Skip to main content

Full text of "Journey from Angora by Ḳaïṣaríyah, Maláṭíyah, and Gergen Ḳal'eh-sí, to Bír or Bírehjik"

See other formats


Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World 

This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in 
the world by JSTOR. 

Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other 
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the 
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. 

We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this 
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial 
purposes. 

Read more about Early Journal Content at http://about.istor.org/participate-istor/individuals/early- 
journal-content . 



JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people 
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching 
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit 
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please 
contact support@jstor.org. 



( 275 ) 

VTI. — Journey from Angora hy Kdisariyah, Maldtiyah, and 
Gergen KaVeh-si, to Bir or Birehjik. By W. Ainsworth^ 
Esq.^ in charge of an Expedition to Kurdistan. 

During the three winter months that the party remained in 
Angora, various excursions were made to hills immediately in the 
neighbourhood of the town^ in order to obtain bearings for map- 
ping the country ; among others we visited the summit of Chal 
Tagh, 6 miles south of the city^ whence we got a good bearing of 
Hasan Tagh^ a remarkable peak rising 8000 feet above the sea_, 
18 miles S.S.E. of Ak-Serai, and 120 miles from Angora. 

A more distant excursion was made to the mines of Ishik Tagh, 
about 40 miles N. by E. of Angora, and lying 4560 feet above 
the sea; the route to which is laid down in the accompanying map. 

On the afternoon of Tuesday, the IQth of March^ our party^ 
consisting ^ of Mr. Russell^ Mr. Rassam, and myself^ accom- 
panied by a khavass bashi and two khavasses, sent by Zaid 
Mohammed Pasha^ as a guard through the Kurdish districts of 
Haim^neh, quitted Angora, and travelling in a westerly direction^ 
halted at Emir Yaman, a village of twenty-six houses^ 4 hours 
from the city. 

March 20^^.— Passed a small lake which it took 25 minutes 
to ride round; beyond this we descended from a low undulating 
country into the valley of Murtah Ovah-si, which we had explored 
higher up on our excursion to Ishik Tagh. The peculiarity of 
this fine and fertile valley is its being bounded to the W. by the 
prolongation of the hills of Ayash, and being suddenly closed up 
at its southern extremity by hills of trachyte, amid which the 
Char Su and the river of Angora effect their junction, while in 
the pass is situate the small town of Istanos.'*' 

At the entrance of the same pass is a bridge, at which point the 
great Constantinople road and that to Istands^ only J an hour off, 
separate. In descending it^ compact uniform trachytes are suc- 
ceeded by trachytic conglomerates, near Istanos, broken up into 
peaks and pinnacles^ and backed by steep cliffs of rude but pic- 
turesque appearance. The town contains about 400 houses, 50 of 
Mohammedans and 350 of Armenians ; it occupies the right bank 
of the river, and^ confined by the cliff, forms a long narrow street, 
which is well stoned up, like a quay, and adds to the general 
appearance of comfort and cleanliness. 

A remarkable rock, almost insulated from the cliff, advances over 
the lower part of the town. It is crowned by ruins of former times, 
covered with storks' nests, and burrowed by cavernous passages 

* Vulgo Stanos. 
VOL. X. U 



276 Mr. AiNSWORTH /rom Angora to Kazsariyah. [March, 

difficult to reach. These caves measured^ the first 9 feet by 7, 
the second 34 feet by 10, with an opening to the E. 

Another series of caves, approached with some difficulty, 
stretched along the face of the cliff in three tiers. The first 
chamber was reached by a gallery on the face of the rock, l6 paces 
in length : from this another gallery ascended, partly in stairs, by 
the side of the rock 1 8 paces, where a little protection is given by 
a wooden railing. A long series of chambers were there entered, 
some having wells for water, and most of them fire-places. The 
whole extent was 145 paces; the chambers seven in number, the 
galleries four ; but many of the chambers were again divided, as 
if for one or two families. There were no remains of antiquity 
discovered during this examination, and the caves appear to have 
been places of refuge from persecution, or a retreat for security or 
defence. In the burial-ground of the town there were some frag- 
ments of large columns and cornices hewn in trachyte, and one 
tombstone of white marble, with an illegible Greek inscription, 
probably brought from some other place. 

The left bank of the river is occupied by gardens, and the new 
church, which does credit to the industrious Christians of the 
place,*who toil chiefly in merinos and twist. 

2lst — Mr. Russell and I rode out early in the morning, 
accompanied by a guide, to ascend the Goklti Tagh, the highest 
mountain in this part of the country; turning to the left, just 
above the junction of the Ch^r Sii and Angora river, we soon 
quitted the trachytes and gained a barren country of chalk -marl 
and greensand, here and there disrupted or traversed by dykes 
of trachytic rocks. The district was hilly, with the usual character 
of friable or marly formations, rather abrupt and shingly declivities 
and round-topped hills ; on one of these, to our right, were some 
huge stones, which appeared as if once piled together with regu- 
larity. After £ hours' ride, crossing a small rivulet with red 
water, we began our ascent, and soon reached the village of 
Goklu, of about 40 houses. Here we obtained another guide, 
and proceeded in our ascent, crossing several glaciers, amid a 
dense fall of snow, accompanied by a strong wind from the N. 
After about J an hour we reached a Ya'ila, or summer station, 
near which was a cave celebrated in all the adjacent country, 
being distinctly visible at a great distance, from its occurring 
in the face of a cliff which rises almost perpendicularly to the 
summit of the mountain. The cave, however, only presented us 
with a wide semi-circular opening in indurated limestone, which 
also contained large veins of calc-spar and some travertine. The 
cave was 50 yards in width, and 0,0 yards in depth ; and had also 
lateral small caverns, and nearly vertical passages of no great 
interest. It was fronted by a wall of stone, which enclosed a kind 



1839.] Istdnos—GSklu Tdgh—Germesh. 9,77 

of platform for keeping sheep or cattle. As the snow continued 
to fall so densely, that we could with difficulty see a few yards 
before us, we gave up any further ascent (the chief object having 
been to obtain distant bearings), and returned the same evening, 
both wet and cold, to the hospitable Christians of Ist^nds. 

22nd. — From Istands we visited the junction of the Char S6 
and Angora river,* which occurs amid cliffs of trachytes, about 
200 feet in height ; and from thence we continued in a south- 
westerly direction over hills of the same character as yesterday; 
passed Tatlar, now a ruined village, on the left bank of the 
river, Ata-jik small villages beyond A'na-Yurt, also a poor village 
with small lake to the S. Beyond was At a Tepeh (island hill)^ 
of volcanic origin of rather a singular conical form, which car- 
rying til ted-up formations in a long line to the S., has caused a 
remarkable bend in the river, from whence its name : crossing the 
neck of the peninsula we again reached the banks of the river, 
backed here by the hills of Germesh, rising from 800 feet to 
1000 feet above the plain, and a little farther on we came to the 
farm of the Kara Koyunli, or black-sheep tribe, consisting of 
about 20 houses enclosed in a square, like an Arab or Persian 
fort. The valley was bounded to the N. by the westerly pro- 
longation of the Ayash hills, composed of chalk, chalk-marls, 
and red and ochrous yellow sandstones, dipping N.W. at an angle 
of 25°, and preserving great regularity. 

23rd. — We rode out early in the morning to visit the castle of 
Germesh. The river was forded with difficulty, although in 
summer it is said to be nearly absorbed by the surrounding 
friable soil. Our first visit was to the warm spring (84° of Fahr.), 
which issues from the declivity of the castle-hill. Over it there 
is a small bathing-house, with a circular dome, constructed of 
stones cemented by mortar, and apparently belonging to a re- 
mote Mohammedan era, although ascribed by the natives to the 
former possessors of the soil, under the usual designation of 
Genoese. 

The ruins of a castle, apparently of Roman origin, occupy the 
summit of the same hill, which constitutes the most easterly point 
of the Germesh Tagh. This castle, now in a very ruinous con- 
dition, was built of stone, cemented by good mortar, and consisted 
of an interior portion, 58 feet in length by 30 in breadth, bounded 
to the N.W. by steep cliffs, 36 feet deep, and to the S.W. by a 
wall 1 9 feet deep. This more approachable side was, however, 
defended by an outer rampart, 50 feet from the interior, and 
having three round towers, one of which rises to the N. of the 
highest part of the fort. 

The summit of the hill, about 700 feet high, consists of 
* Enkurf Sii, called at Angora Chibuk cliai (Pipe lliver). 

u 2 



27B Mr. AiNswoRTH /rom Angora to Kdimriyah. [March, 

hypersthene rock and basalt ; the declivities exhibited trap^ tufa, 
and conglomerates. 

Returning to Koyunli, we joined the rest of the party, and 
proceeded over a level plain of river alluvium 4 miles, to the 
point where cliffs of chalk approach the river banks from the N., 
leaving a small and fertile plain, succeeded by Yokari Turkhali 
(Upper), a village in a chalk ravine, where the river is received 
among hills, and where there is also a wooden bridge. The hills 
soon become higher, with rounded summits, and rather steep de- 
clivities, being composed of indurated limestones in waved and 
contorted strata ; and we entered a pass that presented some pic- 
turesque points of view. About 1 mile from the entrance is a 
copious hot spring, of very pure and clear water ; and there are 
remains of an ancient road, that was in part hewn out of the rock. 
Beyond this a large cave is seen at an elevation of nearly 400 feet 
from the valley below, which contains the ruins of a building of 
strength, adapted for defence. This had been once the retreat of 
robbers, for whom the pas» offers many advantages in the pursuit 
of their avocations. Near the exit of the valley the limestone 
reposes upon mica-schist and clay-schist, with quartz-rock. Be- 
yond this is an open plain, in part cultivated, with the village of 
Ashaghi Turkhali (Lower) to the right, bounded, to the N. and 
W., by a long range of uniform low hills of gypsum. The river, 
free from the rocky pass, now takes a more westerly direction ; 
and we followed a middle route between it and the hills for 
about 4 miles to the village of Sarrubas, the residence of an 
A'yan, and where we were to obtain fresh horses. 

24^A. — We continued our journey along the same plain, with 
the river to our left, and gypsum hills to our right ; the valley is 
about 5 miles in width, and bounded on the S. by the Germesh 
hills. After travelling from 5 to 6 miles the valley begins to 
narrow ; and in the gypsum cliffs, as they approach the river, are 
numerous caves, used as folds for sheep of the Angora breed. 
There was then a sad mortality among these delicate animals ; 
many were dying before our eyes,and the vultures were so glutted 
as to be too lazy to move. 

Below is a bridge over the Angora river, by which a road is 
carried to Servi-Hisar,* fording the Sakariyah, J a mile further on. 
At this point both rivers enter wild and rocky passes in sienitic 
rocks, which here suddenly succeed to the gypsum ; a narrow 
peninsula of the latter separates the two rivers, expanding as it 
extends upwards to the N . The Sakariyah has a very tortuous 
course ; and, after forming several small lakes, enters with its tri- 
butary into the sienites ; after flowing through which, amidst falls 
and precipices, for about \\ mile, the two rivers effect their 

* Vulgo Sevri Hisar. 



1839.] Turkhdlt — Sarrubas — Mislu — Sha^bdn-uxL 279 

junction^ just before the igneous rocks are succeeded by an open 
plain, soon again shut up by other mountains. 

By this excursion we determined that the site of Pessinus did 
not exist, as Col. Leake supposed, on the E. side of the San- 
garius. Mr. HamiUon and M. Texier have, I believe, identified 
the ruins of Bdla-Bazar with that place; but some difficulties 
remain to be reconciled in the march of Manlius ; and what is to 
be said of Plutarch's statement that Cato the younger walked in 
one day from Ancyra to Pessinus ? 

Our luggage, escorted by Mr. Rassam and two Khavasses, had 
gone direct from Sarrubas to the village of Mislu, fording on their 
way the Angora river (Enguri Su). Having accomplished our 
exploration, we had thus in part to retrace our steps between the 
two rivers, over low undulating hills of gypsum, with some lime- 
stone and breccia deposits, and then across a wide plain, extend- 
ing from the castle at the eastern end of the Germesh Tagh, to 
the village above mentioned, situated at its western end, a dis- 
tance of about from 12 to 15 miles in a straight line. A't the 
western extremity, trap rocks no longer occupy the whole mass of 
the hills, but only the summits, and repose upon cretaceous marl. 
There is one hill further W. than the village ; beyond it is the 
vale of the Sakariyah ; and there are no other hills of importance 
intervening between this and the conical summits and serrated 
peaks of the Sevri-Hisar mountains. 

Mislu was once a flourishing village, probably on an antique 
site ; but its walled- in gardens are now neglected, and its houses 
falling into ruins. About twenty only are still inhabited. The 
country is watered by many copious springs : partridges begin to 
abound, and ground-squirrels have made their appearance in 
numbers. 

25th. — We ascended the pass in Germesh Tagh, S. by W., and 
entered upon a fertile valley, stretching from E. by N. to W. by S., 
and shut up at its eastern extremity by a ridge that unites the Ger- 
mesh Tagh with the Sha'ban-uzi Tagh, of which bearings were 
taken from the Chdl Tagh, near Angora. The latter is composed, 
like the former, of cretaceous rock and basanite. The Sha'bim- 
uzi has also sandstone on its southern declivity. Before us was 
a large village, also called Sha'ban-uzi. The rivulet of the valley 
is a tributary to the Sakariyah. 

The ascent of the hills of Sha'ban-uzi occupied us about 1 
hour. From the summit we had an extensive prospect. The 
undulating district of Haimaneh, the valley of the Sakariyah, the 
mountain of Ayash, with the distant Elmah, Idri's, and Sevri-Hisar 
chains, formed the chief features. Descending the hills by the 
yaila of the village of Yaghmur Baba (Father Rain), and passing 



280 Mr. AiNswoRTH/rom Angora to Katmnyah. [March, 

some small caves with hewn arches^ we reached a fine cuhivated 
plain, where we first entered the district of Haimaneh. Our road 
lay along continuous fertile lands^, producing scarcely anything but 
wheat and barley^ till we reached Karghah-h' (Jackdaw town)^ a 
large village^ the seat of the Vaivodah of the district^ and having 
every appearance of much agricultural wealth. 

26th. — The rich agricultural land around Karghah-li does not 
extend far : we had not travelled an hour to-day when we found 
ourselves upon a high undulating upland of chalky without wood 
or cultivation^ and but few ligneous or vivaceous plants. The 
vegetation consisted of a few gramineae and wormwood. The 
average elevation of this upland, from a number of observations^, 
is 3000 feet. After travelling about I6 miles in a S. E. direc- 
tion^ we came to a valley with a rivulet^ divided into two parts by 
a range of hills, through which the waters find their way by a 
narrow and precipitous pass of compact limestone. The lower 
and more northern valley contains two or three villages, the 
largest of which is called Ujuk^, and was generally cultivated. 
The southern valley contained the Turkoman village of Alif^ 
w^ith tents and about twenty houses^ but not everywhere cultivated. 
At this village we found numerous tombs^ columns^ cornices, and 
other fragments, evidently of Byzantine origin, and apparently in- 
dicating an ancient site. 

From hence our road lay up the same valley till we turned to 
the E. to Kadi Ko'i ( Judge-ville)^ formerly the seat of government 
of the whole district of Haimaneh. At present it contains about 
forty houses, built upon the declivities of some barren hills of 
compact non-fossiliferous chalk, with hard friable limestone^ 
dipping 15^ N. 

Q7th. — ^^Having sent our luggage to the village of Juluk, Mr. 
Russell and I started to visit some warm springs in the neigh- 
bourhood, where some remnants of antiquity were said to be. We 
reached them in about three quarters of an hour^ and found, as in- 
dicated^ a large hot spring, presenting the peculiarity of issuing 
from the top of a round or flat- topped hill, about 300 feet above 
the adjacent valley. This spring is inclosed in a showy modern 
building, with the usual dome-roofs, divided into two parts, 32 feet 
square ; one for men, the other for women. The roof of that 
intended for the men has fallen in, the place being totally neg- 
lected and abandoned. The supply of water is considerable ; its 
temperature is 41*5 Cent. (125° Fahr.), the air being 58° Fahr. 
The baths are inclosed in a space that is surrounded by a wall, 
400 yards long by 300 in width. It was also formerly defended 
by bastions, now in a very ruinous condition. Within this in- 
closure there is a modern jami', or mosque, also going to ruin, 



1839.] Hdimdreh—Kadi Koz—Ardij Tdgh—Julufc. 281 

constructed chiefly with the stones of a Greek temple ; there are 
also many ruined modern houses, and a burial-ground, with 
Byzantine tombstones, cornices, pillars, &c., but we found no in- 
scriptions. >By the side of this inclosed space there appeared also 
to have been formerly gardens and respectable houses ; but now 
all is deserted, and not a being was to be seen around. 

Our route from the baths passed up a narrow valley, where a 
few composite plants first appeared in flower, amid limestone 
shales tilted up at a high angle. From thence we commenced 
the ascent of Ardij Tagh (Mount Juniper), not however, much 
covered by shrubs of any kind, and composed of sandstone and 
limestone shales. The crest is elevated about 600 feet above 
the plain of Haimdneh ; 900 feet above the valley below ; and 
3592 feet above the level of the sea. 

An hour's descent brought us to the Turkoman village of Kizil 
Koi, where we obtained, after some demur, a change of horses, and 
proceeded rapidly with these up a long valley, and over naked 
uplands, to the mountain of Gokcheh Buhar (Heaven-gate 
Spring), at the foot of which were tents of Kurds, newly arrived 
in these districts. Passing round, we reached the village of 
Kizil-jah KaFeh (Red-dish Castle), where we were disappointed 
in not finding the castle which we had expected from its name 
and from report. It is merely one of the stone -forts so common 
throughout Lesser Asia. The mountain of Karajah Tagh was, 
however, now only a few miles from us ; but as night was approach- 
ing, and we had still a long way to return to join our luggage, 
and as the plague also, w^hich had been stated to exist at Kadi 
Koi, and in various parts of the country, was again said to be 
very bad, in order to prevent our stopping at Kizil-jah Kal'eh, 
we were obliged to yield to the Khavasses and Surujis, and turn 
back upon Chaltis, a large village, where we did see a few people 
sick : we then crossed a hill, and arrived late at Jiiliik, a post- 
station on the road from Angora to Kdniyah, situated in a glen 
of trachytes. From the hill above Juliik we had obtained some 
valuable bearings, by which, in the absence of astronomical ob- 
servations, prevented at this season of the year by continually 
cloudy weather, we were enabled to connect Karajah Tagh with 
Chal Tagh, and Hosein Kazi, near Angora, also with the Ayash 
mountslin, and then again with Shat-Musa and the Ardij Tagh. 

Q^Sth. — Issuing out of the glen we traversed a plain towards 
some limestone hills, and, leaving the baggage to pursue its way to 
Kara Gedik,* we approached the foot of these to visit some sepul- 
chral or monastic grottoes of little interest : crossing the hills we 
came upon Kurkli, a Kurd village, with more grottoes of a similar 

* Properly Geduk, «. e., Rent, Fissure. 



282 Mr. AiNswoRTH/rom Angora to Kdisanyah, [March, 

character^ and^ proceeding along at a good pace^ soon reached 
a narrow glen, composed on one side of indurated chalky on the 
other of trachytic conglomerates. On the side of the cretaceous 
rocks are several large caves, arranged in tiers. The lower 
story contains a few large chambers, one of which is supported 
by square pillars, and has sepulchral recesses. Above is a long 
central chamber, 19 yards deep, with an arch in the centre, to 
the right what has apparently been the chapel, 7 yards long by 
5 yards in width ; while to the left a long gallery leads to a small 
chamber. This excavated monastery is in the same style, but 
not so complete as those actually existing at Deiri Za'feran, near 
Mardm. 

From hence, descending the trachytic hill of Kara Gedik, we 
joined our baggage at the village of the same name, and pro- 
ceeded in a north-easterly direction 3 hours, over plains of 
monotonous outline, similar in structure and vegetation, till we 
gained Banam, a large village at the southern foot of Elma Tagh, 
and between that chain and another of different composition and 
appearance, called U'ra Tagh. 

29^^. — The range of tj'ra Tagh, which stretches from S. W. 
to N.E., south of Elma Tagh, is composed of a central nucleus 
of serpentine and steaschist. These rocks are traversed by dykes 
of quartz rock, with abundant chalcedony, and have also tilted-up 
limestone, apparently of the chalk formation. On the northern 
side there is another association of rocks, consisting of basanites, 
associated with hornstone, flinty slate^ and red quartzites. There 
is a large deposit of gypsum on the southern declivity. The baro- 
meter on the crest of the U'ra Tagh indicated an elevation of 
4630 feet, or 86 1 feet above the plain of Angora. 

In these mountains there have been several shafts sunk in 
search of copper ; and furnaces formerly existed at Karghah-li, 
which we had been particularly requested by Zaid Mohammed, 
Pasha of Angora, to visit and examine. We found only small, 
although numerous, veins of pyrites, which were not promising. 
The deserted galleries of the mines had become the retreat of 
foxes, which were much discomposed by our intrusion. The 
southern slope of the U'ra Tagh is covered with fir, which tree 
is rare on the northern side. Snow was also abundant on the 
southern side, especially where protected by low oak woods. We 
spent the night at Karghah-li, a village of about forty houses, with 
abandoned gardens, and a fine spring issuing from the gypsum 
rock. 

SOth, — An extensive tract of low undulating country, almost 
like a plain, extends between the U'ra Tagh and the Kurah 
Tagh, to the S.E. The fall of waters is towards the Kizil 
Irmdk ; and the country becomes more hilly in the neighbour- 



1839.] Urd Tdgh—Karghah4i~Kard-jiler — Cheshni. 283 

hood of that river. This district is called Tabanli : the plains 
abound with the large field-partridge and with small bustards. 
In about the middle of it there is a small stream^ called from a 
neighbouring village TdL It is only 3 yards wide by one 
deep, but loses itself in marshes and small lakes before it joins 
the Kizil Irmak. On arriving at Kurah Tagh we met with our old 
friends the saliferous red sandstones, which exhibited themselves 
chiefly as a coarse grit, upon which were superimposed gypsum, 
marl, and fresh- water limestones. This was on the outskirts ; the 
central ridge is composed of red and brown sandstones, and 
sandstone conglomerate ; and above, yellow marl and gypsum. 
During the passage of this chain, we were overtaken by a sharp 
storm, amid which we had yet to travel several hours. We de- 
scended to a small village, and entering a gorge in red sandstone, 
passed two beds of pink and white limestones, adapted for quar- 
rying, and succeeded by dark-brown sandstone. We thence 
travelled along another cultivated vale, ascended over a hill-side, 
and made a rapid descent, in limestone gravel hills, to the large 
village of Kara-jiler, containing about 300 houses, all inhabited 
by Mohammedans. 

Slst. — About 2 miles from Kara-jiler is the celebrated bridge 
of Cheshni [Chashnigi'r*]. It occurs at a remarkable spot, where 
the river leaves an open valley, in red saliferous sand and sand- 
stone, to enter a bold rocky pass in sienite, which is scarcely more 
than 1 mile in length. The bridge, said to have been erected by 
Sultan Murad, is built of red sandstone. It has one large and 
four lesser arches, at the water's ordinary level, one high up on 
a rock in the centre of the bridge, and some others still smaller 
on the level of the water. The width of the river there is 
31 yards. The bridge at the highest point is 12 yards above 
the ordinary level of the water. To the eastward of the bridge is 
a large village called Kapu Koi (Bridge-ville). The jurisdic- 
tion of 'Izzet, Pasha of Angora, terminates here, so our Kha- 
vasses took their departure. The country we were now about to 
enter upon, belongs to the mines called Denek Ma'den, for which, 
after changing horses, we immediately started. 

Our road lay in a N.E. direction, over a rude but not unpic- 
turesque sienitic mountain, called Begrek Taghi. Below the 
river pass, we observed two small islands, a house, and ford. On 
these hills vegetation was forward ; the dwarf almond-trees being 
about to blossom : on the summit we observed graphic granite 
and a dyke of basalt in sienite. Descending from Begrek Taghi 
we entered upon a remarkable granitic district, low with rounded 
whitish hills, but deep rocky ravines, with rivulets, and a gene- 

* " The King's Taster," in honour of whom, the bridge was named.— Jehan Numa, 
p. 626.— F. S. 



284 Mr. AiNswonTH/rom Angora to KaisariyaL [March, 

rally scanty vegetation. This district is inhabited by the Jerid 
tribe of Turkomans ; and in one of the valleys we passed Got- 
ovah, one of their stationary villages^ with sixteen houses ; beyond 
it Hdji-' Ali, and the Hasanlu Baba-Sd, with fifteen houses. The 
country suddenly changed, after a rather long, but not unpleasant 
ride, when we reached the end of the granitic rocks, there being 
a fine cultivated plain, called Chapat Ovah-sf. Beyond this we 
came to a hilly country of indurated limestone, in the midst of 
which, rising gradually to the heights of Denek, is the village of 
Denek Ma'den, where are the furnaces and the residence of the 
director of the mines. We had continued rain all the latter part 
of the journey. 

The ores turned to account at Denek Ma'den are simply 
galena, more or less argentiferous. The mines in the neighbour- 
hood of the village are now unproductive, the chief vein being at 
£ hours' distance. The present produce of the mines, when in 
full work, is said to be equal to 1000 okes,* of 2| lbs. each, 
weekly; which quantity yields 2J okes of silver. The village 
near the mines is in better order than most of those establish- 
ments ; the charcoal is kept in a large wooden enclosure, a hand- 
some fountain pours its waters into a small basin surrounded by 
trees. The Greek miners have a small church; the Moham- 
medans have also their mosque, but without a minaret. There 
were fourteen roasting furnaces, two smelting furnaces, and one 
open one, for the oxidation of lead and the reduction of silver. The 
mines have a large jurisdiction, including seven Kazaliks,| from 
which men and fuel are obtained ; and the produce of the taxes 
is also devoted to the maintenance of the same works. It would 
have been hard, under these circumstances, if they had not been 
made to return something to the government; but so jealous are 
the 'Osmanlis of their mines, that the Ma'den Agha-si had been 
removed, after three years' residence, only a few days before our 
arrival. The mines were formerly under the immediate superin- 
tendence of the government at Constantinople ; but it was said 
that Zaid Pasha was about to take the responsibility of them 
upon himself. Our reception at the mines was anything but 
civil, although we recognised personally some of the miners ; on 
the contrary, much anxiety and jealousy was shown, so it was 
thought better to continue our journey next day, although I had 
intended to make some mineralogical researches. The elevation 
of Denek Ma'den above the sea, by our barometer, is 3340 ft. 

April 1st. — Our road descended in a southerly direction along 
the valley of the Denek rivulet, 4^ miles, when we reached the 



* Vulgo, Okali,for Wakiyah, from the Greek and Latin uncia. — F.S. 
f Or KadilikSj wHence the modern Greek Kar/X/»/. — F.S. 



1839.] Dmek Ma' den— Kara Goa—Sogher—Bdrdnli. 2S5 

village of Jinal O'ghlu, belonging to the Jerid Turkomans, 
whose tents we also met with in the recesses of the hills further 
on. where the valley expands considerably. At 7 miles from Jinal 
O'ghlu, the Denek rivulet falls into a stream flowing N. 50 E.^ 
from the conical mountain called Chelebi to the S.W., to join the 
river of Yuz-Kat. 

Near this point was the small village of Merdan 'All, from 
which we travelled over a hilly uncultivated district, descended to 
find another tributary of the Yuz-Kat river flowing from a small 
lake, and then along a gravelly plain to the foot of granitic hills, 
where is the village of Ahmed, or Hamid, of fifty houses, inha- 
bited chiefly by Turkomans. Its elevation is 2700 ft. 

2nd.— 'We could not get the necessary quantity of horses from 
our Turkoman friends, so a part of the baggage was put into 
'arabahs, or carts, drawn by oxen, which proceeded slowly up 
Mount Kara Goz (Black Eye) while we made a lateral excursion 
up one of the culminating points, to examine an old castle, but 
found only the remnant of walls, now divided into cells for sheep 
and goats. The labour of the ascent was amply repaid, however, 
by a good round of compass bearings. Its elevation is 4180 ft. ; 
and the fort commanded the chain of El ma Tagh, Idris Tagh, 
over Kal'ehjik and the Baranli chain. 

At the southern foot of Kara Goz is the village of 'Isa K6jah-li, 
from whence we proceeded, still in a southerly direction, over a 
fine fertile plain, to Sogher,* a small village where we were to 
obtain horses. This plain is bounded to the S. by the Karvan- 
serai Tagh, with its castellated summits ; to the W. by the lofty 
snow-clad and wooded range of Baranli, terminating to the 
N.W. in serrated ridges, evidently sienitic; to the N., by the 
Kara Goz, and to the E. by the remarkable mountain designated 
as B6z-uk. The plain of Sogher is at an elevation of 3320 ft., 
and has all the characters of a true alpine plain ; marshy, with a 
vegetation of rushes and hedge- grapes, and no shrubs or flowering 
plants of a warm climate. We had a sharp frost at night. 

3rd. — Crossed the plain to visit Tash Kasmah : large quarries 
of marble, opened in ancient times, but now not in use, at the 
foot of the Baranli chain. This mountain-range, rising upwards 
of 2000 ft. above the valley of the Kizil Irmak, is composed of a 
nucleus of granite, sienite, gneiss and mica- schist, tilting up lime- 
stone and some sandstone. The granitic rocks predominate in 
the W. and N.W. ; limestones in the central portions, where, in 
consequence, the outline of the mountain is now rounded. The 
rocky cones and castle-bearing pinnacles near Jemalah are com- 
posed of granites and gneiss. Mica-schists predominate in the 



* Properly Sigbir t.t?., Buffalo 



286 Mr. Ainsworth /rom Angora to Kai'sariyah, [April, 

easterly and south-easterly portions. The limestone at Tash 
Kasmah is non-fossiliferous^ rather coarse-grained, but of a 
pure white colour. At the eastern end of the plain, the valley of 
the Kir-Shehr river opened before us; but we turned to the 
westward, to the village of Jemalah^ of sixty houses; above 
which, upon a rocky hill, are the ruins of an old castle. This 
building proved to be an edifice of various ages, formerly con- 
structed of large hewn stones of granite and gneiss, repaired and 
modified by the Mohammedans in former ages^ and in a still 
more slovenly manner in modern times. 

A pile of stones, which is said also to mark the site of a castle^ 
called Gechi Kal'eh (She-goat Castle), occupies the summit of 
the mountains at the opposite side of the entrance of the valley of 
Kir-Shehr. At 4 or 5 miles down this valley is the village of 
Kiziljah Koi, where the beautiful and renowned gardens of the 
once flourishing town of Kir-Shehr commence^ and extend not 
only to the town itself, a distance of 5 miles, but also far beyond, 
much exceeding all published reports. The rivulet of Kir-Shehr 
is called the Kalichi-su and is not the Kon^k, by some considered 
as the Cappadox of Pliny. 

Kir-Shehr is a sad example of a town ruined by religious fana- 
ticism. It never was very populous or rich, but^ with gardens of 
unbounded fertility, possessed most of the necessaries, and many 
of the luxuries, of life. These tranquil comforts brought around 
it, however, dervishes of many orders, to whom religious zeal be- 
queathed various edifices which, like villages^, are, to the number 
of seven, distributed round the town — the resources of which they 
have drained and exhausted to the very last : what houses still 
remain are mud hovels of the lowest description ; the only j'ami' 
is ruinouS:, and its minaret broken in half: 3 khans are aban- 
doned ; the bezestein, which is a goodly building, is untenanted. 
There are six mesjids ; and the population is stated to be from 
3500 to 4000. There is only one Christian resident^ who is em- 
ployed in the manufacture of gunpowder. 

The mountains N.E. of Kir-Shehr are called Khirkah Tagh, 
and are said to conceal a rock-fort^ called Sefa Kal'eh. At a 
short distance from the town is a hot springs amid some rocks of 
travertino, which have apparently owed their existence to hot 
water containing lime, iron, and other earthy matters in solution. 
The aspect of these rocks is very various ; waved and contorted, 
with huge nodules of argillaceous ironstone. The spring is pro- 
tected by a wall, and its water falls into a small bath. The 
temperature was Sff Cent., or 113° Fahr., the air being at the 
time 53° Fahr. The weather was clouded and rainy, and allowed 
of no observations at Kir-Shehr, although it is a point which we 
were very anxious to fix astronomically. 



1839.] Jemdlah—Kif'Shehr—Vch Aydk—Boz-uk Tdrjk 287 

5th. — The ruins of U'ch Ajak (Three Legs)^ to which our 
attention had been directed by Mr. W. I. HamiUon^ as existing 
between Kir-Shehr and NeCi-Shehr, we ascertained to have been 
passed already in our journey, and that when at Jemalah we had 
left them £ hours to our left. Mr. Russell and I accordingly, 
this morning retraced our steps along the Kalichi-su as far 
as the bridge of Jemalah, and continued thence N. 5. E. to 
Juhun, for which place we had a letter from the Mutesellim of 
Kir-Shehr, to procure us a guide. Passing over the south- 
eastern slope of Bdz-uk (the Bdz Tagh of Mr. Hamilton's in- 
formant), we gained in an hour's time the crest, from whence we 
saw an extensive plain stretching before us, in part cultivated, 
with here and there the encampments of Turkomans ; and only 
bounded by the hills of saliferous red sandstone. In this plain, 
and immediately below us, was a ruinous and rather lofty struc- 
ture, isolated at the foot of the hills, without any adjacent build- 
ing or ruin. 

Upon closer examination this ruin was found to be built of 
baked tiles, with a deep mortar bond, and to belong probably, 
to the Byzantine era. It appears to have been a monastery or 
church of the Byzantine Greeks ; and was perhaps used in more 
modern times : but the dome has fallen in, leaving the cross 
arches to stand forth in nakedness ; whence the present name of 
the ruin. There is a small spring and a collection of recent 
Mohammedan tombs in the neighbourhood. Bdz-uk Tagh is a 
granitic mountain, not so lofty as Baranli, and consisting of nearly 
one isolated mount, with a stone fort upon its summit. All the 
country around appears to have been once in a state of defence ; 
six castles are to be counted on the hills around the plain 
of Sogher. The neighbouring hills are composed of granite, 
gneiss, and mica-schist, supporting cretaceous limestone and red 
sandstone. The last elevation of the Bardnli, the Bdz-uk, and 
the Karvanserai chains of hills, was posterior to the deposition of 
the supra- cretaceous red sandstone. 

We returned to Kir-Shehr in the evening; the Hasan Tagh, 
with its bold and sharp, although not conical, but rather bicapi- 
tated summit, reflecting the gleams of the setting sun from its 
perpetual snows, was an object of constant attraction during the 
ride. Kir-Shehr appears to be at an elevation of 3095 ft. above 
the sea: and the adjacent plains may be considered as forming 
part of the great central plateau of Asia Minor. 

6th. — Our route lay S.E. by S. over an undulating grassy 
country, at the foot of the Karvanserai hills, the soil being com- 
posed of gravel, quartz, and primary schist ; 3 miles from Kir- 
Shehr is a nearly circular mound of earth, 40 ft. high, sur- 



288 Mr. AiNSWORTH/rom Angora to Kdisanyah [April, 

rounded by the ruins of a wall £24 paces in circumference, 
with the remains of six lateral towers. In the same neighbour- 
hood there is a spring, of which the water expands into a weed- 
clad basin. This remnant of an ancient fort, or guard-house, 
is called Gol Hisar (Lake Castle). Passing Emirlar village of 
twenty houses, near the right bank of the Kizil Irmak, here flow- 
ing through red sand and sandstone, we arrived at Mujur, the 
ancient Mocissus (?). 

Having about 600 houses, Mujur is distinguished as a kasabah, 
or market town, the intermediate between a city, (Shehr,) and a 
village, Koi,* — a word that is variously pronounced in different 
parts of this country. Mujiir is built upon a calcareous freestone, 
easily wrought and quarried. Caves and subterranean dwellings 
begin to make their appearance here. There are many gardens 
in the neighbourhood; and a little higher up the valley, is a 
mound, the probable site of the castle of Mocissus. In other 
respects, remnants of antiquity are rare. The first time for many 
a day, the weather began to clear up, probably from our getting 
more southward ; and we obtained a meridian altitude of the sun, 
giving for the latitude of Mujur 39° ^' 40'' N.; its elevation 
being 3140 feet. 

Leaving Mujur, we passed Kuru Gdl (dry lake), in a valley, 
a small village with caves, and beyond it Kuru Kum (dry sand), 
another small village entirely inhabited by Troglodytes, and 
arrived in the evening at Haji-Bektash, a holy spot, situated in 
a high part of the country, and visible a long way off. 

Haji-Bektdsh is a remarkable example which may be adduced 
against the constant outcry that taxation is the sole cause of 
poverty, and of the present ruinous condition of villages and towns 
in Lesser Asia. Kir-Shehr, which, with its luxuriant gardens, 
fine soil, abundant water, and warm exposure, might be made a 
mart for the production of silk, we have seen, is but a wreck. 
When asked why the town was so prostrate and fallen, the ready 
answer was, excessive taxation. At Haji-Bektash, no one com- 
plained : on the contrary the people boasted of their privileges 
and prosperity. The tomb of Haji-Bektash, one of the great 
Turkish Saints, and founder of an order of Dervishes, has saved 
this Kasabah from taxation ; for all its inhabitants are required to 
pay, is for the support of the tomb ; and a portion of the salt-mine 
of Tuz Koi is also assigned for the same purpose. Yet notwith- 
standing these advantages, every other house is, as usual, a ruin. 
The 'ay an has built himself the only stone house, while the in- 
habitants, having little to pay, work still less, but sit in listless 

* The o in koi, and several other Turkish words, is pronounced like the French 
eu, or German *6. — F. S 



1839.] Mujur — Hdji-Bektash — Kizil Irmak — Ydrapason, 289 



6 



groups, sunning themselves and smoking through a day's ex- 
istence. The whole appearance of the place is that of unpro- 
ductiveness and idleness. The tomb itself, which it ought to be 
their pride to have in a good state of repair, is allowed to crumble 
into ruins. 

There is close to this place a high mound, in part composed of 
loose materials piled up upon strata of red sandstone, and sur- 
rounded by a moat or ditch. This mound is called Kara Kavuk 
(Black Bonnet) ; and by Rennell is identified with the site of 
Gadasena, a place anciently renowned for its sanctity, as this place 
is now (Strabo, p. 537) ; but we are, from various circumstances, 
more inclined to place Gadasena at U'ch Ayak. 

Haji Bektash is situate at an elevation of 3780 feet above the 
level of the sea ; Mount Arga^us bearing S. 52° E., Hasan Tagh 
S. 32^ W. by compass. 

Sth. — In order to shorten a great bend of the Kizil Irmak^, the 
early part of our route to-day was mountainous, by the conical 
hills of Aka-juk, composed of quartz reposing upon gneiss and 
mica-schist. On descending upon the plain of the Kizil Irmik, 
we passed the village of Salandah ; and arrived, in time to obtain 
a meridian altitude of the sun, at this great bend of the river, 
which has so long led geographers to suppose that there was an 
eastern and a southern branch of it. It is in 38° 48' N. 

The low country near the river was occupied by sandstone and 
cretaceous rocks, in nearly horizontal strata. Keeping along its 
banks, we were ferried over at Yarapason, where It Is about 400 
yards In width, but very shallow. Yarapason at present contains 
about 300 houses, and is built along the side of a cliff composed 
of a friable light pink- coloured sandstone, supporting cretaceous 
limestone. The same cliffs extend in a sort of semi-circle, for 
nearly a mile, everywhere perforated by caves of various dimen- 
sions, a few of which are ornamented with columns and devices, 
but we found no inscriptions. At the eastern extremity, the rocks 
have been denuded, leaving the harder and coarser material in the 
form of numerous cones and heaps, of from 10 to 30 feet in 
height. Many of these contained also a separate grotto, often 
sepulchral. Yarapason appears to be the Osiana of the tables. 

In our route to Neu-Shehr (New Town), we passed a ravine 
still more remarkable for the curious forms in which the same 
friable rock presented Itself. Sometimes truncated cones balanced 
huge masses of rock upon their points ; and at other times they 
were wrought, apparently by the action of the elements, into fan- 
tastic shapes, in which the resemblance of lions, frogs, lizards, 
and birds, might be traced. As a proof of the near approach to 
truth exhibited by some of these forms, it may be mentioned that 



290 Mr. Ainsworth /rom Angora to Kaimriyah. [April, 

one of our party was thoroughly impressed with their having been 
sculptured by the hand of man^, and our suruji insisted upon their 
being the work of a gaur. 

Qth. — The origin and correct etymology of Neii-Shehr, or 
Nev-Shehr, has been given by our learned Foreign Secretary, 
Mr. Renouard, in Mr. W. I. Hamilton's memoir.* It is a pleasing 
and cleanly town, situated at the side of a bold ravine, and itself 
rather darkly backed by high cliffs of volcanic rock. The Greeks, 
who form a considerable portion of the community here, appear 
to have congregated into the ''^new city;" for all the numerous 
and various troglodyte villages in the neighbourhood, are now, 
for the most part, as Satlav, Yarapasdn, Sic, abandoned by their 
original occupants. Neu-Shehr contains 2000 houses of Mo- 
hammedaas, 800 houses of Greeks, 60 houses of Armenians, 2 
large j ami's, 1 greek church, 9 khans, 1 bath, 6 mohammedan 
schools, and a quadrangular castle, with round towers at the 
angles. In a commercial point of view, it is^ when compared 
with other towns of the interior of Asia Minor, a very flourishing 
place. Up the ravine, is the small village of Gorah ; and down- 
wards, at a short distance, the picturesque troglodyte village of 
Nar, or the pomegranate. Neti-Shehr is in latitude 38° Sl\ and 
at a mean elevation of 3940 feet. 

lO^A. — We had intended making an excursion to Urgiib, to see 
the curious rocks described on that route by Mr. Hamilton, and 
earlier travellers, but it snowed all night and all day; bar. 25 '5 10 
inches ; mean of ther. 42°. As we had now quitted the ancient 
Morimene and Chammanene, it is important to make one remark 
upon the hydrography of these provinces. Pliny (lib. vi. c. iii.) 
mentions the river Cappadox as forming the boundary between 
Morimene and Galatia. Rennell identifies the Cappadox with 
the Kardash Cesme (Karindash Cheshmeh) of Tavernier, on the 
left bank of the Kizil Irmak. Colonel Leake, and most other 
geographers, have a large river named Konak, flowing into the 
Kizil Irmak, between Kir-Shehr aud Chashnigir Kopri (on the 
right bank) . This does not agree with our observations ; for in 
that interval we met with only two large rivulets, both of which 
were feeders of the Delijah Irmak, or Su (Maddish water), which 
is a large river on the road from Angora to Yuz-Kat. It appears 
thus that the Cappadox corresponds with the river of Kir-Shehr, 
or the Kalichi-su. There is, however, a river called Kdn^k, which 
has its source near Yuz-Kat ; and, flowing past Bulak and Imlar, 
empties itself into the Kizil Irmak, between the parallels of 
Kaisariyah and Urgub. 

li^A. — Having Ibeen detained by continually bad weather, we 

* Geographical Journal, vol. viii. p. 148. 



] 839. ] Neu' Shehr— Cappadox-- Tuz Kqi—Salt Mines, 29 1 

rejoiced to-day at a little improvement, our next steps taking us 
to the salt mines, and thence to the lake of Kdch-Hisar. The 
Shehr- Kyayasi (ketkhoda-si)''' gave us a little trouble previous to 
our departure, having asked us for 400 piastres for the delay ; 
also requiring two piastres per hour for horses, the ordinary post 
price being one piastre ; and further asserting, because Mr. Russell 
had been a little unwell, that we had brought the plague into the 
town. These matters were not arranged without some discussion 
with the mutesellim. 

\^th. — We travelled four hours in a N.N.W. direction, over a 
plain of volcanic sand, and extended formations of basanites, amid 
which rose curious denuded hills, to Tuz K6'i (Salt Ville), near 
the banks of the Kizil Irmak. Close to this village are the salt- 
mines, to which the attention of the expedition had been called, as 
being near H^ji Bektash. The salt occurs in a powerful bed, 
the extent of which it was impossible to judge of, as none of the 
actual shafts go to its floor, although many display its roof. This 
bed occurs in a stiff yellow clay, sometimes bluish coloured^ with 
abundant crystals of gypsum, which is superimposed upon it in 
horizontal beds, a little to the east of the mine. There are about 
seven shafts now open : these are distributed, in a rather curious 
manner, round the sides of a pit formed by the excavations of 
former years; and they run in to various depths, from 20 to 100 
feet. The salt bed was about 40 feet below the level of the hill ; 
the galleries are carried down at a high angle of inclination ; and 
the salt is taken out in baskets, carried up rude stairs cut out of 
the clay. There was also a shaft at the bottom of the pit, but 
it has long ago fallen in, and is now the grand receptacle for 
rain water. While Mr. Russell and I were at the mines, there 
came on a severe thunder storm : torrents of water came pouring, 
in a few minutes, into the pit from several sides at once ; the soft 
clay gave way in large masses, and several slips occurred round 
the sides of the pit. It appears very likely that works so care- 
lessly carried on, will, some day or other, be overwhelmed all at 
once. 

I shall not venture further here than to state that these salt 
deposits are evidently of a supracretaceous or tertiary era. The 
geology of all Garsaura, or Garsauritis, is of a most interesting 
character ; but, notwithstanding the intimate connexion of that 
branch of knowledge with physical geography — here affecting not 
only the general features of the country, but also the dwelling- 
places of its inhabitants — I shall not dwell upon local peculiari- 
ties for fear of repetition ; but will afterwards, in as brief a resume 

* This Persian word is always shortened into kyaya by the Turks. It signifies 
" deputy locum tenens." — F. S. 

VOL. X. X 



^9 2 M r . A 1 N s w o r i ii from Angora to Kaisariyah. [ A pril , 

as possible, endeavour to establish the chief points in the history 
of these remarkable rocks. 

14th. — Our route lay S.W., up the valley of the Tuz-Koi 
rivulet, containing fresh water, and passing Kizil Koi, a village 
of thirty dwellings, chiefly caves ; and Chiftlik,* another small 
village, in part of caves, in 2 hours we reached Tatlar. This 
place has been already described by Mr. W. I. Hamilton. f I 
have only to notice the perfect colouring of the paintings in the 
cave, where is the old Greek MS. ; the existence of a castle, on 
the top of the cliffs, and a kind of dirt-bed between the sedimentary 
rocks and the basanites. 

From Tatlar our direction lay N. 60° W., over undulating 
downs of basanitic pebbles. At 4 miles is Chular, a Turkoman 
village of thirty houses, by side of rivulet ; and about 3 miles farther, 
we entered a rocky pass of sienite, with a poor village. These 
hills are called Tash- Teller, and are almost entirely sienitic, with 
the rocky serrated outline generally peculiar to such formations. 
We travelled along a wide and monotonous plain, upon which 
many camels were feeding, extending from the foot of the Tash- 
Teller to that of the loftier mountain of Akajik, both of which 
had furnished us with bearings ever since we reached Kir-Shehr. 
The same evening we arrived at Sari Karaman, the seat of a 
va'ivodah, sent hither to govern the Turkoman tribes, and not 
appointed by themselves. The dogs were very ferocious : one of 
them tore a large piece out of Mr. Rassam's coat. The people 
were only a little better. 

I5th. — Crossing a bridge over the rivulet of Akajik, a gentle 
ascent led us to Buz-Khur, a village of caves, with ruins of a 
khan. On our left was the mountain of Kharin ; and before us, 
and extending to the limits of the horizon to the right, a nearly 
level plain of cultivable and in part cultivated land. At Ddmanli, 
distant about 3 miles, the face of the country altered; and at 
Danishmanli, a village of twenty houses, 2 miles further on, were 
hills of sienite, rather remarkable, inasmuch as impacted masses 
of diorite, passing into fine-grained sienite, are distributed 
throughout the formation, which itself consists of small grains of 
hornblende, amid large crystals of feldspar. A rocky range of 
sienite extended hence to A'yanli, the seat of the A'yan, containing 
about twenty houses, where we arrived well drenched by the 
rain, which fell incessantly all the latter part of the journey. 
Half an hour to the N.E. of A'yanli are some ruins, and part of a 
Byzantine church. The natives know no name for the place, 
save Kili'sa, ' the church ;' and it is from thence that they draw 

* Chiftlik means as much land as can be ploughed by a yoke (chift) of oxen : it 
is therefore only applied to these caves as habitations.— F. S. 
f Geographical Journal, vol. viii. p. 147. 



1 839.] Akd-jik—A'ydnli—Kdjah' Tdgh—Tum-ahad. 293 

the marble columns which decorate their rustic burial-ground. 
This site appears to be upon the cross-road which led from 
Parnassus to Archelais Colonia, and which in this district, con- 
tained the stations of Ozzala, Nitazus, and Ardistana. The direct 
distance from A'yanli to Ak-Serai is 30 miles, which approximates 
to the distance of Ozzala ; but, considering the inequalities of the 
soil, more with Nitazus, the two stations not being very far from 
one another. 

\Qth. — A fall of snow set in in the evening, and continued till 
the mornings remaining on the ground and on the hills at A'yanli, 
at 3800 feet above the sea. We did not, in consequence start till 
after 10 a.m. (it was still snowing hard, with a cold northerly wind), 
over an undulating district of granite and sienite, reaching only the 
village of Sipahiler, a term applied in Asia Minor exclusively to 
horse-soldiers. We were here kindly received by the inhabitants 
belonging to the Turkoman tribe of Sherakli, of which we were 
the more sensible, as we had left the Ddmanli tribe at the last vil- 
lage, on account of the ill-feeling exhibited towards us. 

Sipahiler, a village of about sixteen houses, at an elevation of 
3580 feet, is situated at the foot of a range of sienitic hills, which 
rise about 800 feet above the village. This range is called the 
Kqjah Tagh ; and the natives point out three hill-forts upon 
different rocky summits, which were, however, mere accumulations 
of stones, without masonry. One of these is called Chakch^k 
Kareh-si, and another Boil uj ah KaVeh. 

17^/?. — From the upland, at the foot of the Kojah Tagh, along 
which we continued our route this morning, we had a fine prospect 
of the Kizil Irmak, and were enabled to connect our present jour- 
ney with the Baranli Tagh, Kir Shehr, M ujur, and Hajf Bektash ; 
the hills above which were all distinctly recognisable. Beyond 
the village of Demir-lu Koi, and about 7 miles from Sipahiler, 
we turned in a south-westerly direction to cross the Kojah Tagh. 
To our right, or N . W., was a bold rocky granite group, named 
the Saru-bulak Tagh, the offsets of which stretched down to the 
Kizil Irmak, which river separates them from the Baranli Tagh, 
itself advancing in a rather remarkable bold and isolated summit, 
over the Kizil Irmak, which has a very tortuous course from hence to 
Cheshni Kopri. The pass over the Kojah Tagh is commanded, 
although at some distance, by a hill-fort on a high sienitic cone, 
called Toklu TaFeh. Soon after descending from this range of 
hills, the plutonic rocks are succeeded by indurated limestone, 
in curved and contorted strata ; these by grey and brown sand- 
stone, composed of granitic sand and pebbles : and these again 
by saliferous red sandstone, which alternate with gypsum, and 
form low hills along the eastern shore of the Great Salt Lake. 
Passing the village of Turn-abad, we obtained a meridian obser- 

X 2 



294 Mr. AiNSAVoRTH/rom Angora to Kaisariyah. [April, 

vationin N. lat. 38° 56'; and after a short journey (much delayed, 
however, by one of our baggage horses failing), over a hilly district, 
we came to the pass of Kazi uyuk, in sandstones and gypsum, 
and which is defended at its entrance from the west by the castle 
of Koch Hisar. 

The view of the Great Salt Lake from the entrance of the 
pass is very beautiful, but it wants wood. Narrow at the north, 
where it is backed by low hills, it subsequently expands almost 
beyond the reach of the eye; is next lost behind the hills of Injeh 
Burnu, a small cape to the S. W., and then re-appears to the south 
as a wide and distant expanse of water, backed by lofty summits, 
which are, however, in reality at a great distance beyond the ex- 
tremity of the lake. 

ISth. — In the sheltered and sunny exposure of Koch Hisar, 
many flowering plants welcomed us at once to spring. The castle, 
from whence this place derives its name signifying '^ Ram 
Castle," occupies the top of a hill, which is nearly isolated from 
the remainder of the range, and commands, according to ancient 
ideas, the town and the entrance to the pass of Kazi-uyuk. The 
foundations of the castle are now difficult to trace, and occupy an 
oblong space, 282 feet in length by 150 feet in width. The loose 
stones are piled up within this space into so many sheep and goat 
folds, whence its modern name. The present village of Kasabah 
contains 130 houses, but no resident Christians. Here are salt- 
petre works. A mer. obs. gave its latitude in 38° 55^ 50'^ N.; 
approx. elev. 2856 feet. The information we obtained regarding 
the value of the salt lake was pretty nearly the same as is given 
by Mr. W. I. Hamilton.* A portion is said still to be claimed 
by Ahmed Beg, son of Chapwan O'ghlu ; and Haji 'All Pasha 
deputes the Mutesellim of Ak-Serai to receive the revenue. 

\Qth. — We bent our steps towards the northern end of the lake, 
our route lying near its shores, along a level plain, bordered to 
the right by a long range of low hills, at first of red and brown 
sandstone, then capped by gypsum, at length entirely sup- 
planted by the latter deposit, which extends to the extreme 
northern end, where the hills terminate in a plain bounded to 
the north by the Pasha Tagh. This last chain, noticed in Mr. 
Hamilton's memoranda, is, as that traveller suggested, composed 
of red sandstone, supporting cretaceous marl and gypsum. It 
does not rise more than 800 feet above the lake. The weather 
being fine, we obtained a good mer. alt. of the sun, which gave, 
for the most northerly point of the lake, 39° 7' 30" N.; bar. 
27-142 ; alt. ther. Qd"", 

Passing by Arghun Koi, a deserted village, with bad water, 
we travelled in a westerly direction over hills of cretaceous lime- 

'" Geographical Journal, vol. viii. p. 147 



1839-] Kdzi-uyuk — Koch HUctr — Kulu Koi — Salt Lake. C9<5 

stoiie^ covered by limestone breccia^ affording a scanty pasture to 
large herds of camels^ and food for flocks of small bustards. We 
were approaching Karajah Tagh^ from the southward: a small 
lake of fresh water was to our right, and a more fertile plain was 
occupied by several encampments of Kurds, with their flocks ; in 
the midst of which was the large village of Kulu Koi, containing 
upwards of 100 houses, only lately garrisoned by the cavalry of 
liaji 'All Pasha, who had obtained from the Kurds much stolen 
property, taken with them on their journey northwards towards 
Haimaneh, on leaving the vicinity of Kdniyah. We had travelled 
VI hours from Koch Hisar ; and Kulu Koi was 9 hours from 
Kizil-jah Kal'eh : the district is called Koreish Kazalik. 

^Oth. — From Kulu Koi we were enabled to follow a more 
southerly direction, and to approach the shores of the Salt Lake, 
of which it was our chief object to recognise the form and direc- 
tion as much as possible : 3 miles S. 30° W. from Kulu Koi is 
a hill or mound with a moat, called Ba'1-chah- Hisar. The 
country around undulates gently ; the soil is cretaceous ; and 
having many springs, is covered with grass, in consequence of 
which the tents of Kurds are to be seen in every direction. 
Out of this district rises a nearly isolated hill of a long form, 
about 800 feet above the level of the lake, and formed of ba- 
sanite, supporting limestone. It is called 'favshan Taghi (Hare- 
Mount). Beyond this is a small lake, which, by a mer. alt. of the 
sun, taken on its northern limits, is in S8"48'45'^ N. It is called 
Kopek Gol (Dog- Lake). The soil now became covered with 
mesembryanthemum and artemisia. We passed another salt- 
marsh, nearly dried up, and reached In-Avi, a large village, on 
the side of a valley containing a stream of fresh water flowing into 
the lake, the western limits of which we had been skirting all 
<lay. 

^\st. — From In-Avi our route lay in an easterly direction along 
the valley of the rivulet ; marshy, with abundance of plover and 
water-birds, amid which were flocks of herons. At a distance of 
about 6 miles, having left the valley and turned over a plain of 
gypsum, in part cultivated, we came to a lake called Murad Sdhd 
Golf,* about 8 miles in length by 4 in width. The shores of this 
lake, at its northern end, unlike the Great Salt Lake, were steep, 
the waters having exposed beds of gypsum beneath the super- 
incumbent lacustrine deposits. To the west of this lake 
were some remarkable hills of volcanic rock, which had con- 
stituted useful points for bearings from Koch Hisar, and all along 
the northern and western sides of the lake. The first of these 
was called Boz Tagh (Ice-Mount), a more or less rounded hill, 

'--' This is evidently a misnomer. Perhaps it should be Morad Su Golu (Morad- 
River Lake).— F.S. 



296 My. Aii^swoRTH from Angora to Kaimny ah, [Aprils 

immediately south of In-Avi^ composed of basanite covering in- 
durated limestone : the second was an isolated mass of basanite^ 
of remarkable appearance^ as it rises out of a level plain of la- 
custrine deposits. It is called Kara Tepeh (Black- Hill) ; and 
there are said to be ruins upon it. The two others similarly 
circumstanced : one of them is a double hill ; the other a low 
conical volcanic mound. 

Continuing along the banks of the Murad Sdhd Golf, where 
the plains were very flowery, and where we obtained two species 
of jerboa, besides a beautiful phalaropus, we came to a river flow- 
ing north into the great Salt Lake. This river had its origin in an 
extensive adjacent marsh to the south, part of the waters of which 
flow into the Murad Sohd Gol, and part to the Koch Hisar lake. 
At this point is a very antique aqueduct, the masonry of which is 
completely hid by a thick incrustation of travertino, deposited, as 
on the aqueduct of Daphne, near Antioch, by the waters trickling 
from the artificial canal. This duct, which crossed the river just 
noticed, is called from that circumstance Kay a Bdgh^z (ClifF- 
Passage). 

Nine miles from hence, continuing in a S. S. E. direction, 
along an almost perfect level, we passed Tusun U'yuk (Peace- 
Mound), an artificial mound, that once supported a large edi- 
fice; the ruins of a former considerable town are almost cir- 
cularly disposed around this central mound. These ruins are 
now, with the exception of a few fragments of columns, level 
with the ground ; so we discovered nothing of interest, nor any 
inscriptions : by position, however, the site may, with every 
probability, be connected with Congusta or Congustus of the 
tables : 4 or 5 miles from this, travelUng over a marsh, which was 
in part crossed by a stone causeway, we arrived at the Kasabah of 
Iskil, built upon the same great level ground; but as the lake 
contains no coralliferous or molluscous animals, it would be 
difficult to say positively, if it were not for the nature of the soil 
and the configuration of the land, that this great plain south of the 
lake has been formed by the gradual diminution of the waters of 
the latter. 

Iskil contains about 400 houses of Mohammedans. The houses 
are much scattered, the streets consequently wide ; there is no 
daily market, and a general appearance of neglect, as if the town 
belonged to the shepherds of the large flocks which pasture over 
the lacustrine plain, who have no villages to seek refuge in, 
but now and then distant enclosures, like caravanserais, for the 
cattle. 

We made but a short journey over the same plain to Sultan 
Khan. About 4 miles from Iskil we found some interesting 
ruins (U'yuk Bovyat), consisting of a mound 60 feet high, for the 



1839.] Thim Uyuk—hldl—U'ijuk Bowcit—Sultdn Khan. '297 

most part artificial, numerous Byzantine remnants in a very broken 
condition, and some antique grottoes in cretaceous marl, here 
covered by limestone conglomerates. A modern mesjid, built 
chiefly of the hewn stone fragments of former edifices, had suc- 
ceeded to older ruins, but was itself now also a ruin. Close 
by the town, which may probably be the Perta or Petra of the 
Itineraries (found also in Ptolemy), there flowed a fine stream of 
water, which lost itself in marshes immediately beyond it. These 
marshes form in the line we were now taking, the south- 
westerly limit of the lake ; but they are so far dried up in autumn 
as to allow of a cross road from Iskil to Ak-Serai. 

Sultan Khan (the Sultan s khan), is about 10 miles from Iskil; 
and by the sun s mer. in 38° 15' N. It is so named from a khan or 
cdravanserai which adorns this otherwise poverty-stricken village. 
This khan is divided into two parts, the more easterly is not 
very lofty but wide, and ornamented by a gateway of rich Saracenic 
workmanship. This portion is 70 yards long by 64 in width ; 
the westerly part is in a better state of repair, and is very lofty. 
It is 6l yards long, by 42 in width. I annex a translation of its 
Arabic inscription by Mr. Rassam : — 

'' The exalted Sultan ' Alau-d-dm, great king of kings, master 
of the necks of nations, lord of the kings of Arabia and Persia, 
sultan of the territories of God, guardian of the servants of God ; 
'Alau-dunya wa-d-din, Abu-1 Fat-h, commander of the faithful, 
ordered the building of this blessed khan, in the month of Rejeb, 
in the year Qm'' (a.d. 1£64).* 

q,Srd. — In pursuing our road from Sultan Khan to Ak-Serai, 
in an E.N.E, direction, we had at starting to go round the sources 
of a rivulet originating from six different springs, and thence con- 
tinued our progress over a marshy land. All that part of the 
plain which extends between the lake and the gradual rise of land 
towards the foot of the Hasan Tagh, is lower than the more con- 
tinuous and extensive portion of the same plain, lying between the 
lake and the Karajah Tagh. The plain we were now traversing 
is diversified by two ruined khans, a long causeway of stone, 
and numerous wells approached by paved roads upon an inclined 

* Not the Khalif, but one of the Seljukian Sultans of Koniyah. The princes of 
that dynasty adopted many of the titles here given, as may be seen on their coins in 
Adler (Museum Cufico-Borgianum, vol. ii. p. 72) and Marsden (Numismatica Orien- 
talia) ; and they probably assumed the title of" Commander of the Faithful" (Amiru-i- 
Muminin) after the extinction of the chalifite, on the murder of Mosta'sim bi-Uah, 
by order of Hulaku, A.H. 656 (a.d. 1258) : so that according to the date here 
given, could we trust the historian Ahmed el Dimeshki, quoted by Adler (p. 74), 
the prince here named was eldest son and successor of Ghayyathu-d-din, the tenth 
sultan of Koniyah, who died a. h. 654 ; but other historians give no such successor to 
that sultan ; and according to Adler, El Dimeshki's statement is disproved by coins 
still extant : few parts of Asiatic history are, indeed,^ more in want of elucidation than 
the chronology of the Seljukian Sultans of Rum. — F. S, 



298 Mr. AiNS WORTH /rom Angora to Kaisariyah. [April, 

plane. At 3^ miles from Ak- Serai we crossed the river of Ulur 
Irmak by a stone bridge : it flows into the Bayaz Su or river of 
Ak-Ser^'i, a few miles below. 

Before we leave the region of the Salt Lake and enter upon 
the rocky districts of Garsauritis, it may be allowable to make one 
or two brief observations. The Palus Tattaeus of the ancients is 
called at the present day, by those resident in the neighbomhood^ 
Tuz Choli (the Salt- Desert), as it is almost entirely dry in 
summer; but it also sometimes called Tuz Golf (the Salt Lake), 
Aji Gol (Bitter Lake), or Koch Hisar Goli (Lake of Koch 
Hisar), Tuzlah (Saltern, or Salt- Work) : Memlihah and Mellahah 
in Arabic, signify the same thing. 

The eastern banks of the lake are tenanted by pastoral Turko- 
mans of quiet habits, but the western side is inhabited by Kurds, 
who are constantly giving trouble to the government by their pre- 
datory habits. It was most likely, on this account, that Mr. W. L 
Hamilton could not find any one to take him to the lake from 
Afiyun Kara-Hisar, Ak-Shehr, Flghfin, or even Kdniyah; for 
fresh water, according to every report, is never wanting to the 
west of the lake. We met with the same difficulty on approach- 
ing the lake from the N.W. ; but once on its banks, we were re- 
solute in following the yet unexplored western line, in doing 
which we approached near to the southern declivities of Karajah 
Tagh, the northern front of which we had also visited in our ex- 
cursion through Haimaneh. There was, therefore, no real diffi- 
culty in completing the north and south lines through this part of 
central Asia Minor, as the distance previously unexplored required 
only a journey of 4 hours. 

The lake which, as before mentioned, is almost dried up in 
summer, was nearly at its greatest extent at the period of our 
visit, and consequently well adapted for an exploratory recog- 
nizance. To the N., N.E., and N.W., where it receives no large 
tributaries, it is entirely dry in summer, and its limits are well 
defined by the absence of vegetation, and the coating of salt and 
mud; but in its south western and southern limits, where it re- 
ceives several large streams of fresh water, which are marked on 
the map, the plain being, as has been mentioned, very level, far 
beyond the limits of the lake, the tributary waters spread them- 
selves out and convert the whole land into extensive marshes ; so 
that, between marsh in winter, and salt desert in summer, it is 
difficult to find out what may be considered as the southern 
boundary. But as the line of our route extended to pretty nearly 
the point where all the southerly rivers, except the Bayaz Su, 
spread out into marshes, and that line is again connected with 
Koch-Hisdr, by the labours of Mr. W. L Hamilton, as good an 
idea of the real extent of a lake constantly varying in the details 



1839.] Ulur Irmdk—Tux Choli—Ak-Serm—Archelais. 299 

of its form, may be obtained, as if its exact limits to the south had 
been astronomically fixed. 

A series of barometrical observations gave for the mean height 
of the lake above the sea, 2500 ft. The elevation of many places 
around not also much exceeding it : Kdch-Hisar, 283f3ft. ; Kold- 
Kdi, 2856; U'zimler, 2778. ^In Avi, 29^4 ft.; Sultan Khan, 
2908. 

The lake contains no fish, nor mulluscous or conchiferous 
animals; its waters and its banks are therefore frequented by 
few aquatic birds. Although constantly on the look out, we can- 
not say that we ever saw one bird on its bosom, though the 
story of birds not being able to dip their wings in the water, is 
evidently fabulous. The state of its saturation is, however, very 
great, for salt is collected at almost all seasons from the bottom 
of the lake, and washed in its water without any sensible loss by 
the process. 

24tL — Ak-Serai has been fixed by Mr. W.I. Hamilton in 38'' 20' 
N. lat. The weather did not allow of our taking any observations 
there. The town contains 800 Mohammedan, and 10 Armenian 
houses. It derives its chief interest from its numerous Saracenic re- 
mains, some of which are of great beauty. It was evidently a con- 
siderable town, and a place of opulence under the Arabs, pro- 
bably at the time when so much care was bestowed upon the great 
road passing by Sultan Kh^n, no doubt a continuation or branch 
of that given by Idrisi, as the high road from Baghdad through 
Malati'yah to Kaisariyah, thence to Kdniyah. Ak-Serai is also 
supposed to be a more ancient site, and has been identified with 
Archelais, or Archelais Colonia, a colony of the Emperor Clau- 
dius, which, in the Antonine Itinerary, is placed at 149 m.p. from 
Ancyra; and in that to Jerusalem, at 162. The known latitudes 
of Ancyra and of Ak-Serai, make the actual distance correspond 
most nearly with that given by the Jerusalem Itinerary. 

The greatest difficulty connected with this question is, that 
Pliny (lib. vi. c. 3,) places Archelais upon the Halys, in conse- 
quence of which, supposing that the river of Ak-Serai might have 
once flowed through the lake into the Halys, we particularly ex- 
amined its northern limits in order to determine that point, and 
can safely affirm that there does not appear to have been any 
probability, even if the level of the lake were much higher than at 
present, of there ever having been a communication between it 
and the Halys. The insulation of the Bayaz Sri, and the non- 
existence of *^ a southern branch of the Halys," are important facts 
in the geography of Asia Minor. 

The next object, which we proposed to ourselves on leaving the 
great Salt Lake, w as to follow in part the great road from Phrygia, 
through Lycaonia^ by the capital of Cappadocia; and it is to be 



300 Mr. AiNS WORTH /rom Angora to Kcdsariyah. [April, 

remarked, that in discussing the route in the Theodosian table 
from Amorium to Tyana, all commentators have agreed in sup- 
posing it made a bend to the south, for had it been straight, it 
would have passed through Archelais ; but^ as it is, Rennell brings 
it 13 miles to the southward of it, and Col. Leake follows a similar 
line. The position of the ruined towns, which we were led to believe 
might have been the sites of Congustus and Perta, left us only 
in doubt as to the continuation of the road to the south of Hasan 
Tdgh, in the line of the present road from Sultan Khan ; but by 
taking the cross road given by Strabo, from Ephesus to Tomisa, 
into the account, and considering that the two, which must have 
crossed each other, probably met also in one or more sites common 
to both ; and those sites, the Garsabora of the Tables, and Gar- 
saura of Strabo, and the Coropassus of the Tables, and Nazianzus 
of the Anton. Itinerary, are to be sought for in the aggregation of 
mines and early Christian remains, existing in the secluded valleys 
and rocky ravines at the north-eastern foot of Hasan Tagh, where 
Mr. Hamilton visited Viran-Shehr — we now went in search of 
these, Gelvedereh, Belistermah, and Sevri-Hisar. 

The hills above Ak- Serai are composed of red and brown sand- 
stone, with gypsum ; but in continuing up the course of the Bayaz 
Su, these are soon succeeded by volcanic rocks and sand, which 
give a new feature to the aspect of the country. Level uplands 
terminate in abrupt cliffs over deep ravines, with shingly and sandy 
declivities which are generally covered with the ruins of rocks 
fallen from above. 

Some villages, as Demirji Koi and Selmadar, the houses of 
which are a mere aggregation of loose stones, are so curiously 
placed, under such circumstances, on the declivity of hills amid 
fallen rocks, that at a little distance it is difficult to distinguish 
the one from the other. After a ride of six hours in a S.E. direc- 
tion, through a country of this description, w^e approached Gel- 
vedereh by a narrow valley, the cliffs on each side of which are 
burrowed by grottoes, often variously ornamented ; and the bottom 
of the valley is full of ruins. The modern village of Gelvedereh 
is exactly in a similar position, only that the inhabitants appear to 
have kept recoiling from the more open ravines into the more un- 
approachable recesses that a number of these offered to their 
choice. At this point they have built themselves a handsome 
new church ; and the caves and grottoes, which continue without 
interruption for a distance of from one to two miles on the 
approach to the village, are here fronted up with stone-work, so 
that the houses rise in terraces, one above the other, and occupy 
the head of two separate ravines. The grottoes are similar to 
those met with in other places, as Yarapasdn, Tatlar, &c., but 
Tather more ornamental. We did not perceive any ruins indica- 



1839.] Salndddr — Gelvedereh — Mdl A hob, 301 

tive of so great antiquity as those found by Mr. Hamilton at the 
neighbouring site of Viran-Shehr^ 3 hours from hence, S.W. 
The first site entered upon in this day's ride is at present called 
Belistermah. 

Leaving Gelvedereh, we ascended, in a storm of wind and rain, 
the rude rocks of Sevri Hisar, near the crest of which is a curious 
conical hill, bearing the ruins of an ancient edifice — whence the 
name of the mountain. Below this are cliffs of sand and tufa, 
with a few caves and a small Greek village, bearing the same name 
as the mountain. From this valley we gained another, more 
isolated, and surrounded by barren, rocky, volcanic hills, in the 
midst of which are the ruins of a pretty modern Greek church. 
Our guide did not know the way over the district we had now 
entered upon, and we were not long in Losing our track, which we 
did not regain till, after travelling 2j hours, we came upon hills 
which commanded the great plain of Mai akdb.* We had pre- 
viously been passing through ravines, and amid hills generally 
covered with wood, and composed of tufa, conglomerate, and 
obsidian. It rained incessantly as we travelled over the plain, 
which is cultivated, and abounds with villages, but is ill supplied 
with water, being at an elevation of 4138 ft. In the centre is the 
large village of Mai akob, another curious Greek colony or congre- 
gation ; it contains 200 houses of Greeks, and 70 of Mohamme- 
dans. The men trade at Constantinople, the women cultivate 
their gardens. Their dress is peculiar. Water is obtained with 
labour from deep wells, of which there are several, surrounded 
by stone enclosures, each of which belongs to a different family. 
There is one modern church, in part built of the ruins of an older 
edifice, and dedicated to St. Theodore ; another in ruins, dedi- 
cated to St. Michael ; and a pretty chapel, in the same condition, 
to '' All Souls." There are also fragments of another church, 
where we copied from an altar-piece, the only distinct and con- 
secutive letters which bore any appearance of antiquity — 

AX A I 0€ AX AT W B 
n ATPI AT AG U) 

The houses are all built upon the same plan, the frame-work 
being formed by three or four well-turned semicircular arches, 
and the interval filled up with rubble and masonry. They are 
mostly excavated from the mountain to keep off the summer heats. 
The village is built upon a level plain of volcanic sand, which in 
summer is drifted about by every breeze, to the great inconve- 
nience of the inhabitants, who also, to protect their cattle and 

* All Armenian name : Mal-A'kob, for Mar-Yakob : St. James — F. S. 



302 Mr. AiNswoRTu/ro?n Angora to Kalmriyah. [April, 

fodder, have paved circular spaces in front of their houses, giving 
to the place a cleanly appearance. The gardens are at the foot 
of some hills about 2 miles N.E. of the village, where there is 
also a dome-shaped mountain, called Chevri, upon the summit of 
which an annual festival is kept at Easter. 

Passing over the Chevri hills, we came, after a 1^ hour's ride 
N.E., to Kaisar Koi, a village with a ruined church, a rather 
pretty karavanserni, and other relics of former times. It has now 
only five houses belonging to Greeks, and about 20 to Moham- 
medans. By its name and position^ this place might be identified 
with Dio-Caesarea. Three miles to the right is a conical hill, 
bearing the ruins of a church or monastery, called Charink 
Kilisa.* About 5 miles from Kaisar Koi, passing the ruins of 
a small Greek village, wij:h remains of a church, a few caves and 
houses with pavements in front of them, we descended in a 
southerly direction, by a picturesque pass, into the valley of S6- 
wanli I Dereh, described by Mr. W. I. Hamilton, as Soandum. 
The pass we descended by, was hewn out of the solid rock, below 
which the valley opened most picturesquely before us ; and it is, 
as Mr. Hamilton observes, a truly remarkable place. The cliffs 
at the head of the valley are not above 60 or 80 ft. high, and the 
declivities below, about 100 ft. ; but both become loftier farther 
down. The valley follows a rather winding direction; and 
throughout its whole length, from the top to the base of the hill 
of Cybistra, are caves or grottoes more or less numerous. Tired 
with a continued rain and a drenching every day, we stopped at 
O'rtah Koi (Mid-ville), a cleanly Greek village near the middle of 
the valley. 

The morning of our arrival at Kara-Hisar J was fine, and a me- 
ridian altitude of the sun gave for its position 88° 21' 20". Soon 
after our arrival, Mr. Russell and I started for Zingibcir Castle. It 
rained all the evening, and also while we were taking the measure- 
ments, which occupied no small time in so large and so irregular a 
building ; but we were anxious to compare it with the details of 
the ancient accounts of Cybistra and Nora. 

The castle of Kara-Hisar, or of Zingibar, one of the most 
remarkable ruins in these districts, stands on the loftiest of two 
volcanic cones belonging to a hill which forms nearly the most 
southern point of a low range, extending northwards to Injeh-Su, 
and southwards in low hills towards 'All Tdgh. These hills are 
merely detached from the central upland of Garsauritis, and 
cannot be said, as Rennell supposed (No. 2, pp. 172, 194), to 

* For Chiriiig Kilisa, i. e. Bell-Church.— F. S. 

f For Soghaii, Onion-Ville. — F. S. 

I Devehli Kara Hisar ; i. e. Camel Black Castle. — F. S. 



1839.] Sow dnli Derail — Kara Hisdr — Zimjihdr — Nora. 303 

connect the Lycaonlan hills (Karajah Tagh) with Anti-Taurus 
('All Tagh), or to be a continuation of the Lycaonian hills east- 
wards, and of Anti- Taurus westwards. 

Cybistra has been identified by Col. Leake and others with 
Kara Hisdr^ but by Rennell with a place called Costere.* It is 
chiefly remarkable on account of its having been the military 
station of Cicero/ while watching the motions of the Parthian 
army^ which threatened Cilicia and Cappadocia from the side of 
Syria. Strabo places Cybistra 300 stadia from Cscsarea, this, 
upon the scale proposed by Colonel Leake, | would amount 
to about 34 J British miles. There is some difficulty in ascertain- 
ing what distance is meant in the Theodosian Tables : but this 
would correspond very well. The distance of Kara-Hi ar from 
Caesarea by the Injeh Su (Sadacora), being estimated at 12 hours 
or 36 British miles. 

The castle of Nora or Neroassus, appears on a variety of 
grounds^ to be the same as Cybistra. Plutarch describes it as 
situated on the confines of Cappadocia and Lycaonia, while Ren- 
nell objects that this castle is not on the common boundary of the 
provinces, because the district of Tyana intervenes, which is not 
the case, the district of Tyana being altogether to the south of 
Kara-Hisar. Rennell says it consisted of distinct forts near 
each other, but Plutarch only mentions the great incon- 
venience to the garrison, from the narrowness of the space in 
which they were confined, enclosed as it was Avith small houses. 
Diodorus (lib. xviii. c. 41 Ed. Wesseling) describes it also as a 
single castle, situate on a high rock and very strong. Plutarch 
gives to it a circuit of not more than 2 furlongs (440 yards) accord- 
ing to the translators, 250 paces. And Diodorus says, only 
2 stadia, or 404 British yards, in circumference. The superficial 
content of the interior castle, reduced to a figure of an equal 
periphery, is 1 1 British yards. The plan generally agrees with 
Plutarch's description, but is so heterogenous, that it is to be re- 
gretted that it is lost with the others. 

It is to be remarked that this castle commanded the pass by 
which the great road from Caesarea led by Soandum, to Iconium, 
as also that which continued southward to Tyana and Cilicia. 

On leaving Garsauritis for the district of Caesarea, the country 
is too interesting, and has been too little the object of recent de- 
scriptions to be passed without remark. Garsauritis is to be 
viewed as eminently a rocky country; Morimene has ranges of 
mountains ; Central Cappadocia is similarly situated, as is also 
Melitene ; but Garsauritis is remarkable for its wild and stony 

* Kostereh or CT(stereli. — Jeh, Numd. |-. 620, f Journal, vol, ix. p. i. 



304 Mr. AiN s WORTH /rom Angora to Kaisariyah, [April, 

districts^ secluded glens and ravines^ and often picturesque 
outline ; but it has also fertile plains and still more productive 
declivities. Wood is generally wanting : there is some on the 
Sevri-Hisar hills^ but for fuel,, dry dung, charcoal, and the roots of 
astragalus tragacanthus are generally used. Whether grants were 
made in modern times to the Greeks of this unpromising land, to 
render it tributary to their industry, whether by apprehension or a 
morose love of seclusion, they willingly retired to the rocks and 
caves of this singular country, or whether they have remained 
around the ancient abodes of their forefathers, the present servile 
and ignorant race can tell you nothing. Marrying early, the men 
repair to Constantinople and Smyrna to trade, while to the women 
is left the care of the house, the flock, and the vineyard : an 
evil follows from this which once attracted the legislative attention 
of Lycurgus ; the females become masculine and full of violent 
passions, and when the men return to their homes, they are often 
very far from finding an echo to the subdued tones and more 
polished manners which they had learnt to appreciate in the 
civilised world. The priests who remain at home, might be sup- 
posed to have some influence, but they are often old and unser- 
viceable and even sometimes disrespected. 

Garsaura, or Garsauritis, it is well known, formed one of the 
divisions of Cappadocia, and was bounded to the south by Tyanitis 
and Lycaonia; to the west by Phrygia (Pliny, lib. vi. c. 3), and 
the district of Tattapalus, or the Tattaean marsh (Strabo, p. 568) 
which lay along the common boundary of Phrygia, Galatia, and 
Cappadocia (Rennell, vol. ii. p. 157) ; to the north by the Halys 
and Morimene, and to the east by the district of Argaeus and the 
Cappadocian Cilicia. It thus constitutes a separate district, 
equally remarkable with respect to its natural features and its 
remains of art, its configuration, its structure, its ruins, its caves, 
and its population. 

The north eastern part of Garsauritis is particularly characterised 
by its conical volcanic mountains, its streams of lava, and basanitic 
cliffs, but above all, by its naked volcanic tufa and tephrine rent 
into deep and narrow glens, studded with cones and pinnacles, 
also the effect of disintegration, and often presenting an infinite 
variety of singular forms ; and lastly, cliffs and precipices excavated 
almost wherever such present themselves, with vast multitudes of 
grottoes that have served, or serve still, for dwellings, churches, 
chapels, monasteries, or tombs. 

The N.W. portion of Garsauritis derives its features, which 
are less singular and of a more inhospitable character, from a long 
range of sienitic mountains ; rocky and picturesque in the Tash 
Teller; undulating in the Sari Karaman; stony and wild, again. 



1839.] Garsaura — Central Garsauritis — Hasan Tdgh. 305 

at Chriinurli; bold but rocky, with castellated remains in the 
K6jah Tagh ; abrupt and truncated cones at Toklu KaVeh ; 
grouped and mountainous in the Sdri-btilak Tagli, and there the 
sienites meet the mountains of Morimene (Baranli Tagh) and 
enclose the Kizil Irmak, or Halys, in deep and narrow valleys and 
ravines. 

Central Garsauritis is characterised by the Aka-juk mountain, 
a tame saddle back, not very lofty, but visible from all Morimene. 
Connected with it are many offsets, in the deep valleys of which 
are the lakes called Delvehli, Tursupu, and others. This district 
is tenanted by the Akajuk Kurds, who possess a tolerable repu- 
tation for good behaviour. 

The Tattaea or Tatta Pal us, is acknowledged to have been in 
ancient Phrygia (Strabo, p. 568), extending through the south- 
eastern part to Taurus, that is the plain of Perta, extending to 
Karajah and Hasan Tagh, was considered as bounding, as well as 
its northern part, on Galatia, and formed part of the kingdom 
made up by Antony for Amyntas. The S.W. quarter of Garsau- 
ritis, as thus limited, is pre-eminently distinguished from the 
other quarters by the lofty summit of Hasan Tagh, rising upwards 
of 8000 feet above the level of the sea. This mountain has a 
nearly conical form, and is said to preserve patches of snow 
throughout the year. Its north-western base is bounded by the 
plain of the lake; to the S.W. a low undulating country connects 
it with the Karajah Tagh, while to the E. it is prolonged by one 
or two cones, and then a lofty chain of hills, which shut up 
Garsauritis to the S., but do not extend as far as that part of 
Taurus called 'All Tagh, and from which they are separated by 
the uneven territory of Tyanitis. 

Hasan Tagh is in every direction a picturesque and striking 
mountain, but there is still more interest connected with the 
curious glens and rocky ravines at its base, than with its own 
acclivities or heights. Of volcanic origin, excepting the sandstone 
and gypsum deposits of Ak-Serdi, almost immediately succeeded 
by trachytes to the east, it has spread over the whole country a 
considerable, although local formation of trachyte, claystone, and 
clinkstone,* which generally reposes upon tufa or tephrine. 

These rocks influence the configuration of the whole of the 
south-western quarter; the compact uniform products of effusion, 
are spread as it were, in vast beds over the rocks of aggregation, 
giving rise to plains or slightly undulating lands, with sometimes 
stair-like terraces ; but where there is water, as along the courses 
of rivers, the detrital rocks of a friable nature are carried away, 

* Although I use trachyte, claystone. Sec, I am iar from admitting the correctness 
of these terms. 



306 Mr. AiNswoRTii//'o?72 Angora to Kaisanyah. [April, 

while the more compact rocks are tumbled down, leaving vertical 
cliflfs above and acclivities of sand below, with scattered masses of 
rock, amid which the habitations of men are so intermingled, that 
it is sometime before the traveller can distinguish them from the 
ruins of the cliff. The face of the rock above, as well as the de- 
clivities of sand below, when not covered with fragments, are 
in many places studded with numerous grottoes. 

On approaching the foot of Hasan Tagh and the head of the 
waters, the tributary streams are more numerous, and the ravines 
in consequence more frequent, sometimes as many as three or four 
are to be observed meeting at short distances, and all with ex- 
cavated cliffs and innumerable nest-like mansions of the living and 
the dead. 

But at other times lavas (tephrines) mingle themselves with 
domites, leucostines, basanites, and basanitic conglomerates, form- 
ing ranges of hills as in Sevri-Hisar : and then again, the rude 
domites advance upon the lower territory in naked rocky masses 
like a true granitic country, surrounding little isolated basins amid 
which are again found the ruins of habitations, and of stone 
churches, belonging to the same race of men. 

The modern Greeks are not, however, confined to these wild 
spots, so difficult of access and so rarely inviting to the eye. The 
small town of Mai A'kob has been described as situated in the 
midst of a fertile plain — Kaisar Koi or Dio-Csesarea is again in a 
rocky district. The south-eastern quarter of Garsauritis partakes 
indeed of both features, grassy uplands with tepehs or solitary hills, 
sometimes with old churches on their summits, as at Charink- 
Kilisd, and cultivated plains, with little water or wood, out of which 
also rise bold, rounded, and naked hills of lucostine, like the 
phonolitic domes in Scotland and France, and the seat of super- 
stition, as in the Chevri and other hills; and lastly, on the confines 
of the district, we find at Sowanli Dereh and places adjacent to 
it, the same deep cut valleys with the same repetition of cliff and 
cave scenery as awaken the traveller's interest and fix his atten- 
tion in the northern and southern portions of this very remark- 
able district. 

28</i. — We started along the plain of Kara-Hisar,* where 
vegetation and scenery were both monotonous. The rivulet of 
Kar^-Hisar flows onwards in winter, as it did at the present 
moment, to the most southerly of the lakes that occupy the plain 
of Kara-Hisar, which become mere marshes in summer. At 
that time the quantity of water brought down from the Sowanli 
Dereh by Kara-Hisar is so small as scarcely to suffice for the 

'•' Develili Kara Hisar.~J. N.,p. 620. 



1839.] Kara Hisar — Injeh Su—SdzUk — Besh Tepeh, 307 

purposes of irrigation. The plain of Kara-Hisar^ according to 
our barometers, has an elevation of 3420 feet, and does not send 
out a stream in any direction. A range of hills stretched along 
our left, in a direction N.N.E. At their foot were caves v^ritli 
ruins of a Christian village. On the plain, 3 hours from Kara- 
Hisar, there is a ruinous khan. The foot of Arjish T^gh had 
hitherto been occupied by hills of volcanic sand, tufa, and con- 
glomerate, which terminated in a well-defined line on the plain ; 
but immediately beyond what is now the northern lake, a con- 
siderable stream of basanitic lava had flowed between hills of 
sand, &c., expanding towards the base of the mountain, and ad- 
vancing upon the plain in a northerly direction, extending to the 
limits of the Great Sazlik or Marsh, beyond Injeh Su. The 
low cliffs formed by these scoriaceous and lava-basanites are 
partitioned out by the industrious Christians for the cultivation of 
the yellow berry {Rhamnus infectorius). 

Injeh Sd (Slender water) is a small town, remarkably situated 
in a ravine of volcanic conglomerate, which is traversed by the 
rivulet that gives its name to the town; Injeh Su (Narrow 
River), not Inju Su ^ Pearl River). The town is shut up at its 
N.E. extremity by a handsome khan, the walls of which extend 
from one side of the ravine to the other. The ravine expands at 
its upper part, and opens into another, having a north-easterly 
direction. Both the declivities and base are occupied by dwel- 
lings: the Mohammedans and Greeks having each about 750 
houses. There are also many grottoes. The Christians have 
two churches, one of which makes a fair appearance on the hill 
side. The houses are also for the most part good and cleanly. 
Injeh S(i is governed by a Mutesellim, sent from Constanti- 
nople ; the produce of the taxes of the town being devoted to the 
maintenance of the Jdmi', called Mahmudiyah, in the Moham- 
medan capital. It was indebted also to the Sultan, when Kara 
Mustafa was Vezir, for its Khan and J ami'. 

^Qfh — Our route to Kaisariyah lay to the E.N.E., along the 
borders of the Great Sazlik or Marsh, alternately at the foot of 
black rocks and cliffs of lava, and occasionally by stony un- 
pleasant paths over the same rude material. Mr. W. I. 
Hamilton has remarked upon the absence of rivulets in the 
declivities of Arjish, the melted snow being almost immediately 
absorbed by the porous volcanic rocks, but on this side it re- 
appears in abundant springs, more or less circularly disposed in 
little rock-enclosed valleys, where they unite, not to form rivulets, 
but to expand over the great marsh previously alluded to. Be- 
yond these basanitic rocks with frequent springs, we came to a 
more open valley, everywhere covered with gardens, and making 

VOL. X. Y 



308 Mr. AiNS WORTH /rom Angora to Kdzsarryah. [May, 

a short ascent over the side of Ulan-li mountain, we passed by 
what was apparently a great subsidence in the rock, called Kurk 
Kurk; and thence descended upon the plain of Kaisariyah, 
passing, before we reached the town, a long peninsulated hill, 
called Besh Tepeh (Five Hills), at the extremity of which is a 
ruined castellated enclosure, and upon which is said to have been 
built a portion of the ancient town of Csesarea. 

May 1st — 8th. — Kaisariyah is a town of great antiquity. As 
Mazaca, it was the capital of Cappadocia, at the time that the 
Greeks knew it only from the reports of casual travellers. In 
the time of the early Roman emperors it took the name of 
Caesar ea, but with the addition of its original name. Being 
situated at the foot of Mount Argaeus, it has also been denomi- 
nated from that mountain. Its modern name is a mere corrup- 
tion of the ancient one; at present it is vulgarly abridged into 
Ka'isar. It appears once to have been a large and populous city. 
After the captivity of the unfortunate Valerian (immortalised on 
the rocks of Shapur), Demosthenes, a Roman, not so much as 
Gibbon, remarks, by the commission of the emperor, as in the 
voluntary defence of his country, resisted in Csesarea the progress 
of the Persian arms. The town was subjected to a nearly 
general massacre, and is said at that time to have contained 
400,000 inhabitants. The modern city, which is for the most 
part in a very ruinous condition, contains 12,176 Mohammedans, 
5237 Armenians, and 1109 Greeks. Total, 18,522 persons. 
This was the Ayan's report to Mr. Rassam. 

During our stay at Kaisariyah the weather presented some 
very fine intervals, which enabled us to obtain a series of Lunar 
Observations, which gives its longitude 35° 45' E. Its latitude by 
a number of mer. alt. of sun and several stars is 38° 41' 40". 
We also laid down a plan of the city and of its ruins, which 
chiefly belong to the Mohammedan era. 

The attention of the expedition had been particularly called to 
the investigation of the hydrography of the immediate neighbour- 
hood of Kaisariyah : whatever may still be the difficulties that 
will hang over the statements of the ancients upon this subject, 
nothing can be more certain than that no rivulet or river flows 
from that neighbourhood to that called by the Turks Tokhmah 
Su, the sources of which, to put the question beyond all doubt, 
we investigated in a subsequent part of our travels. 

There is a rivulet which flows from the northern foot of Arjish, 
and which, sweeping round 'All Tagh, passes by the populous 
village of Tagh Kazi, and is thence, at most seasons of the year, 
lost in irrigation ; at others it is a tributary to the Sarimsak. 
There is also another small tributary to the same river from 



1839.] Kaisariyah — Arjtsh Tagh, or Mount Argaus. 309 

Manju-li. Mr. W. I. Hamilton ascertained, in going round 
Arjish on the east side, that there are no traces of any stream or 
waters except such as flow N.W. or S.W. The Sarimsdk river, 
which we traced nearly to its sources, flows from the village of 
the same name, in a westerly direction across the great plain of 
Kaisariyah, where, at a distance of 2956 yards from the city, it is 
8 yards in width by 2 feet in depth. It loses itself in the Sdzlik or 
Great Marsh, where it is said to be joined by the Kara Su, and 
to flow by Bdghaz Kopri to the Kizil Irmdk.* This united 
stream is what Messrs. Hamilton, Texier and Callier identify 
with the Melas of Strabo (xii. p. 538), after the submersion of 
the lands of the Galatians. 

The noble mountain of Arjish, the ancient Argseus, vul- 
garly called Ardi'sh or Arjeh, is now clearly proved to be the 
loftiest peak in Asia Minor. Almost perpetually involved in 
clouds, during our stay at Kaisariyah, we had only an occasional 
glance of its extreme summit : and the season of the year in 
which the snow line descends to within a few hundred feet of 
the plain, put all attempts at an ascent out of the question, even 
if, after Mr. Hamilton's labours^ it had been deemed advisable 
to incur the delay and expense entailed by such an under- 
taking. The structure of this fine mountain, which, like Hasan 
Tagh, is principally of volcanic origin, and belongs to a com- 
paratively modern epoch of activity, will be best described by 
the before-mentioned traveller ; but the whole, in a general 
point of view, presents an interesting accumulation of conical, 
rounded, and saddle-backed hills, chiefly composed of grey 
friable lavas, with a basaltic base. The manner in which these 
various formations are dispersed about the declivities, is rather 
remarkable, and always very distinct. 

The summit of Arjish bears from the Armenian church in 
Kaisariyah S. 17° 30' W. ; the variation of the compass at the same 
place was 10° 30' westerly, hence the true bearing of the summit 
is S. 7° W. Its summit appears to be about 10 miles from its 
average base, considering it for the moment to be isolated on 
every side, which it is not to the S.E. This would give a mean 
area for the whole mountain of 300 miles, and a circumference of 
60. Its elevation, as determined by Mr. Hamilton, is 1£,809 
feet. The report that both the Euxine and the Mediterranean 
may be descried from its summit, given by Strabo (p. 538), must 
be received with caution, since its distance from the Euxine is 
170 British miles, and from the Mediterranean 110 geographical 

* Baron Wincke, a Prussian staff officer, who accompanied the unfortunate expe- 
dition of Zaid Mohammed Pasha, also verified this fact. He further states the 
marsh to be divided into two distinct parts to the N. 

Y 2 



310 Mr. AiNSWORTH/rowi Angora to Kdisariyah [May^ 

miles^ with ridges of high mountains between both. There is also 
a tradition that the Romans had a castle on its summit^ where 
Tiberius Caesar used to sit, which is not deserving of attention, 
except as probably connected with the adjacent summits of 'All 
Tagh or U'lanli. 

The Armenians have preserved a written chronicle of the 
earthquake that ravaged Kalsariyah in August, 1835 ; but it con- 
tains little that is of any interest to the philosophy of these de- 
structive phenomena. It appears that it commenced two hours 
before sunrise on the morning of Thursday, August 1 st, and was 
accompanied by a loud noise, the shocks being repeated for as 
much as ten hours from that time. Many minarets and other 
lofty buildings were thrown down. The record says that there 
perished as many as (y()5 persons. The houses thrown down 
are mentioned rather hyperbolically as beyond enumeration. 
Several of the neighbouring villages that were built in ravines of 
crumbling rock, suffered severely. At Tagh Kazi 17 houses 
were destroyed by the fall of a rock. At Manjusun^ 3 hours to 
the west, the loss of houses was also great. A catastrophe of a 
similar kind which occurred at Beli-Yazi has been noticed by 
Mr. Hamilton. I could obtain no satisfactory account of any 
well-defined swallowing up or subsidences. 

There was some discrepancy in the barometrical results ob- 
tained by ourselves and by Mr. Hamilton. Ours gave for the 
elevation of Ka'isariyah above the sea only 3^36 feet, Mr. H. 
placing it at 4200 feet. The boiling point of Robertson's ther- 
mometer was 25 '8; our barometer stood at 26'3]4; the thermo- 
meter at 59. Cloudy weather. 







/>iizdkat 



^..''i'«^\.^^^:;]^' 



i^'^';>;\.^t/A' 

















V ~ . -,^- _-___^ 



















OF D l' Y .A 









litis <ilAm. 











■iii till K' ^ •^ "^ /\ 



iz^rat 



ArsUt'n T<kj/uiuA-h > 






/ 









\ ^^ 



iit>«ehTaj;4».ji|N 










.iJ^OJfce 



/t?i<«i OiJiH 




iil''^ 



Basaltic/ .^ t^\'\(if ''^''^*^ ^y> .V 












.,'\^ 



7;,rx.^*^ 



Tarsu 






iU^v^ 



% % 



CC^ ..e^- 






^^ 



\ \ \ r 



^r n-'n^n '-^a- . ' m m i m ' m 



Longit 



hihUMf'^i fiv the Jtnu 



MTAinsworms rvuxv coloweci ... Jied. __ 
MTSrancs J)? I?? -ffZi^- 




<t.,.>^9*?Si^W"'*' 







if i 

Wua orArfish TtUfh 
kieid 









oy D 1 Y\A 



>^%;r^^'^ /y,^ 



JUT i> 



^hr-fy 










limit A-ti/'t/t 






,^^^ / 






fifir^lJtino 






rALKl'ltj .M- liaJt4> 



P^^ 



•^K*^ 



7 ' Longitude East Js fixam Greeiwich i 59 f I ' \^ 



n=^ 



hiJfiisjtt\i uH'tJu' JiHuiud ,>/' the fuunJ (n-€»/r4if*liu<i/ Sot-ieiif. hu .hhn .]/urr.w. MlxuutHe-Sf Lo/uIhi. iiS-Ul 



ASM Ml^S'Oll K- AKMEM.V, 

to niiistratf^ iVHitrs of 

im .\l^ S\V( )RTI 1 , MV BR\N T , 

LOm> POJJ.rNGT()>. 

TJie t^Liteni p^niionot' tiie MiipJixtm ohtffitition.s' (nf 
MrA.O.(i{imvtt.R.N. 




lids-alAin , 






I M M !„' M M I 



JJL^fi: iV