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I 



PAMPHLET Ho. 17. 

DOMfNrON OF rANAr)A 

DOMINION EXPERIMENTAL FARMS. 



J. H. 0RI80ALE. B.Agr., D.«.A.. 

Director 



E. 8. ARCHIBALD. B.A.. B.8.A., 

Dominion Animal Husbandman. 



PISH MEAL AS A LIVE STOCK POOD. 

tiy K. S. ARCMIHALD. 

Dominion Animal IliishmiiJwiin. 

Tlu. is a f.HKJstuff us .v,.t littl..kn„wM in C,,,,.,!. .,,.1 the Cui,,,! st..t..,. hu, whH. 

.. UM...i iMonsivoly „n,l most sntisf„-t.,rii.v in S...,tl;,n,l Knul,.n,J Fr«M,. . V 

<i-nn:,n>. a.,., otl... I.;,n-.,.,...n ..„nntri.>. rn.l,„..,t.,ll. ,1 r ' V.'.S i ^"3 

an.l Mvinc fonsuminK fish wast.- in .Muintri.... wh.-rr fishiiii. U ,.„.'. '7'^'"" ."* .^""U- 

tries tirs. attra...... a.ri..ult„ral invsti^atinn .:. t i, J'-^ n v rit'w'' f "'i 

that sh..op. swin.. an,l n.lv.. fV.l o„ raw tish an.l fi.h wa-t. rodu I ,. ,, n"'' 

-..lour and strong flavour unless tl„. fish was hoil.l or ,oko, h t "t." '7 

oat.on of thi, knowlnlK.. to tl,. .^rowin.. fi-h in.lu.,,rv t^ ^t^^^^M^T;, tt':",,?"'''" 

Fish in.'al should not be .-oiifound.Kl with ••fish sera].-. '• ^uano " or " .M.n,„,... - 
..r other f.,ru.s of fish hy-produets „.„! as fertilisers. The fish n>eal us.hI a .. Ud- 

h.h offal. Uhen raneul fi-h are used the resultin^^ uu-als eontain too nneh o w , , 
n. U,. raneul state, eauses d.jfestive troul.les as well a- otV-Havoun-d n.ea nilk „ J 
o,^RS. The od e.xtraet,on ,s not only a profitable pro....s, but n.ueh i,„ . i . 
value ofthe n.eal. Any fresh, untainted fish oV fi.h wastes will n.ake „ fai „e.d the 
^alue dependn,.^ on the r.ehness of the Hesh and the parts of ,he fish use.I. Altl .'Z 
usuaHy nnule frou. herr.n,-. eo.l, dogfish or other .alt water fish, yet when tl Mv 

■ s suftcjent. tresh water fish are usc^. The enorn.ous «up„ly of dogfish ..n the At 3 ie 
,y,mt, the ^^rent salmon industries on the Paeifio eoast and the sardine or other fi"i, 
.n,lustru-s wherever they exist offer t-reat opportunities for the manufaeturinK of fish 
meal. '" 

I'ish meal varies in eomposition. dependin}; on its sonree The rw-lw f ... i • 
u.ade from whole fish while the poorest n.eal is made fron, sud'. wlst'es '' ^a tiN 
and fins. One .^ood brand of fish meal made from fresh whiffish showed an naly s 

^J *^^ •;■• •■"'' P'-"*''"'- "'1 3 P^-r cent and 19-8 per eent phosphate of lime It will 

b.. seen that the prote.n .-ontent of this meal w.s nearly twice as ^reat a. -that o 
average ..ottonseed n.eal or liusernl oil n.eal as ccmn.only fou..d ,m th.. r-,, dian 
umrlvet. ■■■muiuii 

The feediuK vah>e of fish me,d .lep,.nds on its very hi^rh ..ontent of dip^tible nro- 
te.n whud. renders it most suitable ^or eombiju.tion with foods such as roots potatoes 
ha.v, straw and the .starchy cereal .; ins an.l their by-produ.-ts such as corn.'.'orn bran' 
harh-y. ct.-., all of winch contain ; jw pmeentaKe of protein 

Kxperience has shown that so lonp as the quantities fed were not too large, fish 
meal has proven a valuable food for horses, cattle, sheep, swine and poultry From 
many feeding trials the quantitit^ per day which may be fed with a starchy ration 
nave been suggested : — j . .. 

Cattle— 2 pounds per 1,000 pounds live weight. 
SwiiK! — i to i pound per animal. 
3hee[— Mo to \i pound per 100 pounds live weight. 
49094 



IIiiwt'V€>r, it iiiimt W rfiiifinlMTiHl tlmt, us in the i'um' (if oiIht rich nu'niif, lln' 
iiniiiiaU nnii<t l»' hroiitrht \i|> to thoc ration!< uriiduiilly. It kIioiiM nl)>i be rnncniborpil 
thut tin* iiiMiiiirf from iitilinai' U'll on thi'< iiii':il hii.^ n vrry liitrli viiliii- in view of the 
lurK<' iinioiint of nitrotfi-n iin<l plioi(|iliiitps in tliii< foml. 

FISH MKAl, >()|{ SWINF. 

'riiif nii«ul niii.v Ix' fi'<l nt thi' riit<' of 1 to \ |iotiiiii pnr pin |mt tiny. It Hliamlii (»• 
iiitroiliicfil into the ration vi-ry Kriiiliiuliy. It i^i licst u.<<>il with yonni; and fattening 
\>i(f*, but it KtiinuhitcH thi> iiM)<>titi> of pins of nil iitr<>s. Boing rich in phosphatos it 
xtiinuluttii the itrnwth rif bono in younu stock. 

FiNlSHlNti HOdS. 

At the <'cntriil KxiH'rinicntui Kami. <)Ma«a. Ont.. nit cxiMriinont to illnstriUc the 
value of fish meal for tinishinj; swiiir was madi- in lltl.'i. Although, uwinir to the 
fact thut it took some time to aeetistoni fh" pi(f* to thi-s fpcil, very slow (tains were 
made at first, yet the trains were, on the whole, most satisfactory. 

Lot <l fed a meal mixture of shorts 400 pounds, barley 400 pounds, fiah ineni 
((Srinjsby brand) S5 pounils required i»7 pounds of the meal mixture and 5'>4 pounds 
xkim-niilk for 10<> pounds jrain. 

Lot 1 fed a mixture of shorts 400 pounds, barley 400 pounds, corn 200 pounds 
re(|uir«<l '2'M pounds meal mixture and 467 pounds milk for 100 pounds Kain. 

Lot -2 fed the some mixture as Lot 1, but with gluten feed in place of corn, 
require<I •-'-'» pounds meal and 439 pounds milk per 100 pounds gain. ' 

The above trial was brief and definite conclusions can scarcely be drawn there- 
from. However, ulthouKh the fish meal did not dive quite as good returns as gluten 
food or ground corn, yet the pigs made excellent and cheap gains thereon. With corn 
and glut<>n fewl at pri>sent prices, fish meal would thus be worth over $48 per ton. 
Finally, it was not expected that fish meal would show as advantageously in this ration 
as one eontuining more meals and grains of a higher starch content. 

F. S. Ashbrook, U. .S. Department of Agriculture, reports on finishing hogs. .\n 
addition of 1 part tankage or fish meal to 9 parts corn showtnl the tankage lot 
requiring 46i pounds grain and the ti.sh lot only 390 pounds grain per 100 pounds p , 

Keenon reports in 1910 that fish meal sharjjer.s the appetite and produces 
same grains as a high grade meat meal. 

The Seale-IIayne Agricultural College report trial.s showing fish meal a r 
addition to a prrain ration composed largely of corn as being responsible for extra it,.. 
of I to ;-, pound per pig per day. 



FOR GROWING SHOATS. 

Another experiment at the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa, was conducted 
with yo inger shoats and using a "hog meal" containing 6."> per cent fish meal, a- 
prepared by the Conservation (,'ommission, Ottawa. 

Lot 1 fed a meal mixture composed of shorts 400 pounds, corn 400 poumls. "hn-t 
meal " 100 pounds required 270 pounds meal and 310 poun<U skim-milk per 100 pouml- 

gain. 

Lot 2 fed the same meal mixture without milk required only 290 pounds meal per 
100 pounds gain. This lot made greatest gains of all lots. 

Lot d f ed a meal mixture composed of shorts 200 pounds, corn 200 pounds, dried 
distillers' grains 100 pounds required 100 pounds meal and 330 pounds milk I'cr 100 
pounds gain. This lot made the slowest gains, and at the completion of the trial the 
the pigs were poorest grown n- I in the poorest condition to start the finishing period. 



Ill til 



ii* Iriiil aitaiii ti>li rncnl ii'> 



fliciip mill i-i'iiiiiiiMJcil proijiii'ti 



liiirii ill tlic <[ic:'i;il •• 1,1 



if 



hI 



wii« riio.t |>niii<>iirir..<l. All pi^'- kii K-I 
thi' h«'4f i-i)iii|itiiiii. 



'.""• ' •''■ '•'"•'•ll.'l f tllf ri-li IIii'mI ;.- :. milk -lllistifilt.' 



,1 



ill' til 



• • «riNifr.t itiiih. mill werr ii 



1 



K<»l{ WKAMNti I'KiS. 

t».«.^n"'"r""'" '■"i"" "" "•"""■•'■"""" ""^ '■">.<luc-f.>.J with .voiiiitf p!^. „,Mi,..,l i„ .hmo. 
wtioi, ooM.piw,! ,.f ..,i,.il part, lorii. .hoN. m,.i „.,, ,,,1- u.^1 in .,11 lut* 

520 pouiiii. milk prr IIMI , u,U ««!,.. This l.,t iii,„l,. ^.r.^t.-t ui.in- 

w„l „.*i'-«n -"""!■"••' .f;"'" "'"' 1" I'-' -"•'» <."'kn..|. mul milk rM,i.ip...l ir.O p.>i,„,l- 
meal ami i.«0 poiimU milk ii.-r KH) poiimls ,/«ii, 

Lot .•{ M the fimi. ... Lot -J. hut with th.. •• 1,,,^ „i.„l " ,..ph,..iii,. tmikum. ilmI. 
almost ...x.,..t ly the ..imn ^,ii„. ami on tl .p.mititi... of hotli „,...l ..nd niilk 

In this rii.l. the n.l.lition of oith-r ti-h ni.>,il or tmiki.K,. to „ wrll l„.lm, I ,,r',i„ 

ration fed with milk .how.-d no im-reaso in k for nu.il ....nsnm., '/:. 

the present scomt.v and hi^ h pri.-s of out., shorts ,„,.! ,.,., >kin...i.ilk. tisl. m ,. 
available, niight well be used ns a partial suli,titiite. 

hnJ'f: t'^KTr ^''f; ^*"""""r"' "^ A""-"-"""'-, report- on trials with gro»in« 
hogs As an addition of 1 ,.urt tanknKo or fish meal to ., ration of eorn. 4 parts and 

meal lot .V... pounds t-rain per 1(M> pounds ^ain. Thi. trial a.^.in showed fish meal 
and tankiipre ot ahoiil oqiiul value. 

Kh'iii also reports H,h meal an exiellent substitute fur milk 

rhc above figures show that a high «raile ti>h meal may be eeulio.i.ieallv ...ed in 
balanci„« rations fur all u«es of feeding, ho^s. It will ^ive about the same re-ults a" 
ta.ikaRo for growing piffs, and niak.s an etpially i^ood .-uhMifute for skim-milk It is 
fully eqiia to tankage for finishii.^f b.,>:s and do.-s not impart any fi«bv o,I„ur or flavour 
to either the fresh pork or lar.1. 



FISH MEAL FOR DAIKV CATTLF. 

This feed may be given to beef or dairy eattle up to - pounds .lailv per \.(m 

pounds live weight, but the animals must be aeeiistomcHl to it verv gradually Miiiv 

-Kuro|H.an and Ameri.-aii investigators report its value in milk prodiietiun. showiim- it« 

superiority over an cc|U»l weight of eottons.^Hl and liiisi-.^ oil meal in milk i.mdM I 

and that no llavours were imparU>d to the milk or fat 

At the Kxperimental Farm. Ottawa. Ont., in 1!>16. an experiment «a, .o.iduet.-d 
eomparnig fash meal with other eonee.itrutes in the produ.fion of milk. In this trial 
Orimsby brand hsh meal was used, and after the first f.-w feeds it wa^ eaten with 
incre^isiiig relish and the appetite of the animals increased penvptibly 

For this work the basis of the meal mixture thro,M.'i,o„t the experim.nt was a 

m..xturo ot wheat bran 4(K) pounds, gluten f | ,.,.1. p,,.,,,.!-. ;:r.aii„| oats :;,;;► ,H.,ini|s 

The additions to this basie meal ration during the variius poriod. were- 1 fi.h meil' 
10 per cent addition ; 2, gluten fei.l 24 ,H>r oent a.lditi.,,.. :!. i.„tt..nseed meal 1.1 .n-r -ent' 
addition. 4. lins.>ed oil meal •'! jxt e<.|.t addition, and ,-.. ,«.aiiut oil meal 1.1 ,vr ivnt 
aodition. ' 

i The results of this trial, in brief, are as follow:— 

I Compared with gluten feed (20 per eei.t protein). fi,h meal required M n„„,„l. 
meal mixturo ess per Idft pounds milk produe.Hl and .TO pounds meal mixture le.. 
per inn pounds fat pro.hieed. The eows increased in produ.'tion on fish me-,1 and 
dropped very perceptibly when again ,,laeed on pliiten. A verv notieeable feature 

-was the gr..atly stimulated appetites and the iucreiued weight, of all eowd when on 



• >n M Itti.i. of milk |ir<H|iii'iic 



Mwn: 



Ml in tlii>r triiiU till- fiillowiiiK mi'til «|iiivii|iiiti' urt- 



'• '"• ' '"'" "••' ""•"' I'l"- ••• l"'»"'l- l>Mii pill* i'-.' (H.iiii.h onl. ,nm\ 

|H>I1II.|. (fllltl'll. 

- '"•' J '"' •f..ii.,..M| iiK-iil pill, .-o I...IIM.U hniii |>lii< M (HMiiiil. 



21.- 



.'!.'> piiiitiiU uliitt'i 



lilitt <H|UhI 



:i. I- 



|HHiii(|4 lii...H-l c.il meal pliiH .•! iH.iiiiiU I. mil plii. •_' | |, ,„,», ,,,„„) gi; 



pnlliiiU irlllti'ii 



'• •♦' _|i"i""l' I mr oil i,i,.,il pin- .M iM.iiii.U ,„ , ,,1,1, :»:, ,,oi,,„|. o,ii. .hiuuI 



:.'l*> piiiiiiij' itliiti 11 
A- nil fXiinipIc of i-ii*li vnl 



III'. «iviiiir II viiliii' p.r ion ..I ;|ir,ii for irliii.-n. *7() for 



il« iiiMJ #:!.• for whi'iit briiii. then llii- hraiiij of iMi i | | 



for milk production iilnnr wlu-ii fc.l in tii 



lil> 11 Villlll' 



.t' ♦>!• 



Oiirinji thi. triiil tl 



I* proportion. 



fwr toll 



!<■ iiuv. miiii<> II iiio.t iinfl, riilil,. uiuu ill uriirln on ti,|, mcnl. 



hiinii'I.v, :tT poiiiiiN jut itniin.il in 1 » .lny,. ami ,,1 i| 
a nornial milk tlow. .IihIkIiiii fnini tli 
-iiitiMl to the fci'iiinif of h.'ff animaU 



If "aiiH' tiiiK- iiioro ilia 



ii u I I'raiiil of ri-li nil 



n niaintaiiiintr 
MiMifly 



holllil \,r I'Xi'l 



Anotln-r trial with tiwli meal was inaiii' m IIMT with a • Vi*h .M.al <attl.- Kitiil ' 



»ii|>pli.-cl hy thr <'aiia.la Coinmi-'sion of Con-rrvatioii. TliU f.-oil , oiitaiii.>.J n 



■•int iish iin>al. Dwinir t 



ri'fu.«i'(l this I'fcil wl 



iir to soiiD' vi ry iiiicxplaiiiabli' niiality tin- 



I'ow* p«>r«is 



u'li tfivi'ii MS a .". por rent aihlition to the roirular ration, h.'iice 



pfr 
tfiitly 



ilotiiiitc results a- to its fo.Hl v.ilue were obtaineii. 

(Jcnernlly ipeakinit, n (rood hraml of ti«|| meal, win 
a most proHtahle feeil in milk 



no 



■n jiiijieioii-ly fiil. i, not onlv 



lias no detrimental itFect on the flav 



r meat proijuetion, hiif is also „ splendid appet 



('ai.odittii liistory when this prodiiet should \m 
und iitili/od to U'st advanttiui' 



nir of the meat or milk. Tl 



lis IS 



^■<■llerally appicemti 



siirelv 



izi'r und 
fiine in 



mauiifiieture<l 



.NUMMARY. 



The waste of ti-h and tisli scrap in Canada is eiion i.. TTere !• a -upply of 

'heap fi'ol as yet hut little aplireeiafed or developed, 

Cnncentrated meals nr.' scarce and often not avaiiiilijc. Fish nieil, where avail- 
able, is a suitable eonceiitrate for cattle, and especially for hi 

Fish meal is very rich, eoiitainiiif .V. per .-ent to fid per cent ,,f protein and over 
1."> tier cent phosphate of lime. 

If of frooil .jiiality and pnipcly fed with other meal- and with roiit:hau<-. it is 
fairly iialatahle. whoh some, and a (lood feed for yoiiiii.'. t'rowin;.' stock and also for 
milk production, having no injurious etfiM-ts on the at or milk. 

The ^freafer demand for this valuable f,...,! would areatly stimiihite it- njaiiiif 

tiirc. 

When Kiveii a fair trial and used in proper proportions it should becoi.ie one of 
the most popular ,iiid profitable protein supph-nieiits for swine feeding.