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100 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Vol. XXXI. No. 786 



synthesis rather than those of splitting and 
oxidation. Hypertrophy as an outcome of 
increased functional activity is a familiar 
phenomenon, but as Nussbaum remarks the 
hypertrophy induced by testicular or ovar- 
ian hormones resembles rather the effect 
of the growth energy exhibited by the de- 
veloping embryo, in that it is dependent 
upon influences other than those arising 
from functional use. What these influ- 
ences may be is at present a matter of pure 
speculation. In his recent most interesting 
contributions to our knowledge of growth 
Rubner has been led to assume that the 
property of growth in the young organism 
is connected with certain special chemical 
complexes in the protoplasmic material, 
complexes which have nothing directly to 
do with the simple maintenance of the nu- 
trition of the cell and which after adult 
life is reached disappear for the most part 
from the general soma. In line with this 
hypothesis one might assume that the hor- 
mones given to the blood by the reproduc- 
tive cells contain such complexes which 
when anchored in certain tissues lead to an 
accelerated growth. Perhaps the clearest 
and most interesting experiments made 
upon the reproductive hormones are those 
reported by Nussbaum. He chose for his 
experiments the males of Bama fusca 
whose reproductive organs go through a 
cyclical development each year. At the 
proper period the preparation for the 
mating season shows itself in the hyper- 
trophy of the seminal vesicles, of the 
thumb pads and of certain muscles in the 
forearm. If the frog is castrated these 
hypertrophies do not occur, or if they have 
begun before the castration is performed 
retrogressive changes take place. On the 
other hand, the usual hypertrophy of the 
nuptial organs can be initiated in a cas- 
trated frog if pieces of the testis from 
another frog are introduced into the dorsal 



lymph sacs. The pieces thus introduced do 
not become grafted permanently but are 
gradually absorbed and the growth of the 
thumb pads and of the muscles in the fore- 
arms falls off after this absorption is com- 
pleted. Nussbaum believes that the stim- 
ulating effect of the testicular hormones 
is not exerted directly upon the tissues 
which show the increased growth, but 
rather upon the portions of the central 
nervous system which innervate these 
tissues. This belief rests upon the experi- 
mental fact that if the peripheral nerves 
going to the glands and papilla? of the 
thumb pads are severed on one side the 
testicular hormone affects only the other 
intact side. This experiment and the con- 
clusion drawn from it opens up the inter- 
esting question whether perhaps the repro- 
ductive hormones in general exert their 
effect through the central nervous system. 
This has not been the usual belief, and the 
experiments of Nussbaum are open to the 
obvious objection that the section of the 
peripheral nerves may have induced cer- 
tain secondary changes in metabolism 
which indirectly antagonized the action of 
the testicular hormone. At present these 
experiments, so far as I know, have not 
been repeated with this objection in mind 
and it is somewhat gratuitous to criticize 
the author's conclusions until further work 
is reported. 

William H. Howell 
The Johns Hopkins University 



SIB WILLIAM CBOOKES 1 
The generation just passing away and that 
now enjoying the vigor of its beginning, are 
fortunate in this country, because they are 
recognizing the privileges and advantages of 
anniversary celebrations. The indulgence in 

1 Address of Professor Charles Baskerville before 
the Chemists' Club, Harvard Night, November 27, 
1909, on which occasion Sir William Crookes was 
elected to honorary membership in the club. 



January 21, 1910] 



SCIENCE 



101 



such celebrations is not empty sentimentality, 
but possesses a practical value. They not only 
acquaint us with past events, but develop a 
true appreciation of their historical signifi- 
cance; and more than that, they stimulate 
within a finer realization of the actuating mo- 
tive of sentiment, which is, after all, the basis 
of sympathy, the torch that leads one along 
dark passages and warms the heart to the best 
endeavors. 

On December 10, 1859, appeared the initial 
number of Volume I. of the Chemical News. 
This journal, founded, owned and edited by 
"William Crookes, is well known to English 
reading chemists the world over. However, 
some of the circumstances of its founding and 
subsequent development may not be known to 
all present. I shall, therefore, venture to 
direct attention to one or two important 
events in its history. In 1843, William Fran- 
cis and Henry Croft founded the " Chemical 
Gazette, or Journal of Practical Chemistry in 
all its applications to Pharmacy, Arts and 
Manufactures." This journal was conducted 
until 1859, when it was followed by the 
" Chemical News; with which is incorporated 
the Chemical Gazette: a Journal of Practical 
Chemistry in all its applications to Pharmacy, 
Arts and Manufactures." The last-mentioned 
journal was founded and edited by William 
Crookes. From Volume III., the title has 
been the Chemical News and Journal of Phys- 
ical Science. 

In introducing the Chemical News to the 
chemical public, it was stated in the first 
number that " the diffusion of facts which may 
tend to improve and augment our knowledge 
of the arts and sciences upon which most of 
the operations of civilized life are based, must 
be a pleasing task to those who hold in esteem 
the welfare of mankind. It is with this feel- 
ing that the Chemical News is introduced to 
the world." Further, 

. . . There is no weekly journal in England 
which has for its aim the publication of those 
scientific processes and discoveries, the knowledge 
of which tends so greatly to increase our impor- 
tance as a nation devoted to improvement, refine- 
ment and industrial excellence. It is therefore to 
supply this deficiency that the Chemical News 



is now launched into the stream of scientific lit- 
erature. 

Although he did not bind himself to an in- 
flexible rule of action, the plan laid out by 
the editor was as follows: 

Each number will be divided into several sec- 
tions, which will have a general but no individual 
connection with each other. We shall commence 
with scientific and analytical chemistry, under 
which head will be given the results of elaborate 
investigations in the laboratory, by those pioneers 
of our science who by their labours pave the way 
for the subjects treated of in our next depart- 
ment; — technical chemistry. Here will be described 
the practical applications of the processes, for- 
mulae or chemical agents, which the labors of the 
purely scientific chemist have placed at the dis- 
posal of the manufacturer. In the department of 
agricultural chemistry especial care will be taken 
to place before the agriculturalists of the United 
Kingdom all the most interesting and useful in- 
formation to be derived from Home or Continental 
sources, or from the States of America. 

Pharmacy, toxicology, &c, next follow, and the 
medical • profession will here find from time to 
time everything of interest relating to Pharmacy, 
Materia Medica and Toxicology. Discussions upon 
medical reform and jurisprudence will also be 
freely admitted into these columns. 

It was also announced that "The proceed- 
ings of the various learned societies in which 
the readers may be supposed to take particular 
interest will be given," as well as notices of 
books, patents, etc., and chemical notices 
from foreign sources, scientific notes and 
queries, laboratory memoranda, and answers 
to correspondents. 

As the knowledge of chemistry was extended 
and the publication of other chemical jour- 
nals devoted to special subjects was begun, the 
Chemical News has found it advisable to alter 
its original plan considerably; for instance, 
after the Journal of the Society of Chemical 
Industry was founded in 1882, it no longer 
remained the sole record for those interested 
in chemical manufactures; and the founding 
of various English journals on medical and 
pharmaceutical subjects has rendered the 
omission of these branches necessary. 

The board of trustees of the Chemists' Club, 
in recognition of the successful completion of 



102 



SCIENCE 



[N. S. Voi» XXXI. No. 786 



the one hundredth volume of the Chemical 
News at the end of next month, unanimously 
resolved to forward a suitably engrossed letter 
of congratulations to Sir William Crookes. 
The letter has been prepared and reads as fol- 
lows: 

The Chemists' Club of the City of New York 
extends to Sir William Crookes, of London, hearty 
congratulations upon the completion of the one 
hundredth volume of the Ohemical News, which, 
under his direction, has been so successfully de- 
voted for a half century to " the diffusion of facts 
which may tend to improve and augment our 
knowledge of the arts and sciences upon which 
most of the operations of civilized life are based," 
and its members wish for him not only many more 
years in fruitful service, but that they and other 
men of science may profit by further additions to 
his already long list of rich contributions to 
theoretical specialized and practical scientific 
knowledge. 

Mobbis Loeb, 

Pabkeb C. McIlhinney, President 

Secretary 

Furthermore, the trustees unanimously 
voted to recommend that the club elect Sir 
William Crookes to honorary membership, and 
I was designated to present the matter to the 
club at this meeting. I perform this duty, 
which is a privilege, with extreme pleasure, 
and regard myself fortunate in being able to 
close my term as a trustee in paying a grace- 
ful tribute to one so deserving of our admira- 
tion and esteem, and one whose personal 
friendship I have enjoyed for a number of 
years. 

William Crookes was born in London on 
June 17, 1832, and studied chemistry and later 
assisted Hofmann at the Eoyal College of 
Chemistry. In 1854 he became superintend- 
ent of the meteorological department of the 
Eadcliffe Observatory, Oxford, and in 1855, 
professor of chemistry at the Science College, 
Chester ("Chester Training College"). In 
1859 Crookes founded the Chemical News, to 
which reference has already been made; and 
in 1871 he became editor of the Quarterly 
Journal of Science, having previously served 
as eoeditor with James Samuelson from the 
founding of the journal in 1864. 



Crookes has been a fellow of the Eoyal So- 
ciety since 1863, and was knighted in 1897. 
In 1887 he succeeded Dr. Hugo Miiller as 
president of the London Chemical Society, 
serving two years. Crookes was elected presi- 
dent of the British Association in 1898, and, 
previously, in 1886, he had served as chair- 
man of the chemical section. He has also 
been president of the Institute of Electrical 
Engineers. He has received honorary degrees 
of doctor of science from Oxford, Dublin and 
Cape of Good Hope universities. 

Crookes engaged in original research at an 
early age, his first paper " On the Seleno- 
Cyanides" being published in 1851. In 1861 
he discovered the element thallium, and in 
subsequent years investigated its properties 
and compounds. In 1865 he discovered the 
process of separating gold and silver from 
their ores by sodium amalgamation. In 1872 
he was led by his experiments in determining 
the atomic weight of thallium to consider the 
subject of repulsion resulting from radiation, 
and invented the radiometer, which he after- 
wards modified as the otheoscope. He was en- 
gaged at the same time in examining the phys- 
ical phenomena of modern spiritualism, and 
having become convinced of the existence of 
force exerted by an intelligent, disembodied 
agency, he announced his conclusions in his 
"Eesearches in the Phenomena of Spiritual- 
ism" (1874). Later Crookes pursued a course 
of investigation in regard to the properties 
of matter in a vacuum, and published some of 
the results in his " Molecular Physics in High 
Vacua " (1879). He asserted that he had dis- 
covered a fourth state of matter, the ultra- 
gaseous protyle, in which he maintained that 
the molecules are not in contact as in a liquid 
or gas, but isolated. Crookes's method of 
producing extreme vacua rendered incandes- 
cent electric lighting a practical possibility. 

In 1880, in recognition of his discoveries, 
the French Academy of Sciences gave Crookes 
a gold medal and a prize of 3,000 francs. In 
1875 the Eoyal Society awarded a Eoyal Medal 
to Crookes, and the same society awarded him 
the coveted Davy Medal in 1888, and the 
Copley Medal — " the ancient olive crown of 



January 21, 1910] 



SCIENCE 



103 



the Eoyal Society," as it was termed by Davy 
— in 1904. Three times has he been the 
Bakerian lecturer of the Eoyal Society. 

Crookes has published the following trea- 
tises: "On Thallium" (1863); "On the 
Manufacture of Beet Boot Sugar in Eng- 
land and Ireland " (1870) ; " Select Methods 
in Chemical Analysis" (1871, 1886, 1888, 
1895) ; " A Practical Handbook of Dyeing and 
Calico Printing" (1874, 1883); "Dyeing and 
Tissue Printing" (1882); "La Genese des 
Elements" (1887); "Die Genesis der Ele- 
mente" (1888); "Elements et meta-Ele- 
ments" (1888); a translation of Budolf Ton 
Wagner's "Die Chemische Technologie" 
(1872, 1881, 1892) ; and several other less im- 
portant translations and editions of German 
and French works on chemical subjects. 

The list of his scientific papers would be too 
long to present here, but it may be said that 
Sir William Crookes is an authority on the 
rare earths and rarer elements, and on spec- 
troscopy and sanitary science. 

His investigations on the rare earths have 
been chiefly on the phosphorescence spectra 
of yttrium, samarium (cathode-luminescence 
spectrum) and erbia (luminescence spectrum) ; 
on the absorption spectrum of didymium; 
and on the separation of these earths and their 
distribution (universal distribution of yttrium 
and scandium). In 1899, Crookes announced 
the existence of a new element, victorium, 
earlier called monium, and previously (in 
1886) he claimed to have discovered two new 
elements, ionium and incognitum. In 1876, 
Crookes devised the well-known " Crookes 
Tube," and in 1903 the spinthariscope. His 
investigations of the radio-active elements 
have also been noteworthy, and in 1900 he 
fractioned uranium nitrate into an inactive 
product, thereby obtaining an active sub- 
stance, TJr-X. 

In sanitary science, the important work of 
Crookes has been on sewage disposal, on 
water supply and contamination, on the use 
of disinfectants, and on the wheat problem. 

Crookes has delivered the following ad- 
dresses : " On Badiant Matter " (British As- 
sociation, Sheffield Meeting, August 22, 1879) ; 
" On Badiant Matter Spectroscopy " (Baker- 



ian Lecture, Boyal Society, May 31, 1883); 
address to the chemical section of the British 
Association, Birmingham Meeting, September 
2, 1886, dealing with the nature and origin 
of the so-called elements; "Genesis of the 
Elements" (Boyal Institution, February 18, 
1887); address as president of the Chemical 
Society, anniversary meeting, March 28, 
1888 ; " On Becent Besearches on the Bare 
Earths " (annual general meeting of the 
Chemical Society, March 21, 1889); "Dia- 
monds " (Boyal Institution, June 11, 1897) ; 
British Association Inaugural address, Bris- 
tol, 1898, dealing mainly with the "Wheat 
Problem"; and his admirable lecture on 
"Diamonds" before the British Association, 
Kimberley meeting, September 5, 1905. 

Sunday evenings, Sir William is at home. 
Within his study walls, bebooked to the ceil- 
ing, one may find then the finest minds of 
science in England or other lands, grappling 
in discussion with the unsolved problems, 
which oftentimes become no clearer than the 
increasing denseness of the tobacco smoke. 
Promptly at eleven o'clock there comes a 
bright rift in the clouds as Lady Crookes enters 
and charmingly leads all to the dining room 
below. 

Punctilious in the performance of every 
duty, courteous but vigorous in argument, 
modestly assertive, learning from the young- 
est, Sir William draws out the humblest until 
he would become almost bold, yet, in return, 
he gives generously from his rich store of wide 
knowledge and large experience. Such is the 
man the trustees would have the club honor 
and thus gain luster itself, for William 
Crookes, the savant, ornaments any company, 
and his life work is an , inspiration for the 
present generation and the generations of 
men of science to come. 



THE INTERNATIONAL AMERICAN CON- 
GRESS OF MEDICINE AND HTCIENE 

The International American Congress of 
Medicine and Hygiene of 1910 in commemora- 
tion of the first centenary of the May revolu- 
tion of 1810, under the patronage of his excel- 
lency, the President of the Argentine Bepublic,