Skip to main content

Full text of "Eighth Contribution to the Herpetology of Tropical America"

See other formats


Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World 

This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in 
the world by JSTOR. 

Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other 
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the 
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. 

We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this 
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial 

Read more about Early Journal Content at 
journal-content . 

JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people 
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching 
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit 
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please 

1870.] ^3" [Cope. 

generic differences in the carapace, the abdomino-femoral dermal suture 
crosses at the posterior third of the hyposternal bones, instead of at their 
middle, as in the Adocus syntheticus. 

This species, like the last, was found in the upper bed of the Cretaceous 
green sand, at the works of the Pemberton Marl Company, New Jersey, 
by Judson C. Gaskill, the director. The name of this gentleman fre- 
quently occurs in my contributions to the paleontology of the Cretaceous, 
and I take the present opportunity of expressing my indebtedness for the 
constant liberality with which he has aided in the advance of the science. 
Without his attention to and enlightened interest in the subject, many 
interesting points in the history of the life of the Cretaceous periods 
would "not have come to light. Those desirous of seeing one of the fine 
sections of the middle marl bed to be found in the state, will be repaid by 
a visit to the opening made under the direction of Mr. Gaskill. 


Bead before the A. P. IS., September 16, 1870. 

By E. D. Cope. 

The materials whose examination has furnished the following addi- 
tions to zoological science, consist of four collections. These are, first: 
one from Pebas, Equador, on the Amazon, from John Hauxwell; second, 
that made by Prof. Agassiz, of the Thayer Expedition to Brazil; third, a 
collection from Turk's Island, West Indies, obtained from Prof.Adrian J. 
Ebell; and fourthly, a small collection made by Dr. R. E. van Rijgersma 
at St. Enstatia. 

The first collection furnished the following species in addition to those 
already determined by me from the same locality, in two papers, viz: in 
Proceedings Ac. Nat. Sciences 1868, 96, and do. of the American Philo- 
sophical Society 1869, 156. 


Erythrolamprus sesculapii. 

Lygophis nicagus, Cope, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1808, p. 132. 

Oxyrhopus petolarius, var. G. (Giinther) 

Oxyrhopus plumbeus. L. 

Xenodon angustirostris? Peters. 

Hydrops callostictus, Gunth., Ann. Mag. N. H. tab. 

Helicops chrysostictus, Cope, (Taehyneetes) Pr. A. N. S. Phil. 1862, 71. 

Thrasops ahaetulla. L. 

Rhinobothryum lentiginosum Scopoli. 

Anolis nasicus. 
Polychrus marmoratus. 
Doryphorus castor, Cope, sp. nov. 
Hyperanodon ochrocollaris Spix. 
a. p. s. — vol. xi— 42e 

Cope.] 554. [Sep. 16, 


Hyla polytaenia, Cope, Proceed. Am. Philos. Soc. 1869, 164. 
Hyla leucopbyllata Beireis var. triangulum Gtlir ; see Cope, 1. c. p. 156. 
Hypsiboas* punctatus Daud. Dum. Bibr. etc. Of a pink color in the 
yellow dots, in life. 

Hypsiboas hypselops, Cope, sp. nov. 

Hypsiboas lanciformis, Cope, sp. nov. 

Scytopis (Dryomelictes) aurantiacus Dandin. 

Pithecopus tomoptemus, Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 1868, 113. 

Pithecopus tarsius, Cope, 1. c, 113. 

Phyllomedsa scleroderma, Cope, 1. c. 112 ; very large examples. 


H-spsiboas hypselops, Cope, sp. nov. 

Of the group of II. crepitans "Wied. The fingers are not webbed beyond 
the basis of the proximal phalanges, except perhaps on the external one. 
When the arm is extended, they reach a trifle beyond the groin. The 
hind limb extended, brings the heel a little beyond the muzzle. The 
general form is slender ; the head broad and flat. The canthus rostralis 
is distinct, but very concave, and the rostrals prominent on a narrow 
truncate muzzle. The outline of the bead is rather acuminate to the apex, 
intermediate in form between H. crepitans and H. boans. The eyes are 
very large and prominent, entering only 1.5 times in the rather elongate 
muzzle. The tympanum is small, one-third the orbit in diameter and one- 
half the interorbital width. Dermal free, margins none ; a slightly promi- 
nent < fold on the elbow and spur on the heel, only a prominence on the 
other. Skin above smooth. Digital dilatations hardly .50 diameter of 
tympanic membrane. 

Color, above bright chestnut brown, below pale violet ; no marks on the 
head or back. Upper arm of the same color, as is a band on superior face 
femur. Front and back of femur, sides .66 of distance to axilla, and intero- 
anterior face of tarsus and metatarsus, with vertical black bands. They 
are very distinct and wider on the front than the back of the femur ; the 
latter connect faintly above. Three or four faint cross bars on tibia above. 
Two black spots on back of brachium, and one or two on front of ante- 

Vomerine tooth series arched as in other species, tongue broad. Ostia 
pharyngea very small, one-fourth choanal. 

Length of head and body, 0m. 056 ; of hind limb, .091m ; of foot .038m; 
of tarsus .02 ; width of jaws below tympanum .02 ; length from same 
point (axial) .016. 

The acuminate muzzle, larger eye, and anterior femoral bars, distin- 
guish this from the H. crepitans. The same characters separate it from 
H. indris, with the additional ones of smaller tympanum and larger limbs. 

From Pebas Equador, Jno. Haux well's coDections. 

•The name of the allied genus Cinctidium, Journ. Ac. N. Sci. 1867, 200, having been used before 
for a valid genus of plants, I propose to change it to Cincloscopus. 

1870.] bbb [Cope. 

Hypsiboas indbis, Cope. 

Journ. Ac Nat. Sci. Phila. 1867, 201. 

This species with the small feet and dilations of the H. crepitans, exhibits 
the broader head of the H. leprieurii type, with the vomerine series in- 
curved anteriorly as in the majority of species of the genus. The spur 
on the thumb is smaller than in any species of the genus in the single 
specimen at our disposal, and the antebrachial and tarsal folds are distinct. 
Gular region smooth. There is a cross band between the eyes darker than 
the ground color; the femora are crossed above by broad, rather indistinct 
cross-bands very different from those on the posterior face, and similar to 
those on the tibia ; in H. circumdatus, the same narrow black bands are 
continued from behind to the front of the tarsus, without interruption. 
Indistinct brown markings on the labial regions. 

The shorter hind limbs, distinguish this species from the H. crepitans. 

Habitat Surinam Bering. Mus. Academy Nat. Science, Philada. 

Hypsiboas circcmdatus, Cope. 

Joura. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philada. 1867, 201. 

Breadth of cranium at tympanum equal from end muzzle to opposite mid- 
dle line of humerus ; canthus rostralis little marked, concave. Sacral 
width twice in coccyx, three times from articulation of latter to opposite 
outher canthus of eyes. Tympanum two-thirds occular opening. Vom- 
erine series width divergent, oblique, scarcely curved ; palmation of band 
to middle antepenultimate of foot to origin of penultimate phalange of 
longest toe. Thumb an incurved unusually elongate osseous spur. Areol- 
ations wanting on the breast, upper and under lip indistinctly yellow 
margined. Femoral bands ten, blackish, very narrow and nearly sur- 
rounding the leg : seven broader cross the tibia. 

This species differs from the H. palmata in its much shorter palmation, 
smaller size and different coloration ; from the H. crepitans, in its stouter 
form, and much stouter feet and hands, and different coloration, compar- 
ative measurements given under the head of the latter exhibit this. 

Habitat, Brazil, no. Mus. Compar. Zoology, one 


The thumb-spur of this species is more striking than in any other of the 

H. crepitans and H. circumdatus. 

_ , in line in line 

End muzzle to end coccyx 2 3 2 8 

do do origin coccyx 1 5.75 1 9.75 

do do poster, marg. tympanum 8.5 10 

Width cranium at latter point 9.5 11.25 

From muzzle to opps't outer canthus eyes 3 4 

Anterior extremity 1 5,5 1 9.25 

Carpus and longest digit 8.5 9.25 

Posterior extremity 3 10.25 4 9.25 

Tibia 12 15 

Tarsus 8.5 10 

Metatarsus and longest digit 10 13.25 

The three species just described have the palmation of the toes extend- 

Cope.] 556 [Sept 16 

ing to the base of the third phalange. In H. fasciatus Gthr. the web only 
extends to the base of the second. 

Htpsiboas I.ANCIPOBMIS, Cope. Sp. nov. 

This is a large species of the H. boans group. It is characterized by its 
elongate acuminate head, with nearly straight, sharp canthus rostralis and 
vertical concave loreal region. Eyes prominent, large, their diameter 
twice in length of muzzle, equal to interorbital width, and not quite twice 
the diameter of the membranum tympani. A prominent dermal fold pro- 
ceeds from it, overhanging the tympanum, to near the middle of the side; 
its margin is roughly glandular. No dermal margins nor spurs on the 
limbs. Fingers not webbed beyond the metacarpals ; reaching when the 
limb is extended, to the hind face of the femur. Hind limbs very long, 
the muzzle making the second third of the extended tibia. Web extend- 
ing to the end of the second phalange of the fourth toe of the foot. Ostia 
pharyngea small, one-fifth of the very large choanse. Tongue oval, longer 
than wide. Vomerine teeth forming two angulate series, the two short 
limbs of the angle uniting on the median line, without interruption. 
Finger-dilatations large, not quite half the tympanum in diameter. 

Color, bright chestnut brown above and on the sides, shading into smoky 
in the groin. The whole under surface a dark maroon. A black band 
passes from the end of the muzzle, as wide as the loreal region, through 
the eye and tympanum to along the axilla. Upper lip with a broad yellow 
band, interrupted on the premaxillary apex, and continued a short dis- 
tance in front of the canthus oris on the mandible. No cross bars or 
bands on the sides or limbs ; femur behind and before, smoky maroon. 
A few irregular scattered dots on the back, and an indistinct series of 
fourteen brown cross bands on the back and head. Dilatations of the 
three inner fingers yellow above. Length, head and body, Om.087; of 
hind limb .158m. ; of foot .067 ; of tarsus .033. Width of sacrum .016 ; 
of head below posterior margin of tympana .028m. ; length (axial) from 
same point .027. Length of fore limb .05m. 

This peculiar species resembles externally, a Polypedates. It need only 
be compared to the Hypsiboas boans D. B. and H. oxyrhina R. and L. From 
the former it differs in the entire absence of black or other colored bars on 
the femora and flanks, in the darker coloration of the under surfaces, etc., 
and the more elongate, lance-shaped head. Its thumb spur is much weaker 
than in most species of the genus. From H. oxhyrhina it differs much in 
coloration and in the longer hind limbs. Thus according to Reinhardt, and 
Liitken in that species, the proportion of their length to the totalis, .107m. 
to .075m.; that is, 1.33 per cent. In H. lanciformis, the proportion is 1.81. 
The white margins of the limbs, breast and lower lip as well as the marbled 
coloration described by these authors; are here entirely wanting. Pebas, 
Equador. J. Hauxwell's collection. 


Scales of the abdomen weakly keeled, nearly equal to those of the back, 
which are more strongly keeled. Scales of the sides scarcely smaller than 

1870.] 007 [Cope. 

either. Gnlar fold moderate, its scales subequal. Mental scales uniform, 
smooth. No auricular scales ; temporal scales rough. Occipital plate 
large, longer than wide ; interorbital series three ; muzzle scales large 
smooth, polygonal, only four rows between canthus rostralis. One canthal 
scale ; two loreal rows ; nostril between two scales ; labials (large) 5 — 6. 
Oblique folds on sides of neck. The arm extended reaches the middle of 
the femur ; the leg, the tympanic drum. Body sleuder ; tail perfectly 
flat, wider than the body, with 35 cross-rows of keeled scales, which are 
only produced into spines at the edge of the tail. 

Color, blackish olive, gradually lighter to the head, which is thickly 
black spotted on a green ground. A broad crescentic black collar which 
is broadly light margined behind, much more indistinctly before. The 
posterior border is against broadly margined with black behind. Limbs 
closely green spotted on a blackish ground. Tail uniform brown. Belly 
black, on the sides dark green, medially, femora dark. 

Total length, 0m.093 ; from muzzle to angle of mandible, .016 ; to col- 
lar, 021 ; to vent, .06 ; length fore limb, .032 ; of hind limb, .038 ; width 
head at mandibular angles, 01. 

From Pebas Equador ; J. Hauxwell's collection. 

Tbetioscincus l^evicaudus, Cope. sp. nov. 

Scales large, those of both body and tail, entirely smooth. Several be- 
hind the occipital plates larger than the others. Limbs short. Size about 
that of the T. bifasciatus. 

Color, a dark clear olive above; paler below, alight green band from the 
temporal region along the canthus rostralis to the end of the muzzle, and 
another parallel along the upper lip. No other markings. 

From Occidental Department, Nicaragua. Discovered by J. A. Mac- 
Neil, a successful explorer of that region. Mus. Essex Institute, and 
Acad. Nat. Science. 

This Ecpleopod, diners from its congener T. bifasciatus Dum. in the 
absence of carina? on the caudal scales, and in other points, and in the 


General form quite slender, the head narrow. Scales in forty-three 
longitudinal series, those of the median larger than the lateral. Occipital 
and parietal regions covered with numerous enlarged smooth polygonal 
scales. Two short longitudinal plates represent the frontal ; each is in 
immediate contact with the superciliary of its side, which exceeds it in 
length. Three pair of supranasals, the anterior not separated from the 
anterior nasal ; six scales in two cross rows in the place of the prefrontals 
bound the superciliaries and frontals in front. Superciliaries undivided. 
Nasal a little higher than wide, the apex visible from above. Two loreals, 
the anterior larger ; two prococulars, the superior large, the inferior in 
place of the summit of the sixth and seventh labials. Four postoculars, 
the superior bounding the posterior margin of the superciliary. Superior 
labials fourteen, seventh and eighth entering the orbit. Inferior labials 

Cope.] """ [Sept. 18, 

fourteen ; anterior four, very elongate inward. Gastrosteges, 255 ; anal, 
1 ; urosteges, 78. 

Color, light fawn brown above, below golden yellow. A series of fifty- 
four deep brown spots extend on the dorsal region to opposite the vent, 
and seventeen on the tail, in the individual described. These spots are 
darker edged and are occasionally confluent into a short irregular band. 
They are often transverse and are generally twelve scales wide, and three 
or four long. 

Length .Om 665 ; of tail, .108 ; rictus ovis, .016. 

From Turk's Island, obtained by my friend, Professor Adrian J. Ebell. 
This Boa is very distinct from the Homalochili heretofore described, and 
exhibits a decided tendency to Ungalia, especially to such species as U. 
dipsadina. The species of Homalochilus Fischer, are ; S. multiseetus, 
Cope, Proc. A. N. Science, Philadelphia, 1862, 70. H. atriatus, Fischer, 
Abh. Natur. Hamburg. 1856, 101. H. atrigilalua, Cope, 1. c. p. 71 ; if. 
chrysogaster, Cope, supra, and H. lortilis, Jan. (Dendophilus tortilis Jan. 
Iconographie des Ophidiens Plate). The last named belongs here, as I 
learned from a study of the type specimen in the Mus. Milan. It differs 
very much from the species above described, but I cannot now point out 
its characters, having mislaid my MS. description. The Epierates versi- 
color of Steindachner, beautifully figured in the Denkschriften of the 
"Wiener Academic belongs to this genus, and appears to be H. atrigilatua 
m., previously named. 

The collection from Turk's Island embraced the following species : 

Homalochilus chysogaster, Cope. 

Mabuia cepedei, Gray. 

Anolis ordinatus, Cope, Pr. A. N. Sci. Phila. 1864, 175. 

Cyclura (Ctenosaura) carinata, Harlan Journ. A. N. Sci. IV, p. 242. 

I would here notice that Dr. John Giindlach, has published in the Re- 
pertorio Fisico, etc., de Cuba, 1868, a catalogue of the Batrachiaand Kep- 
tila of the Island of Cuba, which furnishes a desideratum of long standing. 
I observe, however, that he interjects assertions as to the probability of 
several of my species being synonymes of others, as Anolis porcus, A. iso- 
lepis, Liocephalus raviceps and macropus, etc. As I suspect that these 
suggestions are not original with Dr. Giindlach, I will observe that as a 
general rule, it is unsafe for American naturalists to rely on assertions of 
some Continental European zoologists, as to identity of the species 
of each other, or of American zoologists, since it is an old practice, 
the offspring of autocracy rather than of science, and which deceives 
only temporarily. 

Enulius murintjs, Cope. gen. et. sp. nov. 
Char. Qenericus. Palatine, pherygoid, and anterior portion of maxil- 
lary bones edentulous ; a long, strong grooved tooth on the posterior part 
of the maxillary bone. Internasal plates present ; rostral prominent de- 
pressed ; two distinct nasals, a loreal, no preocular, two postoculars. 

1870.] "09 [Cope. 

Scales smooth, with one apical pore-pit. Anal plate and subcaudals 

This genus has head-shields arranged like those of Ehegnops, Cope, 
(Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1866, 138), but the dentition is entirely dis- 
tinct. It is nearer to Tantilla B. and G. but that genus does not present 
the edentulus characters, and exhibits a preoccular instead of a loreal 
plate. The pupil is round. The general form is slender for a Calamari- 
an serpent, and the tail is unusually elongate ; the head is not distinct. 

Char. Speeificus. Scales in sixteen or seventeen rows. Labials 6-7, third 
and fourth in orbit. Two postorbitals ; temporals, 1 — 2—3. Rostral 
broad, crescent shaped ; internasals half as large as prefrontals. Frontal 
nearly triangular, with apex behind ; anterior border strongly convex. 
Superciliaries sub-triangular, with short apex anterior. Occipitals elon- 
gate. Geneials one pair followed by a row of three scales. The tail 
measures between one-third and one-fourth of the total length, nearer 
one-third, but the only specimen now by me has the extremity mutilated. 
Gastrosteges, 216. Length of a specimen, Om.220 ; other larger ones are 
not now before me. 

Color, mouse-color above, white below, a pale spot on each nasal plate, 
and a dusky one on each side behind the rictus oris. From Chinandega, 
in the Occidental department, Nicaragua, discovered by J. H. McNiel. 
Several specimens were taken from a well, forty feet deep. 

This species in scutellation and form of head is related to the Calamar- 
inse, and it is doubtless a borrower, but its scale pores and long tail are 
exceptional features. 


(Bead before the Amer. Phil. 8oe. Aug. 19 1870.) 

BY E. D. COPE, A. M. 

Tetragonopterus orientalis, Cope. 

D. 11, A. 29 ; scales 7-37-8. The depth of the body one-half the length 
{without caudal fin) ; the head one-fourth of the same. Dorsal fin above 
a point a short distance behind the origin of the ventrals. Anterior anal 
rays not elongate. Diameter one-third length of head, 1.5 times in the 
convex interorbital width. The extremity of the mandible extends a 
little beyond the line of the anterior rim of the orbit. Pectoral extend- 
ing a little beyond basis of ventrals. A broad silver band from upper 
opening of operculum to caudal, with a black spot near each end. 
Length 0.097 M. 

From Para.. Mus. J. Carson Brevoort. 


Depth contained 2.4 times in length (without caudal) ; length of head 
3.5 times in the same. Radii, D. 11, A. 38, scales 8—39—10. Inter- 
orbital width equal that of eye, and one-third length of head. Dorsal