fine on my 
machine. As the review pointed out, how- 
ever, the GW-BAS1C provided with the unit 
does not directly interface to BAS1CA. As 
a matter of fact, I have several programs 
waiting for patches to get them running. 

On the other hand, 1 don't agree with 
Troiano's speculation on AT&T's product 
support. 1 have had my machine in the 
shop three times for a total of over seven 
weeks. It has gone through three power 
supplies, two disk drives, two keyboards, 
and three motherboards. The longest 
delays 1 experienced were because 
motherboards were out of stock. If indeed 
motherboards are scarce, I would caution 
potential customers against buying the 
machine until the problem is corrected. 
Al Sargeant 
San Diego. CA m 



REVIEW FEEDBACK is a column of readers let- 
ters. We welcome responses that support or challenge 
BYTE reviews. Send letters to Review Feedback. 
BYTE Publications. POB 372. Hancock. NH 
03449. Name and address must be on all letters. 



MARCH 1986 -BYTE 265 




V 



w 



w 



V 



BYTE 



Kernel 



Computing at Chaos Manor: 
All Sorts of Software 

by \erry Poumelle 269 

Chaos Manor Mail 

conducted by }erry Poumelle 293 

Applications Only: First in a Series 

by Ezra Shapiro 297 

According to Webster: 
68000 Wars: Round 1 

by Bruce Webster 305 

BYTE JAPAN: 

A New Language and a Laptop 

by William M. Rflife 327 

BYTE UK.: The Amstrad PCW 8256 

by Dick Pountain 333 

Mathematical Recreations: 
Diophantine Equations 

by Robert T. Kurosaka 343 

Circuit Cellar Feedback 

conducted by Steve Garcia 354 



ONE COMMON THREAD that seems to weave itself through many of Jerry's 
columns is his attendance at parties. We all realize that this is a nasty job, 
but Jerry knows full well